The Palestinian people referred to as Palestinians or Palestinian Arabs, are an ethnonational group comprising the modern descendants of the peoples who have lived in Palestine continuously over the centuries and who today are culturally and linguistically Arab. Despite various wars and exoduses one half of the world's Palestinian population continues to reside in historic Palestine, the area encompassing the West Bank, the Gaza Strip and Israel. In this combined area, as of 2005, Palestinians constituted 49% of all inhabitants, encompassing the entire population of the Gaza Strip, the majority of the population of the West Bank and 20.95% of the population of Israel proper as Arab citizens of Israel. Many are Palestinian refugees or internally displaced Palestinians, including more than a million in the Gaza Strip, about 750,000 in the West Bank and about 250,000 in Israel proper. Of the Palestinian population who live abroad, known as the Palestinian diaspora, more than half are stateless, lacking citizenship in any country.
Between 2.1 and 3.24 million of the diaspora population live in neighboring Jordan, over 1 million live between Syria and Lebanon and about 750,000 live in Saudi Arabia, with Chile's half a million representing the largest concentration outside the Middle East. Palestinian Christians and Muslims constituted 90% of the population of Palestine in 1919, just before the third wave of Jewish immigration under the post-WW1 British Mandatory Authority, opposition to which spurred the consolidation of a unified national identity, fragmented as it was by regional, class and family differences; the history of a distinct Palestinian national identity is a disputed issue amongst scholars. Legal historian Assaf Likhovski states that the prevailing view is that Palestinian identity originated in the early decades of the 20th century, when an embryonic desire among Palestinians for self-government in the face of generalized fears that Zionism would lead to a Jewish state and the dispossession of the Arab majority crystallised among most editors and Muslim, of local newspapers.
"Palestinian" was used to refer to the nationalist concept of a Palestinian people by Palestinian Arabs in a limited way until World War I. After the creation of the State of Israel, the exodus of 1948 and more so after the exodus of 1967, the term came to signify not only a place of origin but the sense of a shared past and future in the form of a Palestinian state. Modern Palestinian identity now encompasses the heritage of all ages from biblical times up to the Ottoman period. Founded in 1964, the Palestine Liberation Organization is an umbrella organization for groups that represent the Palestinian people before international states; the Palestinian National Authority established in 1994 as a result of the Oslo Accords, is an interim administrative body nominally responsible for governance in Palestinian population centers in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Since 1978, the United Nations has observed an annual International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian People. According to Perry Anderson, it is estimated that half of the population in the Palestinian territories are refugees and that they have collectively suffered US$300 billion in property losses due to Israeli confiscations, at 2008–09 prices.
The Greek toponym Palaistínē, with which the Arabic Filastin is cognate, first occurs in the work of the 5th century BCE Greek historian Herodotus, where it denotes the coastal land from Phoenicia down to Egypt. Herodotus employs the term as an ethnonym, as when he speaks of the'Syrians of Palestine' or'Palestinian-Syrians', an ethnically amorphous group he distinguishes from the Phoenicians. Herodotus makes other inhabitants of Palestine; the Greek word reflects an ancient Eastern Mediterranean-Near Eastern word, used either as a toponym or ethnonym. In Ancient Egyptian Peleset/Purusati has been conjectured to refer to the "Sea Peoples" the Philistines. Among Semitic languages, Akkadian Palaštu is used of 7th-century Philistia and its, by four city states. Biblical Hebrew's cognate word Plištim, is translated Philistines. Syria Palestina continued to be used by historians and geographers and others to refer to the area between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River, as in the writings of Philo and Pliny the Elder.
