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Pallava dynasty

The Pallava dynasty was an Indian dynasty that existed from 275 CE to 897 CE, ruling a portion of southern India. They gained prominence after the eclipse of the Satavahana dynasty, whom the Pallavas served as feudatories. Pallavas became a major power during the reign of Mahendravarman I and Narasimhavarman I and dominated the Telugu and northern parts of the Tamil region for about 600 years until the end of the 9th century. Throughout their reign they were in constant conflict with both Chalukyas of Badami in the north and the Tamil kingdoms of Chola and Pandyas in the south. Pallava was defeated by the Chola ruler Aditya I in the 9th century CE. Pallavas are most noted for their patronage of architecture, the finest example being the Shore Temple, a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Mamallapuram; the Pallavas, who left behind magnificent sculptures and temples, established the foundations of medieval South Indian architecture. They developed the Pallava script from which Grantha descended; the Pallava script gave rise to several other southeast Asian scripts.

Chinese traveller Xuanzang extolled their benign rule. The word Pallava means a branch in Sanskrit, they were called Tondaiyar after the word Tondai, meaning creeper in Tamil. The origins of the Pallavas have been debated by scholars.. The available historical materials include three copper-plate grants of Sivaskandavarman in the first quarter of the 4th century CE, all issued from Kanchipuram but found in various parts of Andhra Pradesh, another inscription of Simhavarman half century earlier in the Palanadu area of the western Guntur district. All the early documents are in Prakrit, scholars find similarities in paleography and language with the Satavahanas and the Mauryas, their early coins are said to be similar to those of Satavahanas. Two main theories of the origins have emerged from this data: one that the Pallavas were former subsidiaries of Satavahanas in the Andhradesa and expanded south up to Kanchi, the other that they rose to power in Kanchi and expanded north up to the Krishna river.

The proponents of the Andhra origin theory include S. Krishnaswami Aiyangar and K. A. Nilakanta Sastri, they believe that Pallavas were feudatories of the Satavahanas in the south-eastern part of their empire who became independent when the Satavahana power declined. They are seen to be "strangers to the Tamil country", unrelated to the ancient lines of Cheras and Cholas. Since Simhavarman's grant bears no regal titles, they believe that he might have been a subsidiary to the Andhra Ikshvakus who were in power in Andhradesa at that time. In the following half-century, the Pallavas expanded up to Kanchi. Another theory is propounded by historians R. Sathianathaier and D. C. Sircar, with endorsements by Hermann Kulke, Dietmar Rothermund and Burton Stein. Sircar points out that the family legends of the Pallavas speak of an ancestor descending from Asvatthama, the legendary Brahmin warrior of Mahabharata, his union with a Naga princess. According Ptolemy, the Aruvanadu region between the northern and southern Penner rivers was ruled by a king Basaronaga around 140 CE.

By marrying into this Naga family, the Pallavas would have acquired control of the region near kanchi. While Sircar allows that Pallavas might have been provincial rulers under the Satavahanas with a partial northern lineage, Sathianathaier sees them as natives of Tondaimandalam, he argues. He relates the name "Pallava" to Pulindas, whose heritage is borne by names such as "Pulinadu" and "Puliyurkottam" in the region. Overlaid on these theories is another hypothesis. Partial support for the theory is derived from a crown shaped like an elephant's scalp depicted on some sculptures, which resembles the crown of Demetrius I; the Pallavas captured Kanchi from the Cholas as recorded in the Velurpalaiyam Plates, around the reign of the fifth king of the Pallava line Kumaravishnu I. Thereafter Kanchi figures in inscriptions as the capital of the Pallavas; the Cholas drove the Pallavas away from Kanchi in the mid-4th century, in the reign of Vishugopa, the tenth king of the Pallava line. The Pallavas re-captured Kanchi in the mid-6th century in the reign of Simhavishnu, the fourteenth king of the Pallava line, whom the Kasakudi plates state as "the lion of the earth".

Thereafter the Pallavas held on to Kanchi until the 9th century, until the reign of their last king, Vijaya-Nripatungavarman. The Pallavas were in conflict with major kingdoms at various periods of time. A contest for political supremacy existed between the Kadambas. Numerous Kadamba inscriptions provide details of Pallava-Kadamba hostilities. Kadamba dynasty's founder Mayurasharma first succeeded in establishing himself in the forests of Shriparvata by defeating the Antharapalas of the Pallavas and subduing the Banas of Kolar in 345 CE; the Pallavas under Skandavarman were unable to contain Mayurasharma and recognised him as a sovereign in the regions from the Amara Ocean to Prehara. Some historians feel that Mayurasharma was appointed as a commander in the army of the Pallavas, as the inscription uses such terms as Senani and calls Mayurasharma Shadanana. After a period of time, due to the confusion caused by the defeat of Pallava Vishnugopa by Samudragupta, Mayurasharma formed his

