Dosso Dossi, real name Giovanni di Niccolò de Luteri, was an Italian Renaissance painter who belonged to the School of Ferrara, painting in a style influenced by Venetian painting, in particular Giorgione and early Titian. From 1514 to his death he was court artist to the Este Dukes of Ferrara and of Modena, whose small court valued its reputation as an artistic centre, he worked with his younger brother Battista Dossi, who had worked under Raphael. He painted many mythological subjects and allegories with a rather dream-like atmosphere, striking disharmonies in colour, his portraits often show rather unusual poses or expressions for works originating in a court. Dossi was born in a village in the province of Mantua, his early training and life are not well documented. He may have had training locally with Lorenzo Costa or in Mantua, where he is known to have been in 1512. By 1514, he would begin three decades of service for dukes Alfonso I and Ercole II d'Este, becoming principal court artist.
Dosso worked with his brother Battista Dossi, who had trained in the Roman workshop of Raphael. The works he produced for the dukes included the ephemeral decorations of furniture and theater sets, he is known to have worked alongside il Garofalo in the Costabili polyptych. One of his pupils was Giovanni Francesco Surchi. Dosso Dossi is known less for his naturalism or attention to design, more for cryptic allegorical conceits in paintings around mythological themes, a favored subject for the humanist Ferrarese court. Dossi employed eccentric distortions of proportion, which may appear caricature-like or even'primitivist'; the art historian Sydney J. Freedberg sees this characteristic as an expression of the Renaissance aesthetic of sprezzatura. Dossi is known for the atypical choices of bright pigment for his cabinet pieces; some of his works, such as the Deposition have lambent qualities that suggest some of Correggio's works. Most of his works feature use oil painting as a medium; the painting Aeneas in the Elysian Fields was part of the Camerino d'Alabstro of Alfonso I in the Este Castle, decorated with canvases depicting bacchanalia and erotic subjects including Feast of the Gods by Giovanni Bellini and Venus Worship by Titian.
The frieze paintings were based on the Aeneid. Orpheus with the lyre flits in the forest. In Hercules and the Pygmies, Hercules has fallen asleep after defeating Antaeus, is set upon by an army of thumb-size pygmies, whom he defeats, he gathers them in his lion skin. Paintings depicting a powerful Hercules were made for the then-ruler Duke Ercole II d'Este; the subjects of the Mythological Scene and Tubalcain are unknown. "Portrait of a Youth" at the National Gallery of Victoria, the mysterious portrait of an unknown subject by an unknown painter, has been identified as a portrait of the infamous Lucrezia Borgia by Dosso Dossi. In Ferrara, among his pupils were Gabriele Capellini, Jacopo Panicciati, Giovanni Francesco Surchi. Holy Family with Donors Aeneas in the Elysian Fields, The Virgin Appearing to Sts John the Baptist and John the Evangelist Jupiter and the Virtue, Mythological Scene, c.1524. Dosso and Battista Dossi. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Francis P. Smyth and John P. O'Neill (Editors in Chief.
National Gallery of Art, Washington DC, ed. The Age of Correggio and the Carracci: Emilian Painting of the 16th and 17th Centuries. Pp. 111–128. Freedberg, Sydney J.. Pelican History of Art, ed. Painting in Italy, 1500–1600. Pp. 315–322 Penguin Books Ltd. Ciammitti, Luisa. Dosso's fate: painting and court culture in Renaissance Italy. Los Angeles: Getty Research Institute for the History of Art and the Humanities. ISBN 0-89236-505-6. Dosso Dossi: Court Painter in Renaissance Ferrara, a full text exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Short biography and pictures at the J. Paul Getty Museum Images of some paintings Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Giovanni Dossi". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Gallery at MuseumSyndicate Works by Dosso Dossi at Census of Ferrarese
Ludovico Carracci was an Italian, early-Baroque painter and printmaker born in Bologna. His works are characterized by a strong mood invoked by broad gestures and flickering light that create spiritual emotion and are credited with reinvigorating Italian art fresco art, subsumed with formalistic Mannerism, he died in Bologna in 1619. Ludovico apprenticed under Prospero Fontana in Bologna and traveled to Florence and Venice, before returning to his hometown. Together with his cousins Annibale and Agostino Carracci, Ludovico worked in Bologna on the fresco cycles depicting Histories of Jason and Medea in Palazzo Fava, the Histories of Romulus and Remus for the Palazzo Magnani, their individual contributions to these works are unclear, although Annibale, the younger than Ludovico by 5 years had gained fame as the best of the three. This led to Annibale's famed commission of the Loves of the Gods in the Palazzo Farnese in Rome. Agostino joined Annibale there briefly. While Ludovico remained in Bologna, this does not mean that he was any less influential, the biography of Lanzi states that around 1585, Ludovico and his cousins had founded the so-called Eclectic Academy of painting (also called the Accademia degli Incamminati.
