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Palisades Interstate Parkway

The Palisades Interstate Parkway is a 38.25-mile-long limited-access highway in the U. S. states of New York. The parkway is a major commuter route into New York City from Rockland and Orange counties in New York and Bergen County in New Jersey; the southern terminus of the route is at the George Washington Bridge in Fort Lee, New Jersey, where it connects to Interstate 95, U. S. Route 1–9, US 46 and Route 4, its northern terminus is at a traffic circle in Fort Montgomery, New York, where the PIP meets US 9W and US 202 at the Bear Mountain Bridge. At exit 18, the PIP forms a concurrency with US 6 for the remaining duration of its run; the route is named for the New Jersey Palisades, a line of cliffs rising along the western side of the Hudson River. The PIP is designated, but not signed as Route 445 in New Jersey and New York State Route 987C, an unsigned reference route, in New York; as with most parkways in the New York metropolitan area, commercial traffic is prohibited from using the PIP. The Palisades Interstate Parkway was built from 1947–1958, opened to traffic on August 28, 1958.

The mainline of the parkway is designated as Route 445 in NY 987C in New York. The latter is one of New York's reference routes. A 0.42-mile spur connecting the parkway to US 9W in Fort Lee, New Jersey, is designated Route 445S. All three designations used only for inventory purposes; the parkway is owned and maintained by the Palisades Interstate Park Commission but occasional maintenance is performed by the New Jersey and New York state departments of transportation. Commercial vehicles are prohibited on the entire length of the Palisades Interstate Parkway; the speed limit on the highway used to be 50 mph south of the New York State Thruway and 55 mph north of it. As of October 2018, it is 55 mph for the entire length; the Palisades Interstate Parkway begins at the George Washington Bridge in New Jersey. Passengers from the upper level of the GWB can directly get on the PIP northbound, while passengers from the lower level of the bridge must travel through GWB Plaza on US 9W before getting on the parkway.

Passengers riding northbound on the New Jersey Turnpike must be in local lanes to directly get on the PIP. Once the PIP leaves the GWB, it proceeds north along the New Jersey Palisades, past the Englewood Cliffs Service Area. Unlike service areas further north along the parkway, there are two in Englewood, one for northbound drivers and one for southbound drivers; the others are in the center median shared by drivers going in both directions. There are three different scenic lookout points over the Palisades near the northern tip of the island of Manhattan at the Harlem River. After this, the PIP parallels the Hudson River for its entire run in New Jersey. All four exits in New Jersey are either within mere feet of the route; the PIP leaves New Jersey into New York in the borough of Rockleigh. The entire New Jersey portion of the Palisades Interstate Parkway is within Bergen County, it is designated as a state scenic byway known as the Palisades Scenic Byway. The PIP, the New Jersey Turnpike, Interstate 676 are the only highways that use sequential exit numbering in New Jersey.

The Palisades enters Rockland County in the hamlet of Palisades. At about the border the PIP changes direction from due north along the Hudson River to a north-west direction. Shortly after the Kings Ferry Service Area in the center median, the first two exits in New York are key exits for two colleges in Rockland County. Exit 5 provides a link to St. Thomas Aquinas College, exit 6 provides a link to Dominican College. In West Nyack, the PIP has a key interchange with the New York State Thruway; this intersection is about seven miles west of the Tappan Zee Bridge. After the PIP's interchange with the NY Thruway, the PIP turns north-east. At exit 13, the PIP intersects US 202 as the route crosses south of Harriman State Park in Mount Ivy; this is the first of two meetings between the PIP and US 202. At exit 15, the PIP has its last busy intersection in Rockland County with County Route 106 in Stony Point. From here, the PIP enters Harriman State Park, at exit 16, the PIP intersects Lake Welch Parkway, one of several parkways commissioned within the park.

The Palisades enters Orange County north of Lake Welch Parkway at exit 16 and south of the Palisades Interstate Park Commission Visitor Center, located in the center median in what was a parkway service area. The first interchange in Orange County is exit 17 at Anthony Wayne Recreation Area. At exit 18, the PIP intersects Seven Lakes Drive. US 6 west heads toward the NY 17 five miles west in Harriman. US 6 east forms the PIP's only concurrency for the last two miles of the PIP's run. Seven Lakes Drive joins the two routes for one mile before departing at exit 19; the two routes enter Bear Mountain State Park in an eastern direction. The Palisades Interstate Parkway meets its end at US 9W and US 202 at a traffic circle inches from the Hudson River and the Bear Mountain Bridge. US 6 and US 202 head east over the bridge, while US 9W heads north toward the United States Military Academy in West Point. In 1933–34, the first thoughts of a Palisades Interstate Parkway were developed by engineer and environmentalist William A. Welch, general manager and chief engineer of the Palisades Interstate Park Commission