A New Trick to Cheat the Devil

A New Trick to Cheat the Devil is an early seventeenth-century stage play, a comedy written by Robert Davenport, first printed in 1639. One of only three surviving Davenport plays, it has been called an entertaining and extravagant farce; the play was first published in 1639, in a quarto printed by John Okes for the bookseller Humphrey Blunden. This was the only edition of the play prior to the nineteenth century; the 1639 quarto includes a short preface written by the bookseller. This prefatory note describes the play as "an Orphant, wanting the Father which first begot it...." This seems to indicate that Davenport was dead by 1639. In the following year, two plays, Nathanael Richards's Messalina and Thomas Rawlins's The Rebellion, were printed with commendatory poems written by Davenport, and the address "To the knowning Reader" prefixed to Davenport's King John and Matilda suggests that Davenport was still alive in 1655, when that play was first published. No firm evidence on the play's date of authorship is extant.

The earliest evidence for Davenport's career as a dramatist comes from 1624. One curious feature is. In Act IV, scene 1, the Devil says "I was first father to this yellow Sterch...." This is an allusion to the fashion for wearing ruffs and cuffs dyed yellow, associated with Mistress Anne Turner, the woman executed for her role in the murder of Sir Thomas Overbury on 15 November 1615. References to yellow starch and "yellow bands" are common in plays written in the 1615–18 years, but seem rather dated in a play from the 1620s or'30s. New Trick belongs in at least two classes of English Renaissance play, it is a "prodigal son" drama, one of a long series of plays that trace the fall and recovery of a protagonist in the manner of the Biblical parable. It is as its title indicates, a devil play, a subgenre that extended the influence of the Medieval morality play into English Renaissance theatre. Earlier plays in the Devil subgenre, like Doctor Faustus and The Devil's Charter, presented the infernal influences as real aspects of the world.

Plays in the tradition, like New Trick or The Soddered Citizen, treat Satanic matters as spurious and fraudulent. As in his other plays, Davenport draws plot materials in New Trick from folklore and from previous dramas, more so than from the formal prose literature of his day. Uncertainty in the play's date makes it difficult, in many cases, to say which plays may have influenced Davenport's work, in turn which plays might have been influenced by Davenport's work. Influence from Shakespeare is evident; the play's brief subplot depends on folklore material. A version of the same story appears in a poem printed in Scotland in 1603 and 1622. Folktales in several traditions replicate similar plots; the play opens with its hero and heroine and Anne Changeable. Anne's father, Master Changeable, supports the match, but her social-climber harridan mother, Mistress Changeable, wants her daughter to wed an aristocrat, Lord Skales; the young and naive Anne is swayed by her mother's materialist temptations, rejects Slightall for the lord.

Slightall is crushed and devastated, lapses into spendthrift debauchery. When she meets the lord, Anne is disappointed, she seeks out Slightall to express her regret, but he is too enmeshed in his heartbreak to respond. Anne, in deep psychological distress, reproaches everyone in her circle, mother, lordly future husband and others, for their faults. Slightall mortgages his lands to an Usurer to gain funds to waste on self-indulgence; the Usurer tells his Scrivener how he conspires with Slightall's corrupt servant Geoffrey to drag Slightall down into bankruptcy. The Usurer's scenes allow Davenport to comment on the economic conditions of the day. Slightall's bad servant Geoffrey is counterbalanced by a loyal servant, who stands by his master when his formal employment has come to an end. Master Changeable is a partisan in Slightall's cause. Anne's father arranges a complex charade: after a masque of infernal spirits dressed as a Beggar, a Whore, a Puritan and similar figures, Changeable himself masquerades as the Devil and draws Slightall into the standard infernal bargain.

He, the "Devil," will provide financial support to Slightall in return for Slightall's soul. Slightall gains the funds to redeem his mortgages from the Usurer on the final day possible; the time comes for Slightall to pay the Devil his due: Mistress Changeable, Lord Scales, others watch what they think is an infernal marriage, in which Slightall will marry a "shee Lamia," a succubus. Slightall marries Anne, to their own delight and the discomfiture of the rival party; the drama's subplot is confined to a single long scene, III,1. Two friars and John, pay a late-night call upon their friend, the Host of an inn, they seek shelter for the night. The Host is absent, his wife the Hostess is ready to meet her lover, the local Constable, for a tryst, she is unhappy with the presence of her visitors, confines the two monks to an upper room. The humble Friar Bernard goes to sleep.