More recent conjectures are that there was no established Academy with curriculum, but that Ludovico tutored many in his studio. This studio however propelled a number of Emilian artists to pre-eminence in Rome and elsewhere, singularly helped encourage the so-called Bolognese School of the late 16th century, which included Albani, Sacchi, Reni and Domenichino; the Carracci had their apprentices draw studies focused on observation of nature and natural poses, use a bold scale in drawing figures. One of Ludovico's main pupils was Francesco Camullo. Ludovico Carracci's works Babette Bohn, Ludovico Carracci and the Art of Drawing Brepols 2004 Allessandro Brogi, Ludovico Carracci Bologna 2001 Andrea Emiliani, Ludovico Carracci exh. cat. Bologna-FortWorth 1994 Orazio and Artemisia Gentileschi, a digitized exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries, which contains material on Ludovico Carracci Whitfield Fine Art Catholic Encyclopedia: Carracci
Ubaldo Gandolfi was an Italian painter of the late-Baroque period active in and near Bologna. He was born in San Matteo della Decima and enrolled by the age of 17 at the Clementine Academy, where he apprenticed with Ercole Graziani the Younger, Felice Torelli, Ercole Lelli, he was from a large family of prolific artists, including his sons Giovanni Battista and Ubaldo Lorenzo, as well as his brother Gaetano and nephews Mauro and niece Clementina. Together, they are considered among the last representatives of the grand manner of painting characteristic of the Bolognese school, that had risen to prominence nearly two centuries earlier with the Carracci. Gandolfi's work ranges from Baroque to Neoclassic styles, recalls the style of Ludovico Carracci, he completed, in 1770-75, a series of canvases on mythological narratives for the Palazzo Marescalchi in Bologna. A series of seven saints painted by Gandolfi is on display at the Quadreria of the Palazzo Rossi Poggi Marsili in Bologna, he died in Ravenna in 1781.
Among his pupils was Giuseppe Grimanti, Giovanni Lipparini, Nicola Levoli. Cazort, Bella Pittura: The Art of the Gandolfi, National Gallery of Canada, 1993. Cazort, The Art of Embellishment: Drawings and Paintings by Gaetano and Mauro Gandolfi for a Festive Carriage, in Record of The Art Museum, Princeton University, Volume 52, Number 2, 1993. Rosasco, Drawings by the Gandolfi Family and Their Followers in The Art Museum: A Checklist, in Record of The Art Museum, Princeton University, Volume 52, Number 2, 1993. Vicenza, Neri Pozza, I Gandolfi: Ubaldo, Mauro, disegni e dipinti, Neri Pozza Editore, 1987. Exhibition of Gaetano and Ubaldo Gandolfi's work in 2002. Bacchus and Ariadne
Francesco del Cossa
Francesco del Cossa was an Italian Renaissance painter of the School of Ferrara. The son of a stonemason in Ferrara, little is known about his early works, although it is known that he travelled outside of Ferrara in his late twenties or early thirties. Cossa is best known for his frescoes. One of the first records we have of him is in 1456 when he was an assistant to his father, Cristofano del Cossa, at that time employed in painting the carvings and statues on the high altar in the chapel of the bishop's palace at Ferrara. One of his followers was Leonardo Scaletti of Faenza. In conjunction with Cosimo Tura, Cossa is now known for fresco decoration of the summer pleasure villa/palazzo known as the Palazzo Schifanoia, located just outside the city gates. Together, they painted a series of the elaborate allegories around the themes of zodiacal signs and months of the year; these were only restored in the 20th century, there are three that are reasonably assigned to Cossa. Of these, one of the most remarkable images is the horde of naked toddlers in the Allegory of May – Triumph of Apollo.