Ras il-Wardija

Ras il-Wardija is a promontory in the limits of San Lawrenz, on the southwest coast of Gozo, Malta. It contains the remains of a Punic-Roman sanctuary, excavated by Italian archaeologists in the 1960s; the area is owned and it is in a dilapidated state. Ras il-Wardija was first inhabited in the Bronze Age, in around 1500 BC. In around the 3rd century BC, during the Punic period, a religious complex was established in the area. Since the site is visible from the sea, it might have served as a beacon for ships travelling between the Maltese Islands and North Africa; the site remained in use throughout the Roman period. Carved crosses on the walls suggest that the site became a Christian place of worship; the site remained in use until around the 4th century AD. A hermitage might have existed in the area during the medieval period; the main structural elements of the site are: a rock-hewn rectangular chamber, with a number of niches in the walls a T-shaped rock-hewn corridor leading to the chamber a water reservoir and a bell-shaped well, both rock-hewn the remains of an external masonry structure including an altarThe masonry structure has some similarities to the remains of the Punic-Roman sanctuary at Tas-Silġ in Marsaxlokk.

The area around Ras il-Wardija was used for defensive purposes during World War II. The site was first excavated by the Missione Archaeologica Italiana a Malta between 1964 and 1967; the temple was well preserved until the excavations. On 30 March 1988, it was discovered that an ancient graffito carved on one of the walls of the sanctuary had been stolen; the graffito shows a human figure with outstretched arms, in the shape of a cross. It has been suggested that the figure represents the Punic goddess Tanit, but it might be a medieval representation of a Christian cross; the graffito was recovered in June 2011, it is now on display at the Gozo Museum of Archaeology in the Cittadella. The land on which the sanctuary is located is owned by George Spiteri, permission may be required in order to access the site, it is listed on the National Inventory of the Cultural Property of the Maltese Islands. Media related to Ras il-Wardija at Wikimedia Commons

Brad Hawpe

Bradley Bonte Hawpe is an American former professional baseball outfielder. Hawpe has played in Major League Baseball for the Colorado Rockies, Tampa Bay Rays, San Diego Padres and Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim. Before he became a professional, Hawpe attended Louisiana State University, where he played college baseball for the LSU Tigers. Hawpe went to Boswell High School in Fort Worth, where he played first base and pitched under head coach David Hatcher, he won a Texas 4A State Championship. Hawpe attended Louisiana State University in Louisiana, he was a member of the LSU Tigers baseball team. In 1999, he played collegiate summer baseball in the Cape Cod Baseball League for the Yarmouth-Dennis Red Sox. Hawpe was drafted by the Toronto Blue Jays in the 46th round of the 1997 Major League Baseball Draft. Hawpe re-entered the MLB draft in 2000, where he was drafted by the Colorado Rockies in the 11th round. In the minor leagues, Hawpe was named to All-Star teams in 2000 while playing in the Northwest League and in 2003 while playing in the Texas League.

He was the 2002 Carolina League Most Valuable Player. Hawpe played first base in the Rockies' minor league system, but moved to right field upon his promotion to the major leagues, as the Rockies had Todd Helton at first base. Hawpe made his major league debut on May 1, 2004, he played in 42 games during the 2004 season. After getting a chance to become a regular in 2005, playing 101 games, Hawpe had a.262 batting average with 9 home runs and 47 RBIs. In 2006, Hawpe hit.293 with 84 RBIs. He led all MLB right fielders in assists and all National League right fielders in fielding percentage. In 2007, he hit.291 with 116 RBIs. Defensively, though, he had the lowest range factor of all NL right fielders, he missed time in 2008 with a hamstring injury, but still managed to hit.283 with 25 home runs and 85 RBIs. Defensively, Hawpe had the lowest fielding percentage and range factor, most errors, of all major league right fielders. Hawpe was named to the 2009 MLB All-Star Game. Hawpe went 0-2 with a strikeout in the appearance.

