Palestine, Texas

Palestine is a city in and the county seat of Anderson County in Texas, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 18,712. Palestine was named for Illinois, by preacher Daniel Parker. Another source says. Palestine is a small town located in the Piney Woods, equidistant from the major cities of Dallas, Houston and Shreveport, Louisiana, it is notable for its natural environment, including the dogwood floral blooming season, for having 23 historical sites on the National Register of Historic Places, as the western terminus of the Texas State Railroad. This steam-and-diesel railroad museum operates tourist trains between Rusk. A trading post was established here about 1843 and some settlers gathered around it. In 1846, the Texas Legislature created Palestine to serve as a seat for the newly established Anderson County. James R. Fulton, Johnston Shelton, William Bigelow were hired by the first Anderson County commissioners to survey the surrounding land and lay out a town site, consisting of a central courthouse square and the surrounding 24 blocks.

During the Reconstruction era, the town's growth was stimulated and timber trade was stimulated when the railroad was constructed through here in the 1870s. It had a population of more than 10,000 by 1898; the International Railroad and the Houston and Great Northern Railroad met in Palestine in 1872 and merged in 1873 to become the International and Great Northern Railroad. The IGN became part of the Missouri Pacific Railroad ultimately Union Pacific Railroad. In 1875, IGN President H. M. Hoxie built the first Victorian mansion there. Successful merchant owners and railroad executives built other elaborate homes along South Sycamore Street; the IGN built a major depot in 1892 and a modern passenger coach shop in 1902, making Palestine an important locomotive and coach location. These shops remained in operation until 1954. At that time, the present facility was built for freight-car repair. Today, the Palestine Car Shop is one of only two car shops on the Union Pacific Railroad that perform major modifications and repairs to freight cars.

The Palestine UP workforce has more than 100 employees. After the Rusk Penitentiary was completed near the city of Rusk, convict labor was used to build the railroad, it transported raw materials to the iron smelter located at the Rusk Penitentiary. In 1906, the line reached Maydelle, by 1909, the line was completed when it reached Palestine. Scheduled train service ceased in 1921; the line was leased to various railroad companies until 1969, when they abandoned it during national restructuring. The Texas Legislature adapted the railroad as a state park in 1972, to be devoted to operating trains that showed some of the state's railroad history; the Texas State Railroad is a state park that allows visitors to ride trains pulled by diesel and steam locomotives between the park's Victorian-style depots and through the forests of East Texas. This short railroad line dates to 1883. In 1914, the county's fifth courthouse was completed, still standing and in use. One of the many historical sites is Sacred Heart Church, designed by Nicholas J. Clayton.

In 1928, oil was discovered at Boggy Creek, east of Palestine, which added to and diversified the town's economy. Palestine became a center for oil-well servicing and supplies in support of other producing fields found elsewhere in Anderson County. Construction of the earth-filled Blackburn Crossing Dam on the Upper Neches River, creating Lake Palestine as a reliable source of water, was begun in 1960, completed in 1962, it was enlarged from 1969 to 1972 to 75 feet high, 5,720 feet long. About 40% of the content from the 2003 Space Shuttle Columbia disaster, in which seven astronauts were killed, were recovered, much of it in the form of debris found in and outside Palestine and other East Texas towns. Palestine's NASA Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility, has flown 1,700 high-altitude balloons for universities and research agencies. On November 15, 2015, a mass shooting took place at a campsite several miles northwest of Palestine, where six people were killed by an intoxicated neighbor upset about losing his family's land.

The shooter was charged with capital murder. He was convicted and sentenced to death by a Brazos County jury on November 15, 2017. Palestine is located near the center of Anderson County at 31°45′29″N 95°38′19″W. Several numbered highways converge on the city, including U. S. Highways 79, 84, 287, plus Texas State Highways 19 and 155. Dallas is 110 miles to the northwest, Houston is 150 miles to the south. Tyler is 47 miles to the northeast. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 19.6 square miles, of which 19.4 square miles are land and 0.19 square miles, or 1.06%, is covered by water. Lake Palestine is a freshwater lake created by the construction of the Blackburn Crossing dam on the Neches River in 1962. A 25,600 acre lake with a total length of 18 miles, 135 miles of shoreline and an average depth of 16.25 ft, it offers an array of freshwater fish species including bass and catfish. The Upper Neches River Municipal Water Authority operates Lake Palestine; the City of Palestine has a water contract for 25 million gallons of water per day, served by a channel dam, 13 miles of pipeline, a water treatment plant which the city operates for water coming into the city.