A sign of springtime's prolific blossoming, the crowded rows of babies mass like a phalanx of infantile Rockettes. The Allegory of April has a depiction of the trio of Graces, one of the earliest Post-classical representations of the naked intertwined dancers in painting. Sandro Botticelli's version in Primavera dates from 1482. See the 1501 version of the Three Graces. Assuming the date of death of Cossa is correct, this one must have been completed prior to the others. Unhappy that he had been paid by the square foot for his work for Duke Borso and complaining he was being paid the same as the "worst dauber in Ferrara", Cossa left Ferrara for Bologna in 1470. In Bologna he obtained many commissions under the patronage of the Bentivoglio family. Here he painted his two masterpieces: the Virgin and Child with two saints and a portrait of Alberto de' Catanei and fresco of the Madonna del Baracano, representing the Virgin and Child with portraits of Giovanni Bentivoglio and Maria Vinziguerra, he executed stained glass windows in Bologna, the best of, a circular window, in the church of San Giovanni in Monte, representing St. John in Patmos.
This bears his signature. In the National Gallery of London there is a picture by him representing St. Vincent Ferrer. There is a fine profile portrait at Locko Park near Derby, said to represent Duke Ercole I of Ferrara. In the Dresden collection there is an Annunciation that has, been attributed to Pollaiuolo. Del Cossa features as one of the two protagonists in Ali Smith's novel How to Be Both, short-listed for the 2014 Man Booker Prize. Annunciation and Nativity Griffoni Polyptych St Vincent Ferrer St Peter St John the Baptist St Florian 1473,National Gallery of Art, Washington) St Lucy The Crucifixion St Petronius 11 other small pictures from altarpiece Madonna with the Child and Saints Madonna with the Child and an angel Frescoes for Hall of Months, Palazzo Schifanoia, Ferrara Allegory of April: Triumph of Venus Allegory of May: Triumph of Apollo Allegory of March: Triumph of Minerva Polyhymnia, the Muse of Many Songs The stained glass window was revealed to be the final answer of the Great Google Earth Treasure Hunt.
Encyclopedia of Artists, volume 2, edited by William H. T. Vaughan, ISBN 0-19-521572-9, 2000 Web Gallery of Art
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
Gentile da Fabriano
Gentile da Fabriano was an Italian painter known for his participation in the International Gothic painter style. He worked in various places in central Italy in Tuscany, his best-known works are his Adoration of the Magi from the Strozzi Altarpiece, the Flight into Egypt. Gentile was born in the Marche, his mother died some time before 1380, his father, Niccolò di Giovanni Massi, retired to a monastery in the same year, where he died in 1385. Little is known of his formation: one of his first known works, a Madonna with Child shows the influence of the northern Italian late-Gothic painting. By around 1405, Gentile da Fabriano was working in Venice, he painted a panel for the church of Santa Sofia, now lost. Between 1408 and 1409, he painted a fresco in the Doge's Palace depicting the naval battle between the Venetians and Otto III. In Venice he knew Pisanello and Michelino da Besozzo, he produced commissions for other cities during this period, such as his Madonna and Child for a church in Perugia.
From 1410 -- 1412 is one of the Valle Romita Polyptych. In 1410 -- 1411 he was at Foligno. In 1414 he moved to Brescia, at the service of Pandolfo III Malatesta, painted the Broletto Chapel, a work now lost. In the Spring 1420 he was again in Fabriano. On 6 August 1420 he was in Florence, where he painted his famous altarpiece depicting the Adoration of the Magi, now in the Uffizi and regarded as one of the masterpieces of the International Gothic style, his other works in Florence include the Quaratesi Polyptych. In June–August 1425 he was in Siena, where he painted a Madonna with Child, now lost, for the Palazzo dei Notai on Piazza del Campo; until October he was in Orvieto, where he painted his fresco of the Madonna and Child in the Cathedral. In 1427 he arrived in Rome, commissioned by Pope Martin V the decoration of the nave of the Basilica of St. John in Lateran, completed by Pisanello after his death. Gentile is known to have died before 14 October 1427, he is said to have been buried in the church now called S.