After the Romans adopted the term as the official administrative name for the region in the 2nd century CE, "Palestine" as a stand-alone term came into widespread use, printed on coins, in inscriptions and in rabbinic texts. The Arabic word Filastin has been used to refer to the region since the time of the earliest medieval Arab geographers, it appears to have been used as an Arabic adjectival noun in the region since as early as the 7th century CE. The Arabic newspaper Falasteen, published in Jaffa by Issa and Yusef al-Issa, addressed its readers as "Palestinians". During the Mandatory Palestine period, the term "Palestinian" was used to refer to all people residing there, regardless of religion or ethnicity, those granted citizenship by the British Mandatory authorities were granted "Palestinian citizenship". Other examples include the use of the term Palestine Regiment to refer to the Jewish Infantry Brigade Group of the British Army during World War I
Stacy Earl is a female dance/pop singer. She is best known for her singles "Love Me All Up" and "Romeo & Juliet", both of which hit the Top 40 of the Billboard Hot 100 in 1992. Earl, who grew up in Newton, released her self-titled debut album on RCA Records in January 1992; the album featured two Top 40 singles: "Love Me All Up", which peaked at #26, "Romeo & Juliet", which hit #27. A third single, "Slowly", peaked at #52; the album featured production work by Glen Ballard, Walter Afanasieff, Oliver Leiber, Michael Sembello and among others. The remixes of "Love Me All Up", produced by Dave Shaw and Winston Jones, were popular in clubs; the remixes were released commercially on vinyl only. Promo CD pressings of the single featured the remixes and included one additional mix, not on the 12" single. Remixes for the vinyl single of "Romeo & Juliet" were produced by Oliver Leiber, who produced the album version. "Slowly" was never remixed. In 1993, Earl released a new song, "Blood from a Stone", recorded for and featured in the movie Untamed Heart starring Christian Slater and Marisa Tomei.
"Blood from a Stone" was produced by John "Jellybean" Benitez. Although the commercial soundtrack release did not feature the song, the song was released by RCA on cassette single; the cassette featured an additional unreleased Stacy Earl song called "The World Is Not a Stranger" on the B-side. A 1-track CD promo single of "Blood from a Stone" was shipped to radio outlets, but no CD incarnation of the song was released commercially. In 2006, Earl had a cameo role in the independent film "Crazy". In one of the scenes, Earl performs the Hank Williams classic "Honky Tonk Blues" on stage. In 2009, Stacy Earl returned to music again and recorded two songs for the soundtrack for the movie "The Fifth Quarter":"Live and Breathe" and "When It Came to Losing You". Music videos for both can be found online. Stacy Earl on IMDb Website for the film "Crazy" Official Myspace site
Frank Ocean and his music have received many award nominations and wins. As of February 2017, he won a Soul Train and UK Music Award. In addition, he earned accolades from GQ, NME, Vibe magazines, as well as the BBC and mtvU; the Attitude Magazine. The annual awards are dedicated to honouring those who inspire and make change, making LGBT+ lives easier and entertain. Attitude Awards winners are those who use their platform to show how talented and diverse the LGBT+ community is, whether they identify as LGBT+ or not, take the time to fight our corner. Ocean has received one award from one nomination; the BET Hip Hop Awards are hosted annually by BET for hip hop performers and music video directors. Ocean has received two nominations; the Billboard Music Awards honor artists for commercial performance in the U. S. based on record charts published by Billboard. The awards are based on sales data by Nielsen SoundScan and radio information by Nielsen Broadcast Data Systems; the award ceremony was held from 1990 to 2007, until its reintroduction in 2011.
Before and after that time span, winners have been announced by Billboard, both in the press and as part of their year-end issue. Ocean has received four nominations; the Brit Awards are the British Phonographic Industry's annual pop music awards, the British equivalent to the American Grammy Award. Ocean has received one award from one nomination; the GLAAD Media Awards were created in 1990 by the Gay & Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation to "recognize and honor media for their fair and inclusive representations of the LGBT community and the issues that affect their lives." Ocean has received one award from two nominations. The Grammis Awards are the Swedish equivalent of the Grammy Awards. Ocean has received one nomination; the Grammy Awards are awarded annually by the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. Ocean has received two awards from seven nominations; the HipHopDX Awards are annual year-end awards hosted by online Hip-Hop magazine HipHopDX. The Los Premios 40 Principales is an award presented by the musical radio station Los 40 Principales.
It was created in 2006 to celebrate their fortieth anniversary. Ocean has received one nomination; the Music of Black Origin Awards were established in 1996 by Kanya King. They are held annually in the United Kingdom to recognize artists of any race or nationality performing music of black origin. Ocean has received two nominations; the MTV Video Music Awards were established in 1984 by MTV to celebrate the top music videos of the year. Ocean has received three nominations; the MTV Video Music Awards Japan is the Japanese version of the MTV Video Music Awards. Japan was part of the MTV Asia Awards, which were part all Asian countries, but because of the musical variety existent in Japan, a factor that neighboring countries have not, in May 2002 they began to hold their own awards independently. Ocean has received one nomination. MtvU is an American digital cable television network, owned by Viacom Music and Entertainment Group, a unit of the Viacom Media Networks division of Viacom. In addition to distribution on conventional cable systems, the channel is available to more than 750 college and university campuses across the United States as part of internally originated cable systems that are a part of on-campus housing or college closed-circuit television systems.
