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Palatine of Hungary

The Palatine of Hungary was the highest-ranking office in the Kingdom of Hungary from the beginning of the 11th century to 1848. Palatines were representatives of the monarchs the vice-regent. In the early centuries of the kingdom, they were appointed by the king, were elected by the Diet of the Kingdom of Hungary. Palatine's jurisdiction included only Hungary proper, in the Kingdom of Croatia until 1918 the ban held similar function as the highest office in the Kingdom, monarch's representative, commander of the royal army and viceroy; the earliest recorded. A new variant came into use in the second half of the 11th century; the shortened palatinus form became the official version in the 1230s. A new official title – palatinus regni Hungarie – was adopted in the 1340s, which shows that the palatines who were still royal officials were regarded as representatives of the Estates of the realm from that time on; the original Hungarian version of the title was nádorispán. The etymology of the word is uncertain.

Most scholars agree that its root is the Slavic word for court, but no documents evidence that the assumed *nadъ-dvorjь-županъ form existed. In the Czech and Serbian languages, similar expressions existed, but only as loanwords from Hungarian, in reference to the palatines of Hungary. Ludovicus Tubero and some other 16th-century scholars referred to the palatine as nándorispán. Historian András Róna-Tas says. If his theory is valid, the palatine was the head of the Bulgars in Hungary. Other scholars have not accepted Róna-Tas's theory, because the nándorispán version seems to have developed from the original nádorispán version; the modern Hungarian version of the title, the shortened version of the original title, was first recorded in 1784. High-ranking officials who bore the title comes palatinus or comes palatii were present in several royal courts of medieval Europe. In the Carolingian Empire, the comes palatii was the monarch's deputy and one of the highest judges in the 9th century, according to the contemporaneous Hincmar.

In Croatia, the zuppanus palatii was the head of the royal court in 892. In 11th-century Bohemia and in Poland, the "count of the palace" was the monarch's deputy in military affairs. According to a scholarly theory, the comes palatii was responsible for the administration of the royal household, but primary sources do not contain direct reference to the palatines' economic functions. Hungarian historians agree that the imperial court of the Holy Roman Empire set the pattern for the organization of the royal household in Hungary. Historians concur that the first king of Hungary, Stephen I, who died in 1038, appointed the first palatine, although no primary source mentioned this office during his reign. György Györffy says that one Comes Ceba, responsible for the transfer of ten villages to the Pannonhalma Archabbey on the king's behalf around 1005, must have been a palatine, because the villages were situated in many counties, suggesting that he was not the head of one county; the Long Life of Saint Gerard say that King Stephen I made Csanád "the master of the household of the king and Ajtony" after Csanád defeated Ajtony.

Some historians say that the text suggests that Csanád held the office of palatine for some time during Stephen's reign. Gerard of Csanád's same legend preserved the earliest historical event in connection with a palatine – the dethronement of Stephen I's successor, Peter Orseolo by "Count Palatine Aba" in 1041. According to modern scholars' consensus, Stephen I's brother-in-law or nephew, must have been made palatine by Stephen I. A decree of King Coloman the Learned stated that messengers sent by the ispáns from the borderlands to the monarch were entitled to "claim the cost of travel and an equal amount for the return journey" from the palatine. No other primary sources contain direct evidence of the first palatines' economic duties, but other royal officials who were mentioned in 11th-century royal charters do not seem to have been responsible for the management of the royal household. Most historians say that most the palatines were the administrators of the royal domains and revenues up until the 1120s.

The palatines' jurisdiction over the udvornici, or royal serving people, documented from the end of the 11th century validate this theory. The late 13th-century chronicler, Simon of Kéza, stated that it was King Coloman who had "made over his own udvornici for the use of the palatine of the realm", but Kéza's testimony is suspect. In his Admonitions, King Stephen I declared that the kings should not judge legal cases in person, suggesting that a high-ranking official administered justice on the kings' behalf in the first half of the 11th century. Modern historians agree. A law-book, issued during or shortly before t

Duke Ernest Gottlob of Mecklenburg

Duke Ernest Gottlob Albert of Mecklenburg was a member of the House of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. As a younger son of Duke Charles Louis Frederick of Mecklenburg, Ernest was an elder brother of Queen Charlotte of the United Kingdom, who married King George III in 1761. Ernest followed his sister to England, where he unsuccessfully pursued marriage with the country's largest heiress, Mary Eleanor Bowes. Enormous debt would lead Ernest to attempt another marriage with a princess from the House of Holstein-Gottorp, but Charlotte managed to dissuade him. Ernest became the military governor of Celle in the Electorate of Hanover, of which his brother-in-law George III was the head. Ernest died in 1814 at the age of 71 during the reign of George III but under the regency of his nephew George IV. Ernest Gottlob Albert was the seventh child and third son of Duke Charles Louis Frederick of Mecklenburg and his wife Princess Elisabeth Albertine of Saxe-Hildburghausen. Ernest's younger sister Charlotte married George III of the United Kingdom in 1761, Ernest followed her to London.