Francesca Romana in Florence, but his tomb vanished. He left no works in the Marche, except a Madonna and Child in the Duomo at Sant'Angelo in Vado, near Urbino, he left one painting in Venice. Mack, Rosamond E. Bazaar to Piazza: Islamic Trade and Italian Art, 1300–1600, University of California Press, 2001 ISBN 0-520-22131-1 Gentile da Fabriano e l'altro Rinascimento, catalogo della mostra, Electa, 2006. Fabio Marcelli, Gentile da Fabriano, Silvana, 2005. Andrea De Marchi, Gentile da Fabriano. Un viaggio nella pittura italiana alla fine del gotico, Federico Motta, 2006. Gentile da Fabriano biography-paintings-curiosity-publications Italian Paintings: Sienese and Central Italian Schools, a collection catalog containing information about Fabriano and his works. 5 paintings of Gentile da Fabriano
Edvard Munch was a Norwegian painter, whose best known work, The Scream, has become one of the most iconic images of world art. His childhood was overshadowed by illness and the dread of inheriting a mental condition that ran in the family. Studying at the Royal School of Art and Design in Kristiania, Munch began to live a bohemian life under the influence of nihilist Hans Jæger, who urged him to paint his own emotional and psychological state. From this would presently emerge his distinctive style. Travel brought new outlets. In Paris, he learned much from Paul Gauguin, Vincent van Gogh and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec their use of colour. In Berlin, he met Swedish dramatist August Strindberg, whom he painted, as he embarked on his major canon The Frieze of Life, depicting a series of deeply-felt themes such as love, anxiety and betrayal, steeped in atmosphere, but it was back in Kristiania. According to Munch, he was out walking at sunset, when he ‘heard the enormous, infinite scream of nature’.
That agonised face is identified with the angst of modern man. Between 1893 and 1910, he made two painted versions and two in pastels, as well as a number of prints. One of the pastels would command the fourth highest nominal price paid for a painting at auction; as his fame and wealth grew, his emotional state remained as insecure as ever. He considered marriage, but could not commit himself. A breakdown in 1908 forced him to give up heavy drinking, he was cheered by his increasing acceptance by the people of Kristiania and exposure in the city’s museums, his years were spent working in peace and privacy. Although his works were banned in Nazi Germany, most of them survived World War II, ensuring him a secure legacy. Edvard Munch was born in a farmhouse in the village of Ådalsbruk in Løten, United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway, to Laura Catherine Bjølstad and Christian Munch, the son of a priest. Christian was a doctor and medical officer who married Laura, a woman half his age, in 1861. Edvard had an elder sister, Johanne Sophie, three younger siblings: Peter Andreas, Laura Catherine, Inger Marie.
Laura may have encouraged Edvard and Sophie. Edvard was related to historian Peter Andreas Munch; the family moved to Christiania in 1864 when Christian Munch was appointed medical officer at Akershus Fortress. Edvard's mother died of tuberculosis in 1868, as did Munch's favorite sister Johanne Sophie in 1877. After their mother's death, the Munch siblings were raised by their aunt Karen. Ill for much of the winters and kept out of school, Edvard would draw to keep himself occupied, he was tutored by his aunt. Christian Munch instructed his son in history and literature, entertained the children with vivid ghost-stories and the tales of American writer Edgar Allan Poe; as Edvard remembered it, Christian's positive behavior toward his children was overshadowed by his morbid pietism. Munch wrote, "My father was temperamentally nervous and obsessively religious—to the point of psychoneurosis. From him I inherited the seeds of madness; the angels of fear and death stood by my side since the day I was born."
Christian reprimanded his children by telling them that their mother was looking down from heaven and grieving over their misbehavior. The oppressive religious milieu, Edvard's poor health, the vivid ghost stories helped inspire his macabre visions and nightmares. One of Munch's younger sisters, was diagnosed with mental illness at an early age. Of the five siblings, only Andreas married. Munch would write, "I inherited two of mankind's most frightful enemies—the heritage of consumption and insanity."Christian Munch's military pay was low, his attempts to develop a private side practice failed, keeping his family in genteel but perennial poverty. They moved from one cheap flat to another. Munch's early drawings and watercolors depicted these interiors, the individual objects, such as medicine bottles and drawing implements, plus some landscapes. By his teens, art dominated Munch's interests. At thirteen, Munch had his first exposure to other artists at the newly formed Art Association, where he admired the work of the Norwegian landscape school.
He returned to copy the paintings, soon he began to paint in oils. In 1879, Munch enrolled in a technical college to study engineering, where he excelled in physics and math, he learned scaled and perspective drawing. The following year, much to his father's disappointment, Munch left the college determined to become a painter, his father viewed art as an "unholy trade", his neighbors reacted bitterly and sent him anonymous letters. In contrast to his father's rabid pietism, Munch adopted an undogmatic stance toward art, he wrote his goal in his diary: "in my art I attempt to explain life and its meaning to myself."In 1881, Munch enrolled at the Royal School of Art and Design of Kristiania, one of whose founders was his distant relative Jacob Munch. His teachers were the naturalistic painter Christian Krohg; that year, Munch demonstrated his quick absorption of his figure training at the Academy in his first portraits, including one of his father and his first self-portrait. In 1883, Munch shared a studio with other students.
His full-length portrait of Karl Jensen-Hjell