Pālītāṇā is a town in Bhavnagar district, India. It is a major pilgrimage centre for Jains, it is first of the two vegetarian cities in the world. Palitana is associated with Jain legends and history. Ādinātha, the first of the Jain tirthankaras, is said to have meditated on the Shatrunjaya hill, where the Palitana temples were constructed. The Palitana State was a princely state, founded in 1194, it was one of the major states in Saurashtra, covering 777 km². In 1921 it had 58,000 inhabitants in 91 villages. In 1656, Shah Jahan's son Murad Baksh granted the village of Palitana to the prominent Jain merchant Shantidas Jhaveri; the management of the temples was assigned to the Anandji Kalyanji Trust in 1730. During the British Raj, Palitana was a princely state in the Kathiawar Agency of the Bombay presidency. Gross revenue, £42,000; the capital of the state was the Palitana town. It was ruled by a Gohil Rajput, with the title of Thakore sahib, enjoying a 9-guns salute, of the Hindu Gohel dynasty, which received a privy purse of 180,000 rupees at the state's accession to independent India on 15 February 1948.

The last Thakore Sahib of Palitana was Shri Shivendrasinhji Bahadursinhji Gohel the 27th Thakore Sahib of Palitana, who got the title of His Highness after his father HH Thakore Sahib Shri Sir Bahadursinhji Mansinhji Gohel of Palitana died on 18 July 1964. HH Thakore Sahib Shri Shivendrasinhji Bahadursinhji Gohel of Palitana died on 29 June 1990, leaving behind his wife Rajmata Sonia Devi & his son Maharaj Kumar Ketan Shivendrasinhji Gohel of Palitana who reside in Mumbai. MK Ketansinhji is a restaurateur & is the Co-founder & Owner of Brewbot Eatery & Pub Brewery located in Andheri, Mumbai. Palitana is located at 21.52°N 71.83°E / 21.52. It has an average elevation of 67 metres; the Palitana dam, an irrigation resource, is on the Shetrunji River. Palitana is the world's only mountain; the Palitana temples and whole mountain are considered the most sacred pilgrimage place by the Jain community, is the world's largest Temple Complex. There are more than 3000 temples exquisitely carved in marble.

The main temple on top of the hill, is dedicated to the first Tirthankara Rishabhanatha. On the top the Shatrunjai Hill is a cluster of Jain temples, built by generations of Jains over a period of 900 years, from the 11th century onwards; the temples are managed by the Anandji Kalyanji Trust associated with the Kasturbhai Lalbhai group. From the foot of the hill to the top there are 3,800 and odd stone steps cut to facilitate climbing; the temples are exquisitely carved in veritable prayers in stone. To an observer, these appear to be ivory miniatures. Created by master craftsmen, the most important temple is that of the first teerthankara, Shri Adishwar, it has ornate architectural motifs. Other notable temples are those of Kumarpal and Sampriti Raja. Kumarpal Solanki, a great Jain patron built the earliest temple; the temple has a fabulous collection of jewels, these can be seen with special permission. The temples date from 11th to the 20th century. From 1865 to 1910 it was ruled by King Dhanpat.

Belief Every devout Jain aspires to climb to the top of the mountain at least once in his lifetime, because of its sanctity. Not just the temples on the Hill are sacred, but as per Jain Scriptures entire Hill is sacred right from top to bottom; the journey is arduous. The walk up the stone stairway hewn into the mountain face takes about a half. For those unable or unaccustomed to the strain, sling-chairs are available at a bargain; the code for the climbers is stringent, in keeping with the rigours of the Jain faith. Food must neither be carried on the way; the descent must begin before it is evening, for no soul can remain atop the sacred mountain during the night. While atop one can visit a Muslim shrine of Angar Pir; the childless women seek the Pir's blessings to be blessed with children. They offer miniature cradles to the Pir and the shrine is strewn with such cradles. In 2014, Palitana became the first city in the world to be vegetarian, it has outlawed, or made illegal, the buying and selling of meat and eggs, related jobs or work, such as fishing and penning'food animals'.