Palestine is at a crossroads of several arterial highways: U. S. Highway 79 from Austin to the Southwest and continues on to Shreveport to th

World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates

The World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates is a monthly report published by the United States Department of Agriculture providing comprehensive forecast of supply and demand for major crops and livestock. The report provides an analysis of the fundamental condition of the agricultural commodity markets for the use of farmers and other market participants; the WASDE report is compiled using information from a number of statistical reports produced by the USDA and other government agencies. It is considered to be the benchmark to which all other private and public agricultural forecasts are compared; the recent releases of the WASDE report provide forecasts covering: Crops including wheat, corn, barley, soybeans and sugar. Livestock including meat animals and dairy; the WASDE report is released between the 8th and 12th of each month at 12:00 noon Eastern Time. It is available in electronic form and can be downloaded from the USDA website from the time of release. Subscription to the report can be made through the Albert R. Mann Library for delivery by e-mail shortly after release on the Internet.

As a work of the United States government, the WASDE reports are released into the public domain in accordance with U. S. copyright law, 17 U. S. C. § 105. Predecessor publications date back to the 19th century. In 1893, the USDA Division of Statistics published Production and distribution of the principal agricultural products of the world, a miscellaneous report representing several months of work in compiling the first overview of production of major crops around the world. Subsequent such reports appeared irregularly, evolved by the 1960s into commodity-oriented circulars published at regular intervals by USDA agencies; the first direct predecessor of the WASDE report was released on September 17, 1973, as the Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates. It was focused on supply and trade in the United States. On October 14, 1980, the report was released for the first time as the World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates and it was the first report to provide categorized estimates for the world, US, total foreign, major importers and major exporters.

Estimates for individual countries were first included in the report released on January 11, 1985. United States Department of Agriculture Agriculture in the United States United States Department of Agriculture and public domain policy. World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates Website Albert R. Mann Library Archive of Historical WASDE Reports Video: "How the WASDE Report Is Prepared" U. S. Department of Agriculture Rich Allen, "Safeguarding America's Agricultural Statistics" U. S. Department of Agriculture, April 2007 "Understanding USDA Crop Forecasts" U. S. Department of Agriculture

Sotos syndrome

Sotos syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by excessive physical growth during the first years of life. Excessive growth starts in infancy and continues into the early teen years; the disorder may be accompanied by autism, mild intellectual disability, delayed motor and social development and speech impairments. Children with Sotos syndrome tend to be large at birth and are taller and have large skulls than is normal for their age. Signs of the disorder, which vary among individuals, include a disproportionately large skull with a protrusive forehead, large hands and feet, large mandible and downslanting eyes. Clumsiness, an awkward gait, unusual aggressiveness or irritability may occur. Although most cases of Sotos syndrome occur sporadically, familial cases have been reported, it is similar to Weaver syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by overgrowth and advanced bone age. Affected individuals are dysmorphic, with macrodolichocephaly, downslanting palpebral fissures and a pointed chin.

The facial appearance is most notable in early childhood. Affected infants and children tend to grow quickly. Adult height is in the normal range, although Broc Brown has the condition and was named the world's tallest teenager; as of late 2016, he was 7'8" and still growing. Individuals with Sotos syndrome have intellectual impairment, most display autistic traits. Frequent behavioral impairments include attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder and impulsive behaviors. Problems with speech and language are common. Affected individuals may have stuttering, difficulty with sound production, or a monotone voice. Additionally, weak muscle tone may delay other aspects of early development motor skills such as sitting and crawling. Other signs include scoliosis, heart or kidney defects, hearing loss, problems with vision; some infants with this disorder experience poor feeding. A small number of patients with Sotos syndrome have developed cancer, most in childhood, but no single form of cancer has been associated with this condition.

It remains uncertain. If persons with this disorder have any increased cancer risk, their risk is only greater than that of the general population. Mutations in the NSD1 gene cause Sotos syndrome; the NSD1 gene provides instructions for making a protein, involved in normal growth and development. The function of this protein is unknown, however. In the Japanese population, the most common genetic change leading to Sotos syndrome deletes genetic material from the region of chromosome 5 containing the NSD1 gene. In other populations, small mutations within the NSD1 gene occur more frequently. Genetic changes involving the NSD1 gene prevent one copy of the gene from producing any functional protein, it is unclear how a reduced amount of this protein during development leads to learning disabilities and the other features of Sotos syndrome. About 95 percent of Sotos syndrome cases occur by spontaneous mutation. Most of these cases result from new mutations involving the NSD1 gene. A few families have been described with more than one affected family member.

These inherited cases enabled researchers to determine that Sotos syndrome has an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. Diagnosis is based on physical examination. There are no biochemical markers for the disease. Treatment is symptomatic. There is no standard course of treatment for Sotos syndrome. Sotos syndrome is not a life-threatening disorder and patients may have a normal life expectancy. Developmental delays may improve in the school-age years. Incidence is 1 in 14,000 births. Perlman syndrome Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome sotos at NIH/UW GeneTests