Paley Center for Media

The Paley Center for Media the Museum of Television & Radio and the Museum of Broadcasting, founded in 1975 by William S. Paley, is an American cultural institution in New York and Los Angeles dedicated to the discussion of the cultural and social significance of television and emerging platforms for the professional community and media-interested public, it was renamed The Paley Center for Media on June 5, 2007, to encompass emerging broadcasting technologies such as the Internet, mobile video, podcasting, as well as to expand its role as a neutral setting where media professionals can engage in discussion and debate about the evolving media landscape. With an ever-growing collection of content broadcast on radio and television, the Paley Center has two branches; the New York City branch is in the heart of Midtown Manhattan at 25 West 52nd Street between 5th and 6th Avenues. The Los Angeles branch is located at 465 N Beverly Drive in Beverly Hills, near Rodeo Drive; the original Museum of Broadcasting, founded in 1975 with a $2 million gift by William S. Paley, opened in Manhattan on November 9, 1976, occupying two floors in an office building at 1 East 53rd Street, near the corner of 53rd Street and Fifth Avenue.

This was adjacent to the Doubleday Book Store on Fifth Avenue. The Museum of Broadcasting's name was changed to The Museum of Television & Radio with the September 12, 1991 move into the William S. Paley Building. Designed by Philip Johnson and located at 25 West 52nd Street, the 16-story building was itself renamed The Paley Center for Media in 2007, it has two front entrances: the one on the left is for office staff, the main entrance on the right for the general public. The Alexander Mackendrick film Sweet Smell of Success has an exterior location scene with different angles revealing how the neighborhood looked in the years before the building was constructed; the ground-level floor of the New York museum features the ticket and information area and the Steven Spielberg Gallery, used for exhibitions and fund-raising events. Reservations to use the Library are made at the front desk. In addition to the elevator, a staircase on the first floor leads down to the large basement-level theater.

The fourth floor has numerous computers, used by visitors to locate programming in the collection. When a selection is made, it can be watched on the computer. Computers are available both for groups; the Museum of Television & Radio in Los Angeles at 465 North Beverly Drive in Beverly Hills, opened March 18, 1996 in a new building designed by Richard Meier and named for Leonard H. Goldenson; when the Los Angeles building opened, it featured a collection duplicated from the tapes in the New York collection. Rooms are named for the celebrity sponsors: the Danny Thomas Lobby, the Aaron Spelling Reception Area and the Garry Marshall Pool. Screenings are held in the 150-seat John H. Mitchell Theatre; the Ahmanson Radio Listening Room has headphones for use with five pre-programmed channels. The Paley Center for Media is committed to the idea that many television and radio programs are significant works and should be preserved for posterity's sake. Instead of collecting artifacts and memorabilia, the Paley Center comprises screening rooms, including two full-sized theaters.

Nearly 160,000 television shows and radio programs are available in the Paley Center's library, during each visit, viewers can select and watch shows at individual consoles, radio programs are accessed through these same consoles. Some television programs are from the 1940s with radio programs dating back to the 1920s; the earliest TV program in the Museum's collection is a silent film of NBC's 1939 production of Dion Boucicault's melodrama The Streets of New York, with Norman Lloyd, George Coulouris, Jennifer Jones. The museum does not permit it to leave the premises. Viewing copies of television programs are Hi-8mm; the originals are kept in a vault outside of New York City, the collection is being digitized. The Paley Center has acquired many lost episodes of classic television shows and has produced documentary features about the history and impact of television and radio. In recent years, the Center has sponsored advance viewing of the pilot episodes of each network's new programs. Television and radio shows are added to the collection after archival discoveries and through donations from individuals and organizations.

In 2002, the Museum held a showing of the unseen rehearsal film of Rodgers and Hammerstein's Cinderella telecast from March 17, 1957. This rehearsal was found in the CBS vault while the Museum was on a quest for other "lost" Cinderella materials, it had been believed that on the night of the live broadcast the show was preserved on both kinescope and videotape and transmitted to the West Coast. Seeking either of these, Jane Klain, the Director of Research at the New York facility, asked CBS to search their vaults; the CBS database listed three 16mm films featuring five-minute segments of Julie Andrews performing in the show. When the earliest one was brought from the CBS vault, it was discovered to be the full dress rehearsal; the Center is known for its many discoveries involving daytime game shows. Episodes of destroyed shows such as High Rollers, Celebrity Sweepstakes, The Money Maze, the Chuck Woolery version of Wheel of Fortune, To Say the Least, daytime Hollywood Squares episodes are all available for viewing in the library.