As of 2011 India census, Palitana had a population of 64,497. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Palitana has an average literacy rate of 74%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 71%, female literacy is 57%. In Palitana, 15% of the population is under 6 years of age. In 2014, 20-25% of the population was Muslim. By airThe nearest airport at Bhavnagar lies at a distance of 51 kilometres from Palitana, with daily flights to Mumbai and Ahmedabad, 215 kilometres away by road, has an international airport with regular flights to many important cities. Keeping in mind the religious and tourism travel, the State government has initiated the process of land acquisition for a new airport at Palitana as part of its plan to establish 11 new airports in Gujarat; the pre-feasibility study has been handed over to the Airport Authority of India. By railPalitana has a small railway station, connected to Sihor and Bhavanagar. Most of the trains stop at Sihor, connected to Ahmedabad and Gandhinagar.

By roadThere are hourly buses for Bhavnagar from Palitana. Regular buses are available for Ahm

Rudolph Charles

Rudolph Charles was a musician and instrument maker of the Steelpan, but most notably, he was a pioneer and leader of the steelband movement in Trinidad and Tobago. Known as Charlo, The Hammer and Trail, among other names, he led Desperadoes Steel Orchestra to 10 various victories from 1965 to 1985, including six Panoramas, two Classical Music Festivals, one Best Bomb and one Best Playing Steel Orchestra. Charles was born as fourth of nine children and grew up in Laventille, a ward of Trinidad, near the capital Port of Spain, he was one of the two well known and popular Trinidadians to be born and to grow up in Laventille the other is the Queen of Bacchanal Destra Garcia "Rudolph Charles - Twenty Five years Later, Steelband Leader Still Exceptional", When Steel Talks.</ref> He joined the Desperadoes Steel Orchestra in 1958 and was their bandleader and tuner from 1961 until his death at the age 46 in 1985. Charles invented several instruments for the steelband, including the Nine Bass, the Rocket Pans or the Twelve Bass.

He invited other pan tuners, such as Bertie Marshall, to collaborate with him. Rudolph Charles engaged himself in the steelband movement; the boycott of the national Panorama in 1979 was a result of Charles' fight for higher recognition of pannists. He died aged 46 on 29 March 1985, his funeral took place on 4 April at the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception. In 1986 David Rudder sang the composition "The Hammer" dedicated to Rudolph Charles; the Rudolph Charles Pan Innovation Award was founded to encourage emerging tuners, is a part of the Trinidad and Tobago National Steelband Music Festival. In 2005 Destra Garcia paid tribute to Charles and her home town with a song entitled "Laventille", a duet with Rudder. At UK Panorama 2013, Real Steel's winning calypso "Hammer Time" was dedicated to Rudolph Charles. In 2014, Rudolph Charles was posthumously awarded the Chaconia Medal for his contribution to culture at the anniversary of Independence National Awards. Ian R. Franklin, Desperadoes: Rudolph Charles Era and Beyond Dalton Narine, "30 years after his death...

Rudolph Charles lives", Trinidad Guardian, 29 March 2015. Rudolph Charles of WITCO Desperadoes on YouTube Dalton Narine, "Thirty years after death, Rudolph Charles remains... The Baddest Desperado", When Steel Talks... Dalton Narine, "The Doc, The Hammer and the Shoe Box – History of the Steelband Music Movement – Rudolph Charles"

Central Queensland Territorial Separation League

The Central Queensland Territorial Separation League was formed in Rockhampton in 1889 with the aim of agitating for separation of the Central Queensland region from the colony of Queensland. The Separatists’ main complaints were the perceived under-representation of the Central region in the colonial Parliament, located in Brisbane, some 700 kilometres to the south of Rockhampton, the use of Central Queensland taxes and finances to fund the Queensland Government. Agitation for the division of Queensland into two or three smaller colonies had been a political question in the colony since Queensland separated from New South Wales in 1859. Earlier, political movements for Central Queensland secession from Queensland had been launched in the 1860s and 1870s. George Curtis, a prominent Rockhampton auctioneer and landholder, became the first president of the CQTSL and was elected to the Legislative Assembly of Queensland in 1893 where he used his position to agitate for the aims of the CQTSL in Parliament.

Archibald Archer and John Ferguson visited England as a deputation on behalf of the Central Queensland Territorial Separation League in 1892. They met with Lord Knutsford, who preferred that to Sir Samuel Griffith's provincial district resolutions were carried in the Queensland Legislative Assembly; the CQTSL’s campaign was unsuccessful. When the Australian colonies federated in 1901, the new nation’s Constitution placed the power to further divide colonies in the hands of the parent colony or state, with no avenue for referral to the British Government. Further movements for the establishment of a new state in Central Queensland, with Rockhampton as the capital, occurred in the 1950s. Proposals for new Australian States State of North Queensland Central Queensland Regions of Queensland