Glossary of Nazi Germany
This is a list of words, terms and slogans of Nazi Germany used in the historiography covering the Nazi regime. Some words were coined by other Nazi Party members. Other words and concepts were borrowed and appropriated, other terms were in use during the Weimar Republic; some are taken from Germany's cultural tradition. 25-point programme – The Nazi Party platform and a codification of its ideology. 581 Abel autobiography – Weimar period Nazi Party membership data source. Abbeförderung – dispatching, removal. Abgeräumt – cleared away. Abhörverbrecher – Germans and others in the occupied countries who illegally listened to foreign news broadcasts Abkindern – an intended colloquial designation for the cancellation of a marriage loan through the production of offspring. In German, ab means "off" and Kind means "child". Ablieferungspflicht – delivery duty on farm products and other goods which had to be contributed to the state to be sold on the German market Abrechnung mit den Juden – "the settling of accounts with the Jews".
SS-Abschnitt – SS district or district headquarters. Absiedlung – resettlement. After 4 February 1938, its name in title was Foreign Affairs/Defence Office of the Armed Forces High Command. Abwehrangelegenheiten – counterespionage issues Abwehrpolizei – counter-espionage police. A function of the border police controlled by the Gestapo Abwehrstelle – Military Intelligence Center Achsenmächte – Axis powers "Achtung, Feind hört mit!" – "Watch out, the enemy is listening!". In the eyes of radical National Socialists, Hitler's Legality Oath had conceded too much to his political enemies, in the same way as had the Duke of Orléans, who adopted the name Philippe Égalité during the French Revolution. Agrarpolitischer Apparat – Agrarian Apparatus. Leadership hierarchy: Reichsleitungsfachberater held by Richard Walther Darré. Ahnenerbe Forschungs- und Lehrgemeinschaft – Society for Research and the Teaching of Ancestral Heritage Ahnennachweise – genealogical tree used to prove ancestry Ahnenpass – an identification card, supposed to be carried by all Germans to demonstrate one's Aryan race lineage.
Ahnenschein – a document used to show correct Aryan descent. Akademiker – a member of those professions whose exercise required university study as a prerequisite; the term was avoided because it fostered caste mentality and contradicted the ideal of the Volk community. The proportion of academics from a working-class background increased during the Nazi era, but remained minuscule in actual numbers. A. Kr. – abbreviation of Auf Kriegsdauer, which means "for the duration of the war". It was added to a title to indicate the limited promotion prospects for bureaucrats. Aktion — euphemism for a mass-murder operation. Aktion 1005 – called the Sonderaktion 1005 or Enterdungsaktion, was the 1942–44 secret Nazi operation for concealing evidence of their own largest mass-killings. Laborers—facetiously called "Sonderkommando 1005" —would be taken under guard to a closed death camp to clear the site of structures while a sub-unit, the "Leichenkommandos", were forced to exhume bodies from mass graves, burn the remains, sometimes to grind down larger bone pieces in portable bone-crusher mills.
Some Einsatzgruppen mass graves were cleared out. Aktion Reinhardt – code name given on 4 June 1942 for the assignment to exterminate all Polish Jews in honor of SS Deputy Chief Reinhard Heydrich, assassinated during a covert operation. Aktion T4 – code name for the extermination of mentally ill and handicapped patients by the Nazi authorities. Aktivismus – political maxim of National Socialism as a "fighting movement", as opposed to "bourgeois p
Georg Peter Hermann Eggert was a German architect. He designed important public buildings such as the Frankfurt Main Station and the New Town Hall in Hanover in the style of Neo-Renaissance. Born in Burg bei Magdeburg, Eggert studied with Heinrich Strack at the Bauakademie in Berlin, he worked from 1875 to 1889 as Universitätsbaumeister in Strasbourg, designing several buildings of the university in the Neustadt such as the observatory, building the Palais du Rhin for Wilhelm II. He built the Frankfurt Main Station from 1883 to 1888, regarded as his most important building. Eggert served as Oberbaurat in the Ministerium für öffentliche Arbeiten of Prussia in Berlin, where he was responsible for church buildings, he participated in the competition for the New Town Hall in Hanover in 1895, won the second competition a year and was commissioned to build the exterior. From 1898 he worked in his own office in Hanover, he was in conflict about the design of the Prunkräume of the Town Hall with Christian Heinrich Tramm who had designed the Welfenschloss, As a result, his contract was cancelled in 1909.