Ocean has received one award from one nomination. MtvU, a division of MTV Networks owned by Viacom, broadcasts a 24-hour television channel available on more than 750 college and university campuses across the United States. MtvU holds an annual awards show, the mtvU Woodie Awards, in which winners are determined by online voting. Ocean has received two nominations; the NME Awards is an annual music awards show in the United Kingdom, founded by the music magazine, NME. The first awards show was held in 1953 as the NME Poll Winners Concerts, shortly after the founding of the magazine. Though the accolades given are genuine, the ceremony itself is carried out in a humorous and jovial manner. Ocean has received one award from one nomination; the MTV O Music Awards is one of the major annual awards established by MTV to honor the art, creativity and technology of music into the digital space. Ocean has received three nominations; the Q Award is a United Kingdom's annual music awards run by the music magazine Q to honor musical excellence.
Winners are voted with others decided by a judging panel. Ocean has received one nomination; the Soul Train Music Awards is an annual award show aired in national broadcast syndication that honors the best in African American music and entertainment established in 1987. Ocean has received one award from two nominations; the UK Music Video Awards is an annual award ceremony founded in 2008 to recognise creativity, technical excellence and innovation in music videos and moving images for music. Ocean has received one award from two nominations. Vibe is an American entertainment magazine founded by producer Quincy Jones; the publication predominantly features R&B and hip-hop music artists and other entertainers. The magazine's target demographic is predominantly urban followers of hip-hop culture. Ocean has received one award from one nomination; the Webby Award is an award for excellence on the Internet presented annually by The International Academy of Digital Arts and Sciences. Categories include websites, interactive advertising, online film and video, mobile.
Ocean has received one award from one nomination
Robert Forde was an Antarctic explorer and member of the Terra Nova Expedition under Captain Robert Falcon Scott from 1910–1912. Robert Forde was born in rural parish of Moviddy near Bandon 16 miles from Ireland, his father's name was his mother's was Charity. George and Charity Forde married in 1859 in Co.. Cork, his mother was born in 1836. Forde was the youngest of three children. Sarah Forde was born in 1867 and his brother John Forde was born in 1874. In 1901 Charity, now a widow, her children lived in Teadies, Co. Cork. By 1911 she had relocated with Sarah her eldest child to Co.. Cork. Forde was a Protestant and he lived near Kilmurry, he was related to the legendary car maker' Henry Forde'. At the age of sixteen, he had joined the Royal Navy, 1891, rising to the rank of Petty Officer 1st Class; this was from his hard work. On 16 April 1910 at 35 years old and as Petty Officer he volunteered to take part in Robert Falcon Scott's second expedition, The British Antarctic Expedition 1910-1913. Forde was one of a number of Irishmen who took part, including Tom Crean and another Corkman, Patrick Keohane.
Forde was part of a group which headed out from Cape Evans in January 1911 to explore the polar capes. Forde took part in two depot laying journeys. During the Western Party journey, he was sledge master, led by Griffith Taylor in 1911; the Terra Nova expedition undertook an extensive survey of the Antarctic from 1911-1913. Forde and his companions had the responsibility of examining the area around Ross Island and the Polar Plateau; this is the reason behind the glacier being called Mount Forde in the Victoria Land. Temperatures dropped as low as -62C leaving Forde to return home due his hand being frostbitten. By March 1912 Forde was suffering so badly, his hands were saved and he was brought back to New Zealand in April 1912. As a result, he did not participate on the fatal attempt on the South Pole, he was missed by his team. Scott's logs of the expedition stated that he missed Forde when he was gone - "no one who could replace him,"; when he returned home he was able to serve in the Royal Navy at the height of the First World War.
He served on number of ships. He received a promotion to chief petty officer, he was assigned to his former ship ‘HMS’ vivid in October 1913. His job in World War one was to serve on several vessels He survived the war and remained in the Royal Navy 17 February 1920 when he returned to Cobh, Co. Cork. Cobh, Co. Cork was; until his death he wore a glove to protect his hand from the effects of the severe frostbite he had suffered half a century before hand. On 15 June 1910, The Terra Nova left Cardiff; some 8000 people volunteered to take part in this expedition. It was traveling via Cape Town to New Zealand. On 19 November 1910, they left Port Chalmers, it reached Ross Island on 4 January 1911 after coming in contact with severe storms and heavy pack ice. A shore party of 34 spent two seasons exploring around the Ross Island Shelf, they were unable to reach the old Discovery hut at Hut Point. Scott started to unload the same day. One of the expedition’s three experimental motor sledges was lost in the process, plunging through the sea ice.