Episodes of other game shows such as Tattletales, Let's Make a Deal, The Gong Show are in the library. Seminars and interviews with public figures are conducted all of which are reco


Posadnik and the current, serving posadnik was known as the "stepennyi" posadnik. In accordance with the reform of 1416-1417, the number of posadniks was increased threefold and stepennyi posadniks were to be elected for a six-month period. In this manner, the various boyar clans could share power and one or another of them would neither monopolize power or be left out if they lost an election. It, diluted power in the boyarstvo; some scholars have argued that the Archbishop of Novgorod became the head of the Republic and stood above the fray of partisan politics that raged among the boyardom, but the archbishops seem to have shared power with the boyardom and the collective leadership tried to rule by consensus. The dilution of boyar power may, have weakened Novgorod in the 15th century, thus explaining the series of defeats it suffered at Moscow's hands and the eventual fall of independent Novgorod; the posadnikdom was abolished along with the veche when Grand Prince Ivan III of Moscow took the city in 1478.

In fact, upon being asked by Archbishop Feofil on behalf of the Novgorodians what type of government he wanted, Ivan told them "there will be no veche bell in our patrimony of Novgorod. There were 78 known posadniks in Pskov between 1308 and 1510; the posadnichestvo was abolished in Pskov in 1510 when Grand Prince Vasily III took direct control of the city

San Juan Skyway

The San Juan Skyway is an All-American Road and a component in the Colorado Scenic and Historic Byway System. It forms a 233.0-mile loop in the southwest part of the U. S. state of Colorado traversing the heart of the San Juan Mountains. It parallels the routes of the narrow gauge railways: Rio Grande Southern, its origin can be traced to the Around the Circle Route promoted by the D&RG. Starting in Durango, the largest city on San Juan Skyway, the byway follows U. S. Highway 160 west through the town of Mancos to Cortez passing the entrance to Mesa Verde National Park; the byway turns north at Cortez, following State Highway 145 through the town of Dolores and the Dolores River into the San Juan National Forest. The byway passes through Rico, county seat of Dolores County prior to 1941; the old Courthouse still remains. From Rico the byway enters the Uncompahgre National Forest. Lizard Head Pass provides views of the 14,159-foot El Diente Peak, the 14,246-foot Mount Wilson, the 14,017-foot Wilson Peak and the pass's namesake, the 13,113-foot Lizard Head Peak.

The byway descends near the town of Ophir past the location of the Ophir Loop of the Rio Grande Southern Railroad. A spur road heads off to the mining town turned ski resort of Telluride; the byway follows the San Miguel River to the town of Placerville. The byway follows it over Dallas Divide. There are many excellent views of the San Juan Mountains of the mountains around the 14,150-foot Mount Sneffels. From top of the divide the byway descends into the town of Ridgway; the entire route of the byway from Durango to Ridgway follows the route of the Rio Grande Southern Railroad. From Ridgway, the byway turns south onto US 550 following the Uncompahgre River into the Victorian mining town of Ouray; the highway is referred to as the Million Dollar Highway from Ouray south back to Durango. For the first 7.0 miles south of Ouray the byway follows through the Uncompahgre Gorge. Just past the only tunnel on the route, just south of Ouray, the road crosses over Bear Creek Falls on a bridge at the location of an impassable toll booth on the original road.

The Alpine Loop National Back Country Byway, a four wheel drive jeep road, takes off in the gorge south of Bear Creek Falls. Before leaving the gorge the byway passes through a snow shed under the Riverside Slide avalanche zone. A monument stands near here honoring those who have lost their lives in the avalanche, including several snowplow operators. At this point the byway enters a nice flat valley in contrast to the gorge; the road ascends several switchbacks, or S-curves, past the Idarado mining operation to the 11,018-foot summit of Red Mountain Pass, providing views of Red Mountain and several ghost towns. Back into the San Juan National Forest the highway descends through the Chattanooga Valley to Silverton. From Silverton the byway passes over the 10,910-foot Molas Pass and the 10,640-foot Coal Bank Pass, descending past the ski resort of Purgatory Resort. From Hermosa, the road parallels the Durango and Silverton narrow gauge railroad before returning to Durango; the San Juan Skyway was designated as a National Forest Scenic Byway in September 1988.

It was named a Colorado Scenic and Historic Byway in 1989 and an All-American Road in September 1996. Colorado's Scenic and History Byways - San Juan Skyway