The Rockies placed Hawpe on waivers on August 16, 2010. He was given his release on August 18, though he was on waivers until August 26. On August 27, Hawpe signed a minor league contract with the Tampa Bay Rays, reporting to the Class A Charlotte Stone Crabs. Following the 2010 season, Hawpe signed with the San Diego Padres. With the Padres, he returned to playing first base. Hawpe played in 62 games for Padres in 2011. On August 5, 2011, Hawpe underwent a season-ending Tommy John surgery. Hawpe signed a minor league contract with the Texas Rangers on January 20, 2012, he received an invitation to spring training. On March 29, 2012, Hawpe was released by the Rangers. On January 17, 2013, the Pittsburgh Pirates signed Hawpe to a minor league contract with an invitation to spring training, he was released on March 23. On April 10, 2013, Hawpe signed a minor league contract with the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim, he played for the Triple-A Salt Lake Bees until his contract was purchased by the Angels on June 8.

Prior to having his contract purchased, Hawpe had wondered. "I was OK with it," Hawpe said. "I've had a bunch of good memories in this game. I've been fortunate and blessed, it doesn't mean I wouldn't like to make some more memories, but I've been blessed, if, the end of it, I was OK with it."On July 29, 2013, Hawpe was designated for assignment. On August 4, 2013, the Angels requested unconditional release waivers on Hawpe for the purpose of granting him his unconditional release. Career statistics and player information from MLB, or ESPN, or Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or Baseball-Reference, or Retrosheet, or Pura Pelota

Poltavka culture

Poltavka culture was an early to middle Bronze Age archaeological culture which flourished on the Volga-Ural steppe and the forest steppe in 2700—2100 BCE. The Poltavka culture emerged as an eastern outgrowth of the Yamnaya culture, neighboring the Catacomb culture, another Yamnaya successor, in the west, it has been considered ancestral to cultures that are identified as Indo-Iranian. The Poltavka culture influenced the emergence of the Potapovka culture, Abashevo culture, Sintashta culture and Srubnaya culture; the Poltavka culture emerged ca. 2700 BC as an eastern successor of the Yamnaya culture. The western successor of the Poltavka culture was the Catacomb culture. Along with the Sredny Stog culture, the Yamnaya culture and the Catacomb culture, the Poltavka culture is among the cultures of the Pontic steppe sharing characteristics with the Afanasievo culture of the eastern steppe; the Poltavka culture flourished on the forest steppe. It is contemporary with the Catacomb culture, located on the Pontic steppe to its southwest.

It seems to have co-existed at times with the Abashevo culture. The Poltavka culture appears to have expanded eastwards throughout its existence, it is probable. The arrival of Poltavka people onto the Kazakh Steppe is associated with various technological innovasions in the area. Poltavka pottery has been discovered in northern Kazakhstan. Poltavka settlements are rare, they are confined to sand dunes in the lower Volga area. The flat-bottomed ceramics of the Poltavka culture differ from the pointed or round-based ceramics of the Yamnaya culture; the decorative motifs of the ceramics of the Sintashta culture and Andronovo culture are similar to those of the Poltavka culture. The economy of the Poltavka culture was mobile pastoral, a continuation of the economy of the Yamnaya culture; the Poltavka people carried out horse burials, a custom that had inherited from the Yamnaya culture, the Khvalynsk culture and Samara culture respectively. The Poltavka culture shares many characteristics with the contemporaneous Sintashta culture.

This includes similar pottery, metal types, horse sacrifices, chariot-driving gear and similar graves. It is common for new Poltavka settlements to be constructed on top of older ones, the Sintashta culture would in turn contstruct settlements on top of earlier Poltavka ones; the Poltavka culture is distinguished from the Yamnaya culture by its marked increase in metallurgy. Metals were acquired from centers in the southern Urals; the presence of gold and silver rings and bronze axes similar to those of the Maykop culture, testify to North Caucasian influences on the Poltavka culture. Certain metal objects of the Poltavka culture and the Catacomb culture appear to have been copied by the Abashevo culture; the Poltavka culture is known from its burials. These were situated in cemeteries along river terraces. Poltavka graves differ from those of the Yamnaya culture. A third of Poltavka skulls show signs of wounds mortal.80 percent of Poltavka graves contain males. Poltavka kurgans were surrounded by a circular ditch, with a single grave with ledges.