Many of Eggert's designs are in the style of Neo-Renaissance. He was a member of the Prussian Academy of Arts from 1896 in the section Bildende Künste. Eggert died in Weimar. Many of Eggert's designs are held at the Museum of Architecture of the Technische Universität Berlin. In the central Frankfurt Gallus quarter a section of a street called after Camberg was renamed Hermann-Eggert-Straße in 2009. 1869: Competition design for the new Berlin Cathedral 1872–1877: Ernst Moritz Arndt Tower on Rügen 1881: Observatory of the Strasbourg University 1883–1888: Frankfurt Main Station 1884–1889: Palais du Rhin in Strasbourg 1898: Hamburg-Altona station 1898–1899: Tierärztliche Hochschule in Hannover 1898–1909: New Town Hall in Hannover 1899–1902: Annex of the Technical University of Berlin 1907: Bismarckturm in Burg bei Magdeburg Spemanns goldenes Buch vom eigenen Heim 1905, No 493. Alexander Dorner: 100 Jahre Bauen in Hannover. Zur Jahrhundertfeier der Technischen Hochschule. Hannover 1931, p. 26. Christine Kranz-Michaelis: Das Rathaus im Kaiserreich.
Kunstpolitische Aspekte einer Bauaufgabe des 19. Jahrhunderts. Kunst, Kultur und Politik im deutschen Kaiserreich}, vol. 4.) Gebr. Mann, Berlin 1982, ISBN 3-7861-1339-4, pp. 395–413. Wolfgang Steinweg: Das Rathaus in Hannover. Von der Kaiserzeit bis in die Gegenwart. Schlüter, Hannover 1988, ISBN 3-87706-287-3, p. 38f Hermann Eggert Akademie der Künste
German military administration in occupied France during World War II
The Military Administration in France was an interim occupation authority established by Nazi Germany during World War II to administer the occupied zone in areas of northern and western France. This so-called zone occupée was renamed zone nord in November 1942, when the unoccupied zone in the south known as zone libre was occupied and renamed zone sud, its role in France was governed by the conditions set by the Second Armistice at Compiègne after the blitzkrieg success of the Wehrmacht leading to the Fall of France. For instance, France agreed that its soldiers would remain prisoners of war until the cessation of all hostilities. Replacing the French Third Republic that had dissolved during France's defeat was the "French State", with its sovereignty and authority limited to the free zone; as Paris was located in the occupied zone, its government was seated in the spa town of Vichy in Auvergne, therefore it was more known as Vichy France. While the Vichy government was nominally in charge of all of France, the military administration in the occupied zone was a de facto Nazi dictatorship.
Its rule was extended to the free zone when it was invaded by Germany and Italy during Case Anton on 11 November 1942 in response to Operation Torch, the Allied landings in French North Africa on 8 November 1942. The Vichy government remained in existence though its authority was now curtailed; the military administration in France ended with the Liberation of France after the Normandy and Provence landings. It formally existed from May 1940 to December 1944, though most of its territory had been liberated by the Allies by the end of summer 1944. Alsace-Lorraine, annexed after the Franco-Prussian war in 1871 by the German Empire and returned to France after the First World War, was re-annexed by the Third Reich The departments of Nord and Pas-de-Calais were attached to the military administration in Belgium and Northern France, responsible for civilian affairs in the 20-kilometre wide zone interdite along the Atlantic coast. Another "forbidden zone" were areas in north-eastern France, corresponding to Lorraine and about half each of Franche-Comté, Champagne and Picardie.
War refugees were prohibited from returning to their homes, it was intended for German settlers and annexation in the coming Nazi New Order. The occupied zone consisted of the rest of northern and western France, including the two forbidden zones; the southern part of France, except for the western half of Aquitaine along the Atlantic coast, became the zone libre, where the Vichy regime remained sovereign as an independent state, though under heavy German influence due to the restrictions of the Armistice and economical dependency on Germany. It constituted a land area of 246,618 square kilometres 45 percent of France, included 33 percent of the total French labor force; the demarcation line between the free zone and the occupied zone was a de facto border, necessitating special authorisation and a laissez-passer from the German authorities to cross. These restrictions remained in place after Vichy was occupied and the zone renamed zone sud, placed under military administration in November 1942.