The Terra Nova left on 26 January carrying a four-man team headed for the Victoria Land mountains opposite Ross island, six-man Eastern Party under Lt Victor Campbell. The Victoria Land Party included the geologists Thomas Griffith Taylor ad Frank Debenhams, the physicist Charles Wright, PO Edgar Evans, it investigated the geology and glaciology of the McMurdo dry valleys and the Taylor and Koettlitz Glaciers, returning to Hut Point on 14 March. A geologist is a scientist who studies the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the Earth as well as the processes and history that have shaped it; the Terra Nova left Cape Evans with the remains of the expedition on 19 January 1903. They arrived to telegraph the news of Scott’s death on 10 February 1913. Captain Scott, whose full name was Robert Falcon Scott was the Captain of the Terra Nova. On this expedition Captain Scott was nicknamed' The Skipper'. While on this expedition with Forde, Robert Scott wrote numerous diaries on the South Pole; this was published in 1913 as Scotts Expedition.
In January 1912 Captain Scott and the remaining men on his team reached the South Pole. They had been covered 960 statute miles. Scott died on his way back from the expedition from exposure, he and the rest of the team had been dead eight months. Forde’s role in the expedition led to his promotion to Chief Petty Officer on board HMS Vivid, he served on her and several other British ships during World War 1. After demobilisation he retired to Cobh, still known as Queenstown and was a major naval port for the British in Ireland, he died there in March 1959. He is remembered by the naming of Mount Forde, a monumental peak of over 1,200 metres at the head of Hunt Glacier in Victoria Land Antarctica. Robert Forde is buried at Cobh in his native County Cork. In March 2009, on the 50th Anniversary of his death, a Memorial was unveiled to Forde by The Robert Forde Memorial Committee in The Promenade, Cobh; the rough hewn granite stone faces out to Cork Harbour and has a bronze plaque showing Forde with his sled.
A Plaque was unve
Moses Matovu is a Ugandan musician and saxophonist. He is one of the founders of Afrigo Band, Uganda's longest-lasting band, founded in 1975. Matovu was born on 19 June 1949 in Kampala District; when his parents separated, he moved with his mother at the age of five. He spent most of his childhood with his mother, he attended Namirembe Primary School and Kibuli Secondary School. Matovu has been in Uganda's music industry for close to 45 years, he started out in "Thunderbirds Band" in 1967 as a vocalist. From there, he joined the Police Band in 1968 and "Cranes Band" in 1969 before he and other friends formed Afrigo Band in 1974, he has been performing with the band since and is its leader, as of February 2015. Some of the records and albums he has released are with Afrigo band: 2012 Interview With Afrigo's Moses Matovu
Manuel da Maia was a Portuguese architect and archivist. Maia is remembered for his leadership in the reconstruction efforts following the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, alongside Eugénio dos Santos and Carlos Mardel. Maia served as Regent of the Aula de Fortificação, a Lisbon academy for military engineering and architecture. Here he taught King Joseph I of Portugal. During his tenure as regent, he oversaw fortification works throughout the Estremadura province, from 1703 to 1704. On 12 November 1745, Maia was appointed High-Guardian of the Torre do Tombo, Portugal’s central archive and precious works repository. In 1747, Maia participated in the construction of the new building for the Queen Leonor of Viseu Thermal Hospital, in Caldas da Rainha, executing plans made by Eugénio dos Santos. Owing to his successful career by Maia was made High-Engineer of the Kingdom, in 1754. Alongside this prestigious position, he was made a general in the Portuguese army and a Fidalgo in the Royal Household. Following his appointment, Maia began management on the construction of the Águas Livres Aqueduct, an important public work of the epoch.
Following the events of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the city’s total destruction, Maia took responsibility for coordinating the reconstruction effort of the city. His and Eugénio dos Santos’ designs for the rebuilt Lisbon Baixa are considered some of the earliest enlightened and rational city planning designs in modern Western history. Maia was responsible for saving the contents of the Torre do Tombo, following the earthquake. At 75 years old, Maia led the safe-guarding team to São Jorge Castle, where the archives were located, saved nearly 90,000 pieces, accumulated between 1161 and 1696, he ordered the construction of provisionary barracks to store the contents of the archives and made a request to Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, King Joseph I’s prime-minister, for a new permanent home for the archives, which would be granted to him in the form of the Convent of São Bento