The Paleocene, or Palaeocene, is a geological epoch that lasted from about 66 to 56 million years ago. It is the first epoch of the Paleogene Period in the modern Cenozoic Era; the name is a combination of the Ancient Greek palæo- meaning "old" and the Eocene Epoch, translating to "the old part of the Eocene". The epoch is bracketed by two major events in Earth's history; the K–Pg extinction event, brought on by an asteroid impact and volcanism, marked the beginning of the Paleocene and killed off 75% of living species, most famously the non-avian dinosaurs. The end of the epoch was marked by the Paleocene–Eocene thermal maximum, a major climatic event wherein about 2,500–4,500 gigatons of carbon were released into the atmosphere and ocean systems, causing a spike in global temperatures and ocean acidification. In the Paleocene, the continents of the Northern Hemisphere were still connected via some land bridges; the Rocky Mountains were being uplifted, the Americas had not yet joined, the Indian Plate had begun its collision with Asia, the North Atlantic Igneous Province was forming in the third-largest magmatic event of the last 150 million years.
In the oceans, the thermohaline circulation was much different than it is today, with downwellings occurring in the North Pacific rather than the North Atlantic, water density being controlled by salinity rather than temperature. The K–Pg extinction event caused a floral and faunal turnover of species, with abundant species being replaced by uncommon ones. In the Paleocene, with a global average temperature of about 24–25 °C, compared to 14 °C in more recent times, the Earth had a greenhouse climate without permanent ice sheets at the poles, like the preceding Mesozoic; as such, there were forests worldwide—including at the poles—but they had low species richness in regards to plant life, populated by small creatures that were evolving to take advantage of the emptied Earth. Though some animals attained great size, most remained rather small; the forests grew quite dense in the general absence of large herbivores. Mammals proliferated in the Paleocene, the earliest members of many placental and marsupial groups are recorded from this time, but most Paleocene taxa have ambiguous affinities.
In the seas, ray-finned fish rose to dominate open reef ecosystems. The word "Paleocene" was first used by French paleobotanist and geologist Wilhelm Philipp Schimper in 1874 while describing deposits near Paris. By this time, Italian geologist Giovanni Arduino had divided the history of life on Earth into the Primary and Tertiary in 1759. British geologist John Phillips had proposed the Cenozoic in 1840 in place of the Tertiary, Austrian paleontologist Moritz Hörnes had introduced the Paleogene for the Eocene and Neogene for the Miocene and Pliocene in 1853. After decades of inconsistent usage, the newly formed International Commission on Stratigraphy, in 1969, standardized stratigraphy based on the prevailing opinions in Europe: the Cenozoic Era subdivided into the Tertiary and Quaternary sub-eras, the Tertiary subdivided into the Paleogene and Neogene periods. In 1978, the Paleogene was defined as the Paleocene and Oligocene epochs. In 1989, Tertiary and Quaternary were removed from the time scale due to the arbitrary nature of their boundary, but Quaternary was reinstated in 2009, which may lead to the reinstatement of the Tertiary in the future.
The term "Eocene" is derived from Ancient Greek eo—eos ἠώς meaning "dawn", and—cene kainos καινός meaning "new" or "recent", as the epoch saw the dawn of recent, or modern, life. The term "Paleocene" is a portmanteau combination of the Ancient Greek palæo- palaios παλαιός meaning "old", the word "Eocene", so means "the old part of the Eocene"; the term did not come into broad usage until around 1920. In North America and mainland Europe, the standard spelling is "Paleocene", whereas it is "Palaeocene" in the UK. Geologist T. C. R. Pulvertaft has argued that the latter spelling is incorrect because this would imply either a translation of "old recent" or a derivation from "pala" and "Eocene", which would be incorrect because the prefix palæo- uses the ligature æ instead of "a" and "e" individually, so only both characters or neither should be dropped, not just one; the Paleocene epoch is the 10 million year time interval directly after the K–Pg extinction event, which ended the Cretaceous Period and the Mesozoic Era, initiated the Cenozoic Era and the Paleogene period.
It is divided into three ages: the Danian spanning 66 to 61.6 million years ago, the Selandian spanning 61.6 to 59.2 mya, the Thanetian spanning 59.2 to 56 mya. It is succeeded by the Eocene; the K–Pg boundary is defined in the fossil record in numerous places around the world by a high-iridium band, as well as discontinuities with fossil flora and fauna. It is thought that a 10 to 15 km wide asteroid impact, forming the Chicxulub Crater in the Yucatán Peninsula in the Gulf of Mexico, Deccan Trap volcanism caused a cataclysmic event at the boundary resulting in the extinction of 75% of all species; the Paleocene ended with the Paleocene–Eocene thermal maximum, a short period of i
Reikou is a cultivar of tangor. It is a citrus hybrid of a hybrid of Murcott tangor; the fruit can be peeled by hand. It has a sugar content of between 12% and 13%, with some fruits reaching 15%; the weight of a fruit is 210 grams large for a tangor, the fruit is reddish-orange colour. It fruits in late January, it does not produce pollen, so it must be pollinated by another species of citrus. Its systematic name is Kankitsu Kuchinotsu 32 Gō after Nagasaki where it was bred, it was hybridized in 1984, with its name registered in 2004 and the variety registered in 2005. The first fruits came on sale in 2007. Keisuke Nonaka. "Genetic Differences and Environmental Variations in Carotenoid Contents of Fruit Flesh in Parental Population Used in Citrus Breeding in Japan". J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 137: 243–9
Tautvydas Eliošius is a Lithuanian professional footballer who plays as an attacking midfielder for the A Lyga side FK Panevėžys. Eliošius made his international debut in November 2014 when he came as substitute in Euro 2016 qualification match against Switzerland. Tautvydas started his career at FK Šiauliai where he trained together with his older brother Tadas Eliošius. In 2009 he broke into the first team and became one of team leaders. Before 2014 season he joined other A Lyga side Kruoja. Midfielder led his team to silver medals, was elected into A Lyga Team of the Year, awarded with A Lyga Goal of the Year. After Kruoja collapsed in 2015, Eliošius joined Lithuanian champions Žalgiris, but he didn't became first team player and was loaned out to Lietava on 15 July 2016. After the season Žalgiris terminated his contract by mutual agreement and Eliošius returned to Jonava as a free agent. Tautvydas Eliošius first call-up to the senior Lithuania squad came in 2014 for the UEFA Euro 2016 qualifying against Switzerland.
Tautvydas Eliošius at National-Football-Teams.com Tautvydas Eliošius at Soccerway