The Italian occupation zone consisted of small areas along the Alps border, a 50-kilometre demilitarised zone along the same. It was expanded to all territory on the left bank of the Rhône river after its invasion together with Germany of Vichy France on 11 November 1942, except for areas around Lyon and Marseille, which were added to Germany's zone sud, Corsica; the Italian occupation zone was occupied by Germany and added to the zone sud after Italy's surrender in September 1943, except for Corsica, liberated by the landings of Free French forces and local Italian troops that had switched sides to the Allies. After Germany and France agreed on an armistice following the defeats of May and June, Marshal Wilhelm Keitel and General Charles Huntzinger, representatives of the Third Reich and of the French government of Marshal Philippe Pétain signed it on 22 June 1940 at the Rethondes clearing in Compiègne Forest; as it was done at the same place and in the same railroad carriage where the armistice ending the First World War when Germany surrendered, it is known as the Second Compiègne armistice.
France was divided into an occupied northern zone and an unoccupied southern zone, according to the armistice convention "in order to protect the interests of the German Reich". The French colonial empire remained under the authority of Marshall Pétain's Vichy regime. French sovereignty was to be exercised over the whole of French territory, including the occupied zone and Moselle, but the third article of the armistice stipulated that French authorities in the occupied zone would have to obey the military administration and that Germany would exercise rights of an occupying power within it: In the occupied region of France, the German Reich exercises all of the rights of an occupying power; the French government undertakes to facilitate in every way possible the implementation of these rights, to provide the assistance of the French administrative services to that end. The French government will direct all off
Florence is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany. It is the most populous city in Tuscany, with 383,084 inhabitants in 2013, over 1,520,000 in its metropolitan area. Florence was a centre of medieval European trade and finance and one of the wealthiest cities of that era, it is considered the birthplace of the Renaissance, has been called "the Athens of the Middle Ages". A turbulent political history includes periods of rule by the powerful Medici family and numerous religious and republican revolutions. From 1865 to 1871 the city was the capital of the established Kingdom of Italy; the Florentine dialect forms the base of Standard Italian and it became the language of culture throughout Italy due to the prestige of the masterpieces by Dante Alighieri, Giovanni Boccaccio, Niccolò Machiavelli and Francesco Guicciardini. The city attracts millions of tourists each year, the Historic Centre of Florence was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1982; the city is noted for Renaissance art and architecture and monuments.
The city contains numerous museums and art galleries, such as the Uffizi Gallery and the Palazzo Pitti, still exerts an influence in the fields of art and politics. Due to Florence's artistic and architectural heritage, it has been ranked by Forbes as one of the most beautiful cities in the world. Florence is an important city in Italian fashion, being ranked in the top 15 fashion capitals of the world. In 2008, the city had the 17th highest average income in Italy. Florence originated as a Roman city, after a long period as a flourishing trading and banking medieval commune, it was the birthplace of the Italian Renaissance. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, it was politically and culturally one of the most important cities in Europe and the world from the 14th to 16th centuries; the language spoken in the city during the 14th century was, still is, accepted as the Italian language. All the writers and poets in Italian literature of the golden age are in some way connected with Florence, leading to the adoption of the Florentine dialect, above all the local dialects, as a literary language of choice.
Starting from the late Middle Ages, Florentine money—in the form of the gold florin—financed the development of industry all over Europe, from Britain to Bruges, to Lyon and Hungary. Florentine bankers financed the English kings during the Hundred Years War, they financed the papacy, including the construction of their provisional capital of Avignon and, after their return to Rome, the reconstruction and Renaissance embellishment of Rome. Florence was home to the Medici, one of European history's most important noble families. Lorenzo de' Medici was considered a political and cultural mastermind of Italy in the late 15th century. Two members of the family were popes in the early 16th century: Leo X and Clement VII. Catherine de Medici married King Henry II of France and, after his death in, reigned as regent in France. Marie de' Medici married Henry IV of France and gave birth to the future King Louis XIII; the Medici reigned as Grand Dukes of Tuscany, starting with Cosimo I de' Medici in 1569 and ending with the death of Gian Gastone de' Medici in 1737.