Ernest was described by novelist Sarah Scott as a "very pretty sort of man, with an agreeable person." In March 1762 Ernest was said, according to Scott, to have "fallen in love with" Mary Eleanor Bowes, the richest heiress in Britain and the richest in Europe. Scott speculated that were the marriage to take place, Ernest would become richer than his elder brother Adolphus Frederick IV, Duke of Mecklenburg. However, King George III disallowed the marriage, as he disapproved of his brother-in-law marrying someone not of royal blood. Charlotte Papendiek, Queen Charlotte's wardrobe keeper, wrote many years that the match would "have made him a Prince indeed. Ernest does not appear in Mary's letters, it does not seem that his affection was reciprocated. In late 1768 at Queen's House, Ernest was inoculated alongside his nephew Prince William against smallpox. Ernest served as a namesake for another nephew, Prince Ernest Augustus; the following year Ernest and his brother George attended observations of the 1769 Transit of Venus at the King's Observatory in Richmond-upon-Thames.

Charlotte remained close to all of her German relatives. Like his brother Charles, Ernest benefited from Charlotte's marriage and gained promotion within the Hanoverian army, of which George III was the head. Ernest became the military governor of Celle, in Hanover, where he welcomed George III's exiled sister Queen Caroline Matilda upon the end of her marriage to Christian VII of Denmark. In 1782 Ernest attempted to enter into a marriage with a princess from the House of Holstein-Gottorp in an effort to pay his numerous debts. However, both the fact that he was a third son and the uncle of a male heir limited his appeal to potential dynastic alliances. Charlotte advised her brother to drop the match, as the dowry of the princess in question would not be enough to settle his debts, she hoped that Christian VII of Denmark would provide a large dowry, as the princess was a member of his house, but concluded that no one would blame Ernest if he stopped pursuing the marriage. This frank advice was praised by their brother Charles, Ernest never married.

He died on 27 January 1814 at the age of 71. 27 August 1742 – 27 January 1814: His Serene Highness Duke Ernest of Mecklenburg Order of the White Eagle of Poland Grewolls, Grete. Wer war wer in Mecklenburg und Vorpommern. Das Personenlexikon. Rostock: Hinstorff Verlag. P. 2580. ISBN 978-3-356-01301-6

Gabriel Revel

Gabriel Revel was a French painter. He was born in a family of artists, he went to Paris on the advice of Jean de La Fontaine. He joined the group of decorative artists working for Louis XIV, including François Verdier, Claude II Audran et François Bonnemer, on the Soleil-Royal, it is thought. After a voyage to Italy, Revel was accepted into the Académie Royale on 31 January 1682 on the basis of his portraits of François Girardon and Michel Anguier. For the city of Dijon in 1688 he painted the ceiling of the Chambre des requêtes in the Parlement de Bourgogne, with an Allegory of Justice. Moving to Dijon in 1692 he produced a large number of historical portraits, he died at Dijon

Dee Dee Bridgewater (1976 album)

Dee Dee Bridgewater is the eponymous second studio album by American jazz singer Dee Dee Bridgewater. The record was released in 1976 via Atlantic Records label, she released a self-titled album in 1980 via the Elektra label. Reviewer of Dusty Groove noted "The sound here is different than the material Bridgewater started with, but still plenty great from a soul perspective – tightly-crafted, sophisticated work that features both uptempo and mellow cuts – in a mode that's quite similar to the Columbia work of Marlena Shaw – another former jazz vocalist who made a 70s shift to soul."Stacia Proefrock of Allmusic wrote "Dee Dee Bridgewater's self-titled album opens with a song that sounds closer to Gloria Gaynor than Ella Fitzgerald, throwing her jazz fans for a loop. This 1976 release explores funk territories, while still employing her strong, husky voice, she shows the amazing range and emotional expression that would make her "comeback" albums of the'90s so remarkable, while having a lot of fun.

While this album is out of character for her stylistically, it is still a fine addition to any fan's collection." Official website

Dominican Republic–Haiti relations

Dominican Republic–Haiti relations refers to the diplomatic relations between the Dominican Republic and the Republic of Haiti. Relations have long been complex due to the substantial ethnic and cultural differences between the two nations and their sharing the island of Hispaniola, part of the Greater Antilles archipelago in the Caribbean region; the living standards in the Dominican Republic are higher than those in Haiti. The migration of impoverished Haitians and deep-set cultural differences have contributed to a long-standing conflict. Struggles began during colonial times and have developed into nearly constant conflict between the two governments; the political division of the island of Hispaniola is due in part to the European struggle for control of the New World during the 17th century, when France and Spain began fighting for control of the island. They resolved their dispute in 1697 by splitting the island into two countries, it was not until the 19th century that Haiti became independent from France on January 1, 1804.