Both male and female dead were buried on their left side or back on an organic mat, with the head oriented towards the east. On occasion the body was covered with ocher. Covering the body in ocher was less common than in the earlier Yamnaya culture. Burial pits sometimes had a timber cover, they were inserted into kurgans of the Yamnaya culture. Poltavka burials are characterized by an increased presence of weapons; this is interpreted as evidence of increased social stratification. Other grave goods include stone scepters. A Poltavka burial in the Volga region is notable for containing a large copper club; the funeral customs of the Poltavka culture influenced the customs of the Abashevo culture further north. In a 2015 study published in Nature, the remains of six individuals ascribed to the Poltavka culture were analyzed. Five of the individuals were determined to belong to haplogroup R1b1a2 and various subclades of it, while one individual, who belonged to the outliers of the culture, was determined to belong to haplogroup R1a1a1b2a.

People of the Poltavka culture were found to be related to people of the Yamnaya culture and the Afanasievo culture. It is possible that R1a males lived within the territory of the Poltavka culture, but were not included in the rich burials of the culture, which contain R1b males instead. Genomic studies suggest that the Poltavka culture was genetically related to the peoples of the eastern Yamnaya culture and the Sarmatians. In a genetic study published in Science in 2018, the remains of two Poltavka males from separate sites was analyzed. One carried U5a1g, while the other carried R1b1a1a2a2 and U5a1b; the authors of the study noted that there was a significant infusion of Central European ancestry into the steppe during the transition from the Poltavka culture to the Potapovka culture. The physical type of the Poltavka resemble that of the preceding Yamnaya, who were tall and massively built Europoids. A similar type prevails among the succeeding Catacomb Potapovka culture. Skulls of the Fatyanovo–Balanovo culture, Abashevo culture, Sintashta culture, Srubnaya culture and western Andronovo culture are more dolichocephalic than those of the Poltavka and Potapovka cultures.

The physical type of the Srubnaya culture appears to have emerged as a result of mixing between Sintashta and Poltavka people. The Poltavka culture has been considered ancestral to what would develop into Indo-Iranian cultures; the Poltavka culture lasted until 2200-2100 BC. It se

Robert Bartnik

Robert Bartnik is an Australian mathematician based at Monash University, where he holds the position of Professor of Pure Mathematics. He is known for his contribution to general relativity for demonstrating that the ADM mass of an asymptotically flat spacetime is a well-defined quantity, he gained his bachelor's and master's degrees from Melbourne University and his PhD from Princeton University in 1983. His dissertation subject was "Existence of Maximal Hypersurfaces", his doctoral advisor was Shing-Tung Yau. In 2004 he was elected as a fellow of the Australian Academy of Science at which time it was noted He is best known for his work with John McKinnon on particle-like solutions of the Einstein Yang–Mills equation, but he has worked on applications of geometry and analysis to the study of spacetime structure, he was a visiting scholar at the Institute for Advanced Study in 1980-81. Bartnik, R.. "The mass of an asymptotically flat manifold". Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 39: 661. CiteSeerX

Doi:10.1002/cpa.3160390505. Bartnik, Robert. "Particlelike Solutions of the Einstein-Yang-Mills Equations". Phys. Rev. Lett. 61: 141–144. Bibcode:1988PhRvL..61..141B. Doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.61.141. PMID 10039043. "Biographical page at School of Mathematics, Monash University". Monash University. 24 September 2007. Archived from the original on 22 June 2005. Retrieved 4 March 2008. "Australian Academy of Science fellows". Gazette of the Australian Mathematical Society. Australian Mathematical Society: 160. July 2004. Retrieved 4 March 2008. "Robert Andrzej Bartnik". Mathematics Genealogy Project. North Dakota State University Department of Mathematics, in association with the American Mathematical Society. Retrieved 4 March 2008

William Rainey Harper Log House

The William Rainey Harper Log House known as the Harper Cabin, is located at 20 West Main Street in New Concord, United States. The home was placed on the National Register of Historic Places on 1980-01-03; the log house was built in 1834 by Archibold Boal for Joseph McKinney. The structure has remained much intact over the years and resembles the original plan; the house passed to Henry McCleary in 1843 and William Rainey Harper was born in the cabin in 1856. William remained in the house while he attended Muskingum College until he graduated at the age of 13 in 1869. Although William left for Yale in 1872, the house remained in the Harper family until it was sold in 1904; the house was purchased by Muskingum College in 1918 and would remain so until 1987, saw a photography studio as well as a classroom during that time. The cabin was presented in 1987 to the city of New Concord; the house is operated by volunteers from the village. Tours of the house can be arranged through Annie Glenn Historic Site.

The two-story house is designed in the Federal style. The central door is surrounded by a window to each side with three windows in line on the second floor; the gabled roof rests on a simple entablature with a chimney situated at either side of the house. The house is located next to a more recent building to the right and an herb garden is fenced off to the left