The Etruscans formed in 200 BC the small settlement of Fiesole, destroyed by Lucius Cornelius Sulla in 80 BC in reprisal for supporting the populares faction in Rome. The present city of Florence was established by Julius Caesar in 59 BC as a settlement for his veteran soldiers and was named Fluentia, owing to the fact that it was built between two rivers, changed to Florentia, it was built in the style of an army camp with the main streets, the cardo and the decumanus, intersecting at the present Piazza della Repubblica. Situated along the Via Cassia, the main route between Rome and the north, within the fertile valley of the Arno, the settlement became an important commercial centre. In centuries to come, the city experienced turbulent periods of Ostrogothic rule, during which the city was troubled by warfare between the Ostrogoths and the Byzantines, which may have caused the population to fall to as few as 1,000 people. Peace returned under Lombard rule in the 6th century. Florence was conquered by Charlemagne in 774 and became part of the Duchy of Tuscany, with Lucca as capital.
The population began to grow again and commerce prospered. In 854, Florence and Fiesole were united in one county. Margrave Hugo chose Florence as his residency instead of Lucca at about 1000 AD; the Golden Age of Florentine art began around this time. In 1013, construction began on the Basilica di San Miniato al Monte; the exterior of the church was reworked in Romanesque style between 1059 and 1128. In 1100, Florence was a "Commune"; the city's primary resource was the Arno river, providing power and access for the industry, access to the Mediterranean sea for international trade. Another great source of strength was its industrious merchant community; the Florentine merchant banking skills became recognised in Europe after they brought decisive financial innovation to medieval fairs. This period saw the eclipse of Florence's powerful rival Pisa, the exercise of power by the mercantile elite following an anti-aristocratic movement, led by Giano della Bella, that resulted in a set of laws called the Ordinances of Justice.
Of a population estimated at 94,00
Grand Est Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine, is an administrative region in eastern France. It superseded three former administrative regions—Alsace, Champagne-Ardenne, Lorraine—on 1 January 2016, as a result of territorial reform, passed by the French legislature in 2014. Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine was a provisional name, created by hyphenating the merged regions in alphabetical order. France's Conseil d'État approved Grand Est as the new name of the region on 28 September 2016, effective 30 September 2016; the administrative capital and largest city is Strasbourg. The provisional name of the region was Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine, formed by combining the names of the three present regions—Alsace, Champagne-Ardenne, Lorraine—in alphabetical order with hyphens; the formula for the provisional name of the region was established by the territorial reform law and applied to all but one of the provisional names for new regions. The ACAL regional council, elected in December 2015, was given the task of choosing a name for the region and submitting it to the Conseil d'État—France's highest authority for administrative law—by 1 July 2016 for approval.
The provisional name of the region was retired on 30 September 2016, when the new name of the region, Grand Est, took effect. In Alsace and in Lorraine, the new region has been called ALCA, for Alsace-Lorraine-Champagne-Ardennes, on the internet. Like the name Région Hauts-de-France, the name Région Grand Est contains no reference whatsoever to the area's history or identity, but describes its geographical location within metropolitan France. In a poll conducted in November 2014 by France 3 in Champagne-Ardenne, Grand Est and Austrasie were the top two names among 25 candidates and 4,701 votes. Grand Est topped a poll the following month conducted by L'Est Républicain, receiving 42% of 3,324 votes; the names which received a moderate amount of discussion were: Grand Est français, a term used to refer to the northeast quarter of Metropolitan France, although this term refers to a geographic region larger than just ACAL. The term has been used and topped the polls mentioned above. Grand Est Europe, a variant of Grand Est that alludes to the region being a gateway to Europe both through trade and since Strasbourg is home to several European institutions.
However, the name was mocked for. Austrasie, which refers to an historical region spanning parts of present-day northeast France, the Benelux, northwest Germany. Quatre frontières. Grand Est is the sixth-largest of the regions of France. Grand Est borders four countries—Belgium, Luxembourg and Switzerland—along its northern and eastern sides, it is the only French region to border more than two countries. To the west and south, it borders the French regions Hauts-de-France, Île-de-France, Bourgogne-Franche-Comté. Grand Est contains ten departments: Ardennes, Bas-Rhin, Haute-Marne, Haut-Rhin, Meurthe-et-Moselle, Moselle, Vosges; the main ranges in the region include the Vosges to the Ardennes to the north. The region is bordered on the east by the Rhine. Other major rivers which flow through the region include the Meuse, Marne, Saône. Lakes in the region include lac de Gérardmer, lac de Longemer, lac de Retournemer, lac des Corbeaux, Lac de Bouzey, lac de Madine, étang du Stock and lac de Pierre-Percée.
