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Paleogene

The Paleogene is a geologic period and system that spans 43 million years from the end of the Cretaceous Period 66 million years ago to the beginning of the Neogene Period 23.03 Mya. It is the beginning of the Cenozoic Era of the present Phanerozoic Eon; the earlier term Tertiary Period was used to define the span of time now covered by the Paleogene and subsequent Neogene periods. The Paleogene is most notable for being the time during which mammals diversified from small, simple forms into a large group of diverse animals in the wake of the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event that ended the preceding Cretaceous Period; the United States Geological Survey uses the abbreviation PE for the Paleogene, but the more used abbreviation is PG with the PE being used for Paleocene. This period consists of the Paleocene and Oligocene epochs; the end of the Paleocene was marked by the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, one of the most significant periods of global change during the Cenozoic, which upset oceanic and atmospheric circulation and led to the extinction of numerous deep-sea benthic foraminifera and on land, a major turnover in mammals.

The term'Paleogene System' is applied to the rocks deposited during the'Paleogene Period'. The global climate during the Paleogene departed from the hot and humid conditions of the late Mesozoic era and began a cooling and drying trend which, despite having been periodically disrupted by warm periods such as the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, persisted until the temperature began to rise again due to the end of the most recent glacial period of the current ice age; the trend was caused by the formation of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, which lowered oceanic water temperatures. A 2018 study estimated that during the early Palaeogene about 56-48 million years ago, annual air temperatures, over land and at mid-latitude, averaged about 23–29 °C, 5–10 °C higher than most previous estimates. Or for comparison, it was 10 to 15 °C higher than current annual mean temperatures in these areas. During the Paleogene, the continents continued to drift closer to their current positions. India was in the process of forming the Himalayas.

The Atlantic Ocean continued to widen by a few centimeters each year. Africa was moving north to meet with Europe and form the Mediterranean Sea, while South America was moving closer to North America. Inland seas retreated from North America early in the period. Australia had separated from Antarctica and was drifting toward Southeast Asia. Mammals began a rapid diversification during this period. After the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, which saw the demise of the non-avian dinosaurs, mammals transformed from a few small and generalized forms that began to evolve into most of the modern varieties we see today; some of these mammals would evolve into large forms that would dominate the land, while others would become capable of living in marine, specialized terrestrial, airborne environments. Those that took to the oceans became modern cetaceans, while those that took to the trees became primates, the group to which humans belong. Birds, which were well established by the end of the Cretaceous experienced adaptive radiation as they took over the skies left empty by the now extinct pterosaurs.

Pronounced cooling in the Oligocene led to a massive floral shift and many extant modern plants arose during this time. Grasses and herbs such as Artemisia began to appear at the expense of tropical plants, which began to decline. Conifer forests developed in mountainous areas; this cooling trend continued, until the end of the Pleistocene. This evidence for this floral shift is found in the palynological record; the Paleogene is notable in the context of offshore oil drilling, in Gulf of Mexico oil exploration, where it is referred to as the "Lower Tertiary". These rock formations represent the current cutting edge of deep-water oil discovery. Lower Tertiary rock formations encountered in the Gulf of Mexico oil industry tend to be comparatively high temperature and high pressure reservoirs with high sand content or under thick evaporite sediment layers. Lower Tertiary explorations include: Kaskida Oil Field Tiber Oil Field Jack 2 Paleogene Microfossils: 180+ images of Foraminifera Paleogene

Sharur-Daralagezsky Uyezd

The Sharur-Daralagezsky Uyezd was an uyezd of the Erivan Governorate of the Caucasus Viceroyalty of the Russian Empire. It bordered the governorate's Erivansky and Novobayazetsky Uyezds to the north, the Nakhichevansky Uyezd to the south, the Zangezursky and Dzhevanshirsky Uyezds of the Elisabethpol Governorate to the east, Persia to the southwest, it included most of the Vayots Dzor Province of present-day Armenia and the Sharur District of the Nakhichevan exclave of present-day Azerbaijan. Its administrative center was the village of Bash-Norashen; the geography of the uyezd resembled a crater surrounded from the south and east by tall mountain ranges of the Lesser Caucasus. The plain, which made up a small part of the uyezd, was close to the Aras River, into which the only river irrigating the plains, the Arpa-chay, discharged; the mountainous part of the territory was called the lowland part was called Sharur. Daralagyoz constituted 70% of the whole uyezd area and Sharur constituted 30% though it included about half of the uyezd's population.

The Arpa-chay started at the southeastern tip of Lake Sevan and flowed 107 versts before discharging into the Aras. It had the Alagyoz-chay being the longest. 12,150 desyatins of the mountainous part of uyezd was forested. The temperature in the winter reached -27 °C; the territory of the uyezd was part of Persia's Erivan and Nakhichevan Khanates until 1828, when according to the Treaty of Turkmenchay, they were annexed to the Russian Empire. It was administered as part of the Armenian Oblast from 1828 to 1840. In 1844, the Caucasus Viceroyalty was re-established, in which the territory of the Sharur-Daralagezsky Uyezd formed part of the Tiflis Governorate. In 1849, the Erivan Governorate was established, separate from the Tiflis Governorate, it was made up of the Erivansky, Aleksandropolsky and Ordubadsky Uyezds. Following administrative reforms, the northern part of the Nakhchivansky Uyezd was separated to form part of the new Sharur-Daralagezsky Uyezd in 1870. In 1918-1920, the uyezd was disputed between the First Republic of Armenia and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic.

After the establishment of Soviet rule in 1920, the territory of the uyezd was divided. Daralagyoz became part of the Armenian SSR and Sharur became part of the Nakhichevan ASSR of the Azerbaijan SSR in accordance with the treaties of Moscow and Kars. According to the 1897 Russian Empire Census, the population of the uyezd was 76,538, of which 51,560 were Tatars, 20,726 were Armenians, 3,761 Kurds; the largest town in the district was Keshishkend in Daralagyoz, which had a total population of 1,307. The administrative center of the district, the village of Bash-Norashen in Sharur, had a total population of 867, of which 597 were Tatars, 132 Armenians, 90 Kurds, 31 East Slavs. Armenians were concentrated in mountainous Daralagyoz, while lowland Sharur was overwhelmingly Tatar; the population in Daralagyoz was engaged in cattlebreeding while the residents of Sharur were engaged in agricultural farming and gardening. Manufacturing was not developed in this part of the governorate. Only 47 winemaking enterprises, 299 mills, 89 cotton-cleaning, 4 rice-cleaning factories existed in the Sharur-Daralagezsky Uyezd

1985 Pacific Conference Games

The 1985 Pacific Conference Games was the fifth and final edition of the international athletics competition between five Pacific coast nations: Australia, Japan, New Zealand and the United States. Like the 1981 edition before it, athletes from beyond the Pacific grouping were allowed to compete at the tournament. A total of 21 men's and 16 women's athletics. One change was made to the event programme: the women's pentathlon was dropped in favour of the heptathlon, mirroring the same change in the Olympic programme which had happened at the 1984 Los Angeles Olympics; the competition was held at the Edwards Stadium in Berkeley, with the United States being the last nation of the five original invited nations to fulfil its duty in hosting the meeting. Sports television channel ESPN broadcast highlights of the competition nationally. MedalistsPacific Conference Games. GBR Athletics. Retrieved on 2015-01-14. Australian results in fullResultsDay 1 partial results Day 1 partial results