Pall Mall, London

Pall Mall is a street in the St James's area of the City of Westminster, Central London. It is a section of the regional A4 road; the street's name is derived from'pall-mall', a ball game played there during the 17th century. The area was built up during the reign of Charles II with fashionable London residences, it became known for high-class shopping in the 18th century, gentlemen's clubs in the 19th. The Reform and Travellers Clubs have survived to the 21st century; the War Office was based on Pall Mall during the second half of the 19th century, the Royal Automobile Club's headquarters have been on the street since 1908. The street is around 0.4 miles long and runs east in the St James's area, from St James's Street across Waterloo Place, to the Haymarket and continues as Pall Mall East towards Trafalgar Square. The street numbers run consecutively from north-side east to west and continue on the south-side west to east, it is part of a major road running west from Central London. London Bus Route 9 runs westwards along Pall Mall, connecting Trafalgar Square to Piccadilly and Hyde Park Corner.

Pall Mall was constructed in 1661, replacing an earlier highway to the south that ran from the Haymarket to the royal residence, St James's Palace. Historical research suggests a road had been in this location since Saxon times, although the earliest documentary references are from the 12th century in connection with a leper colony at St James's Hospital; when St. James's Park was laid out by order of Henry VIII in the 16th century, the park's boundary wall was built along the south side of the road. In 1620, the Privy Council ordered the High Sheriff of Middlesex to clear a number of temporary buildings next to the wall that were of poor quality. Pall-mall, a ball game similar to croquet, was introduced to England in the early-17th century by James I; the game popular in France and Scotland, was enjoyed by James' sons Henry and Charles. In 1630, St James's Field, London's first pall-mall court, was laid out to the north of the Haymarket – St James road. After the Restoration and King Charles II's return to London on 29 May 1660, a pall-mall court was constructed in St James's Park just south of the wall, on the site of The Mall.

Samuel Pepys's diary entry for 2 April 1661 records that he'... went into St. James's Park, where I saw the Duke of York playing at Pelemele, the first time that I saw the sport'; this new court suffered from dust blown over the wall from coaches travelling along the highway. In July 1661 posts and rails were erected; the court for pall-mall was long and narrow, known as an alley, so the old court provided a suitable route for relocating the eastern approach to St James's Palace. A grant was made to Dan O'Neale, Groom of the Bedchamber, John Denham, Surveyor of the King's Works allocating a 1,400-by-23-foot area of land for this purpose; the grant was endorsed'Our warrant for the building of the new street to St James's'. A new road was built on the site of the old pall-mall court, opened in September 1661, it was named Catherine Street, after Catherine of Braganza, wife of Charles II, but was better known as Pall Mall Street or the Old Pall Mall. The pall-mall field was a popular place for recreation and Pepys records several other visits.

By July 1665 Pepys used ` Pell Mell'. In 1662, Pall Mall was one of several streets'thought fitt to be repaired, new paved or otherwise amended' under the Streets and Westminster Act 1662; the paving commissioners appointed to oversee the work included the Earl of St Albans. The terms of the act allowed commissioners to remove any building encroaching on the highway, with compensation for those at least 30 years old; the commissioners determined that the real tennis court and adjoining house at the northeast corner of Pall Mall and St James's Street should be demolished, in 1664 notified Martha Barker, the owner of the Crown lease, to do so. Although Barker rejected £230 compensation, the court was demolished by 1679; the street was developed extensively during 1662–1667. The Earl of St Albans had a lease from the Crown in 1662 on 45 acres of land part of St James's Fields, he laid out the site for the development of St. James's Square, Jermyn Street, Charles Street, St Albans Street, King Street and other streets now known as St James's.

The location was convenient for the royal palaces of Whitehall and St James and the houses on the east and west sides of the square were developed along with those on the north side of Pall Mall, each constructed separately as was usual for the time. Houses were not built along the adjoining part of Pall Mall; the Earl petitioned the King in late 1663 that the class of occupants they hoped to attract to the new district would not take houses without the prospect of acquiring them outright. Despite opposition from the Lord Treasurer, the Earl of Southampton, on 1 April 1665 the King granted the Earl of St Albans the freehold of the St James's Square site, along with all the ground on the north side of Pall Mall between St James's Street and the east side of St James's Square; the freehold of the north side of Pall Mall subsequently passed to other private owners. The Crown kept the freehold of the land south of the street except for No. 79, granted to Nell Gwyn's trustees in 1676 or 1677 by Charles II.