Grand Est climate depends of the proximity of the sea. In Champagne and Western Lorraine, the climate is oceanic, with mild summers, but Moselle and Alsace climates are humid continental, characterized by cold winters with frequent days below the freezing point, hot summers, with many days with temperatures up to 32°C. Grand Est is the result of territorial reform legislation passed in 2014 by the French Parliament to reduce the number of regions in Metropolitan France—the part of France in continental Europe—from 22 to 13. ACAL is the merger of three regions: Alsace, Champagne-Ardenne, Lorraine; the merger has been, still is opposed by some groups in Alsace, a large majority of Alsatians. The territorial reform law allows new regions to choose the seat of the regional councils, but made Strasbourg the seat of the Grand Est regional council—a move to appease the region's politicians; the region has an official population of 5,555,186. The regional council has limited administrative authority concerning the promotion of the region's economy and financing educational and cultural activities.
The regional council has no legislative authority. The seat of the regional council will be Strasbourg; the regional council, elected in December 2015, is controlled by The Republicans. The elected inaugural president of the Grand Est Regional Council is Philippe Richert, the President of the Alsace Regional Council; the current president is Jean Rottner. The region has five tram networks: Strasbourg tramway Reims tramway Nancy Guided Light Transit Mulhouse tramway Saarbahn The region has four airports: EuroAirport Basel M
The Reichsadler is the heraldic eagle, derived from the Roman eagle standard, used by the Holy Roman Emperors and in modern coats of arms of Germany, including those of the Second German Empire, the Weimar Republic and the Third Reich. The same design has remained in use by the Federal Republic of Germany since 1945, albeit under the name Bundesadler; the Reichsadler can be traced back to the banner of the Holy Roman Empire, when the eagle was the insignia of Imperial power as distinguished from the Imperial states. It was meant to embody the reference to the Roman tradition, similar to the double-headed eagle used by the Palaiologi emperors of the Byzantine Empire or the tsars of Russia; the Ottonian and Salian emperors had themselves depicted with the Roman "eagle sceptre", Frederick II depicted the imperial eagle on his coins. Before the mid-13th century, the eagle was an imperial symbol in its own right, not yet used as a heraldic charge depicted as part of a coat of arms. An early depiction of a double-headed eagle in a heraldic shield, attributed to Frederick II of Hohenstaufen, is found in the Chronica Majora by Matthew Paris.
The Segar's Roll shows the double-headed eagle as the coat of arms of the King of Germany. The eagle appears in the seals of imperial cities: that of Kaiserswerth in the 13th century, besides Lübeck, Besançon, others. Use of the imperial eagle as part of the imperial coat of arms of a ruling emperor dates to after the end of the interregnum. Sigismund of Luxembourg used a black double-headed eagle after he was crowned Emperor in 1433. From this time, the single-headed Reichsadler represented the title of King of the Romans, the double-headed one the title of Emperor. Over the following century, Albert II of Germany was the last King-elect of Germany who did not go on to be crowned emperor. After the German Reformation, beginning with Ferdinand I, emperors were no longer crowned by the pope; the Teutonic Order under Hermann von Salza had the privilege to display the Imperial eagle in their coat of arms, granted by Emperor Frederick II. The black eagle was adopted when the Teutonic State was transformed into the Duchy of Prussia in 1525, a modified version was used in the arms of Royal Prussia.
In 1804, Holy Roman Emperor Francis II established the Austrian Empire from the lands of the Habsburg Monarchy, adopted the double-headed eagle, aggrandized by an inescutcheon emblem of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine and the Order of the Golden Fleece, as its coat of arms. Since 1919 the coat of arms of Austria has depicted a single-headed eagle. Although not a national symbol in the modern sense, the Reichsadler evoked sentiments of loyalty to the empire. Following the revolutions of 1848 in the German states, the Reichsadler was restored as a symbol of national unity: it became the coat of arms of the short-lived German Empire and subsequently the German Confederation from its restoration in 1850 until its dissolution in 1866, it was once again restored in 1871 when a single-headed eagle with a Prussian inescutcheon became the insignia of the German Empire. After World War I the Weimar Republic under President Friedrich Ebert assumed a plain version of the Reichsadler, which remained in use until 1935.