Spanish Haiti, the predecessor of the Dominican Republic, became independent from Spain on December 1, 1821, after more than 300 years of Spanish rule. On November 9, 1821 the Spanish colony of Santo Domingo was overthrown by a group of rebels at the command of José Núñez de Cáceres, the colony's former administrator, as they proclaimed independence from the Spanish crown on December 1, 1821; the new nation was known as Republic of Spanish Haiti, as Haiti had been the indigenous name of the island. A group of Dominican military officers favored uniting the newly independent nation with Haiti, as they sought for political stability under Haitian president Jean-Pierre Boyer; the Dominicans were unaware that Boyer made a concession with the French, agreed to pay France for the lost territory of Haiti. Boyer agreed to pay a sum of 150 million Francs thus the Haitians would be forced into paying to maintain their freedom from the French. During twenty-two years of Haitian occupation, the Haitians implemented what some Dominicans viewed as a brutal military regime.

Use of the French language over Spanish was enforced, the army closed Universidad Santo Tomás de Aquino. In addition, the Haitian army confiscated all church land and property and imposed mandatory military service; this difficult time for the Dominicans created cultural conflicts in language, race and national tradition between the Dominicans and Haitians. Many Dominicans developed a resentment of Haitians. In order to raise funds for the huge indemnity of 150 million francs that Haiti agreed to pay the former French colonists, and, subsequently lowered to 60 million francs, Haiti imposed heavy taxes on the Dominicans. Since Haiti was unable to adequately provision its army, the occupying forces survived by commandeering or confiscating food and supplies at gunpoint. Attempts to redistribute land conflicted with the system of communal land tenure, which had arisen with the ranching economy, newly emancipated slaves resented being forced to grow cash crops under Boyer's Code Rural. In rural areas, the Haitian administration was too inefficient to enforce its own laws.

It was in the city of Santo Domingo that the effects of the occupation were most acutely felt, it was there that the movement for independence originated. Haiti's constitution forbade non-citizens from owning land. However, it did protect citizens who were recognized for owning land from other's who may have tried and taken this land from them. According to their constitution, it was unlawful for one to deny property from A citizen who owned it.. Most emigrated to Cuba, Puerto Rico or Gran Colombia with the encouragement of Haitian officials, who acquired their lands; the Haitians, who associated the Roman Catholic Church with the French slave-masters who had exploited them before independence, confiscated all church property, deported all foreign clergy, severed the ties of the remaining clergy to the Vatican. Santo Domingo's university, lacking both students and teachers had to close down, thus the country suffered from a massive case of human capital flight. Although the occupation eliminated colonial slavery and instated a constitution modeled after the United States Constitution throughout the island, several resolutions and written dispositions were expressly aimed at converting average Dominicans into second-class citizens: restrictions of movement, prohibition to run for public office, night curfews, inability to travel in groups, banning of civilian organizations, the indefinite closure of the state university all led to the creation of movements advocating a forceful separation from Haiti with no compromises.

On February 27, 1844 the Dominicans, led by Juan Pablo Duarte along with Francisco del Rosario Sánchez and Matías Ramón Mella, gained freedom from Haitian rule, thus giving birth to the Dominican Republic. After ousting the Haitian occupying force from the country, Dominican nationalists had to fight against a series of attempted invasions from 1844 to 1856. Haitian soldiers would make incessant attacks to try to regain control of the territory, but these efforts were to no avail as the Dominicans would go on to win every battle henceforth. Since Dominican–Haitian relations have been unstable. In October 1937, claiming that Haiti was harboring his former Dominican opponents, Rafael Trujillo ordered an attack on the border, slaughtering tens of thousands of Haitians as they tried to escape; the num

1954 Masters Tournament

The 1954 Masters Tournament was the 18th Masters Tournament, held April 8–12 at Augusta National Golf Club in Augusta, Georgia. Sam Snead defeated defending champion Ben Hogan by one stroke in an 18-hole Monday playoff to win his third Masters tournament, it was Snead's final major victory. Both Snead and Hogan were age 41, they had won the previous three Masters. Hogan was the reigning champion of the U. S. Open and British Open. S. Open. Snead's 289, along with Jack Burke, Jr. in 1956 and Zach Johnson in 2007, remains the highest winning total in Masters history. Amateur Billy Joe Patton, 31, led after the first and second rounds and during the fourth, but a seven at the 13th hole and a six at the 15th ended his title hopes, he finished one stroke back; the Masters did not have a 36-hole cut until 1957 Thursday, April 8, 1954 Friday, April 9, 1954 Saturday, April 10, 1954 Sunday, April 11, 1954 Source: Final round Cumulative tournament scores, relative to par Monday, April 12, 1954 Source: Masters.com – past winners and results About.com: 1954 Masters Augusta.com – 1954 Masters leaderboard and scorecards