The buildings constructed on the south side of Pall Mall in subsequent years were grander than those on the north owing to stricter design and building standards imposed by the crown commissioners. When the main road wa

South Carolina Highway 6

South Carolina Highway 6 is a 115-mile state highway that extends from Moncks Corner in Berkeley County to Ballentine in Richland County, near Irmo. It uniquely links all three of the major hydropower projects in South Carolina: Lake Murray, Lake Marion and Lake Moultrie; the highway runs southeast from the central part of South Carolina to near the Atlantic Ocean and is listed as a hurricane evacuation route. Beginning at a junction with U. S. Highway 52 in Moncks Corner, the route runs northwest along the shoreline of Lake Moultrie as West Main Street, it turns right onto Ranger Drive. It turns left onto "Old Number Six Highway" where is starts a concurrency with SC 45 as Eutaw Road; the concurrency runs and far from Lake Marion, passes through Eutawville. There SC 45 departs to the west and SC 6 continues along the lake through Vance to Santee, where it intersects Interstate 95, it adjoins the Santee State Park on its right. After a concurrency with SC 267 begins, it becomes Main Street through South Carolina.

The concurrency ends. SC 6 traverses St. Matthews as Bridge Street before having a brief concurrency with U. S. Highway 176. Route 26 turns left onto Caw Caw Highway and has an interchange with Interstate 26; the route turns right and head northwest in a concurrency with U. S. Route 21 and separates from U. S. 21 onto Center Hill Road. It turns right on St. Matthews Road in a northwesterly direction, passing through Swansea as 2nd Street intersecting U. S. Route joining a concurrency with SC 302 as Edmund Hwy; the concurrency ends when SC 6 turns to the left onto S. Lake Drive where it heads northwest to Red Bank. In Red Bank, it intersects with Interstate 20; the route passes through Lexington where it crosses U. S. Route 1 and has a brief concurrency with U. S. Route 378. SC 6 passes just east of Lake Murray. In Irmo, SC 6 changes from N. Lake Drive to Dreher Shoals Road before ending at a junction with U. S. Highway 76 in Ballentine; the last section of the route runs west of Columbia, the state capital.

Counties traversed by the route include Berkeley, Calhoun and Richland. Rand McNally: The Road Atlas 2002, Rand McNally and Company 2001 ISBN 0-528-84446-6 web page on South Carolina state highways South Carolina Department of Transportation county road maps for Berkeley, Calhoun and Richland South Carolina Department of Transportation map of hurricane evacuation routes

Millennium Tower (Tokyo)

Millennium Tower was a 180-floor skyscraper, envisioned by architect Sir Norman Foster in 1989. He intended for it to be built in 2 km offshore from Tokyo, Japan; the design calls for a cone-shaped pyramid 840 meters high, with a base about as big as the Tokyo Olympic Stadium and glass sides for natural lighting. It is intended to be constructed with boat and bridge access. Since the tower was planned for an area with frequent earthquakes and hurricane-strength winds, the shape is aerodynamic to reduce wind stress, helical bands are wrapped around the tower for structural support. Steel tanks at the top of the tower are filled with water, can be rotated as a counterweight against wind; the tower is a self-contained arcology containing one million square meters of commercial development and housing for 60,000 people, split into sections. Offices and light or clean industries are in the lower levels, apartments above, the top section houses communications systems and wind or solar generators. Restaurants and viewing platforms would be interspersed through all sections.

Horizontal and vertical high-speed metro lines provide long-distance travel, with cars designed to carry 160 people stopping at intermediate five-story'sky centers' on every thirtieth floor. Each'sky center' is decorated by gardens and mezzanines, provides a particular service such as hotels or restaurants. Short-distance travel is by escalators; the tower design was commissioned by the Obayashi Corporation as an arcology, intended to address land shortage and overpopulation in Tokyo. The design firm's web site states that "the project demonstrates that high-density or high-rise living does not mean overcrowding or hardship. Official website "Millenium Tower", Skyscraperpage Emporis - Millennium Tower in Tokyo Hawkes, Nigel. New Technology and Buildings. Aladdin Books Ltd