During Nazi rule, a stylised eagle combined with the Nazi Hakenkreuz was made the national emblem by order of Adolf Hitler in 1935. Despite its medieval origin, the term "Reichsadler" in common English understanding is associated with this specific Nazi era version; the Nazi Party had used a similar symbol for itself, called the Parteiadler. These two insignia can be distinguished as the Reichsadler looks to its right shoulder whereas the Parteiadler looks to its left shoulder. After World War II the Federal Republic of Germany re-implemented the eagle used by the Weimar Republic by enactment of President Theodor Heuss in 1950. Armorial of the Holy Roman Empire Imperial Eagle beaker Aquila Byzantine heraldry Coat of arms of Austria Coat of arms of Brandenburg Coat of arms of Germany Coat of arms of Prussia Coat of arms of Russia Double-headed eagle Coat of arms of Bogotá Norbert Weyss: "Der Doppeladler – Geschichte eines Symbols", Adler 3, 1986, 78ff. Franz Gall: "Zur Entwicklung des Doppeladlers auf den kaiserlichen Siegeln", Adler 8, 281ff.
Vladimir Monakhov: Новые-старые цвета России, или Как возвращали орла, ГЕРАЛЬДИКА СЕГОДНЯ. Michael Göbl, "Staatssymbole des Habsburger-Reiches - ab 1867 mit besonderer Berücksichtigung des Staatswappens", in: Österreichs politische Symbole, 11ff. P. Diem, Die Entwicklung des österreichischen Doppeladlers
Place de la République (Strasbourg)
Place de la République is one of the main squares of the city of Strasbourg, France. It is surrounded on three sides by five buildings only, of which none is residential: the Palais du Rhin, the National and University Library, the Théâtre national de Strasbourg, the Préfecture of Grand Est and Bas-Rhin, the tax center Hôtel des impôts. All of these buildings are classified as monuments historiques; the fourth side of the square is devoid of buildings. Place de la République is a square surrounding a circular public garden crossed by a north-west and a south-east axis. In the centre of the square stands a War memorial statue by Léon-Ernest Drivier, inaugurated in 1936, it represents a mother holding two dead sons, alluding to the dual nature of Strasbourg's History between Germany and France. The memorial replaces an equestrian statue of Emperor Wilhelm I, commissioned in 1897, that stood on the square from 1911 until 1918. Place de la République was designed by architect Jean-Geoffroy Conrath as the conspicuous and grandiose entrance of the "Neustadt" opposite the ancient Grande Île city center on the other side of the Ill.
The layout and construction of the square began in 1880. It was called Kaiserplatz. Ginkgo biloba trees, which were presented by Emperor Meiji of Japan to his German counterpart, were planted in the central garden in the 1880s; the area was occupied by a section of the city walls, which were demolished after the Franco-Prussian War. An ancient Jewish cemetery was located on grounds near to the river; the former Imperial Palace is surrounded by its own garden, separated from the square by a monumental wrought iron fence. The Palace, a solemn Neorenaissance building crowned with a heavy dome, was built from 1884 until 1887 by Hermann Eggert, it is used as the seat of the Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine since 1920 and houses the Direction régionale des affaires culturelles of Grand Est. It is classified as a monument historique since 1993; the building now housing the Théâtre national de Strasbourg was built as the seat of the Parliament of Alsace-Lorraine. It was designed by August Hartel and Skjold Neckelmann in a radically different Neorenaissance style than Hermann Eggert's, built in 1888–1889.
It is classified as a monument historique since 1992. The Bibliothèque nationale et universitaire was built from 1889 until 1895 in the Neorenaissance style, again by Hartel and Neckelmann, it is classified as a monument historique since 2004. This Baroque Revival building was built from 1899 until 1902 by Ludwig Levy, the architect of the Great Synagogue of Strasbourg, it was used as the seat of several ministries: agriculture and finances. It is classified as a monument historique since 1996; the Préfecture de la région Grand-Est et du département du Bas-Rhin was built from 1907 until 1911, based on designs by Ludwig Levy. The façade was decorated with statues of lions by Alfred Marzolff; the building housed ministries of Alsace-Lorraine. It is a more austere example of Baroque Revival architecture than its older counterpart, it is classified as a monument historique since 1996. A work of art called Spirale Aby Warburg, le monument aux vivants by Luxemburgish artist Bert Theis was installed on the square in 2002.
It is used as a bench. Place de la République and the Grande Île city center are connected by the stone arch bridge Pont du Théâtre; that bridge was reinforced with concrete and modified in 1999–2000 in order to allow for the passage of the tramway. As of 2017, Place de la République is served by the Strasbourg tramway lines B, C, E and F, by the CTS buses 15a and 72. Place de la République on archi-wiki.org