Sallie Baliunas

Sallie Louise Baliunas is a retired astrophysicist. She worked at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and at one point was the Deputy Director of the Mount Wilson Observatory. Baliunas grew up in New York City and its suburbs, she attended public schools in high school in New Jersey. She received a B. S. in astrophysics from Villanova University in 1974, an A. M. and a Ph. D. in astrophysics from Harvard University in 1975 and 1980. Her doctoral thesis was titled and ultraviolet studies of stellar chromospheres of Lambda Andromedae and other late-type stars. Baliunas was a research associate of the Harvard College Observatory in 1980 and became an astrophysicist in the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory at the Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in 1989. Baliunas has been a visiting scholar at Dartmouth College, an adjunct professor at Tennessee State University, was deputy director of the Mount Wilson Observatory from 1991 to 2003, she has been a member of the American Astronomical Society, American Geophysical Union, American Physical Society, Astronomical Society of the Pacific, International Astronomical Union, Sigma XI.

She has served on both the scientific advisory board and the board of directors of the Marshall Institute, a conservative think tank. Baliunas's main focus was on astrophysical research, she studied ultraviolet spectroscopy of stars. She has published little in recent years, with only two refereed astronomy papers since 2010. In 1992, Baliunas was third author on a Nature paper that used observed variations in sun-like stars as an analogue of possible past variations in the Sun; the paper says that "the sun is in an unusually steady phase compared to similar stars, which means that reconstructing the past historical brightness record may be more risky than has been thought". By 1995, she had entered the global warming controversy. In January of that year the Marshall Institute think tank published a review she had written for them, "Are Human Activities Causing Global Warming?" Disputing the IPCC Second Assessment Report and arguing that "predictions of an anthropogenic global warming have been exaggerated, that the human contribution to global warming over the course of the 21st century will be less than one degree Celsius and only a few tenths of a degree."

She concluded with the view that "even if fears of anthropogenic global warming were realized – a concern which finds no support in the scientific data – there is no significant penalty for waiting at least two decades before taking corrective action to reduce global CO2 emissions." The work of Willie Soon and Baliunas, suggesting that solar variability is more correlated with variations in air temperature than any other factor carbon dioxide levels, has been publicized by lobby groups including the Marshall Institute and Tech Central Station, mentioned in the popular press. Baliunas is a denier in regard to there being a connection between CO2 rise and climate change, saying in a 2001 essay with Willie Soon: But is it possible that the particular temperature increase observed in the last 100 years is the result of carbon dioxide produced by human activities? The scientific evidence indicates that this is not the case... measurements of atmospheric temperatures made by instruments lofted in satellites and balloons show that no warming has occurred in the atmosphere in the last 50 years.

This is just the period in which humanmade carbon dioxide has been pouring into the atmosphere and according to the climate studies, the resultant atmospheric warming should be evident. The claim that atmospheric data showed no warming trend was incorrect, as the published satellite and balloon data at that time showed a warming trend. In statements Baliunas acknowledged the measured warming in the satellite and balloon records, though she disputed that the observed warming reflected human influence. Baliunas contends that findings of human influence on climate change are motivated by financial considerations: "If scientists and researchers were coming out releasing reports that global warming has little to do with man, most to do with just how the planet works, there wouldn't be as much money to study it." She does not address the countervailing financial considerations of the energy companies that fund some of her collaborators, including Willie Soon who received over $1,000,000 from petroleum and coal interests since 2001.

In 2003, Baliunas and aerospace engineer Willie Soon published a review paper on historical climatology in Climate Research, which concluded that "the 20th century is not the warmest nor a uniquely extreme climatic period of the last millennium." With Soon, Baliunas investigated the correlation between solar variability and temperatures of the Earth's atmosphere. When there are more sunspots, the total solar output increases, when there are fewer sunspots, it decreases. Soon and Baliunas attribute the Medieval warm period to such an increase in solar output, believe that decreases in solar output led to the Little Ice Age, a period of cooling from which the earth has been recovering since 1890; the circumstances of the paper's publication were controversial, prompting concerns about the publishers' peer review process. An editorial revolt within Climate Research followed, with half of the journal's 10 editors resigning; the publisher subsequently stated that critics said that the conclusions of the paper "cannot be concluded convincingly fro

Crowned republic

A crowned republic is a form of constitutional monarchy where the monarch's role is seen as ceremonial and where all the royal prerogatives are prescribed by custom and law in such a way that the monarch has limited discretion over governmental and constitutional issues. The term has been used to informally describe governments of various realms, including Australia and the United Kingdom, it can refer to a constitutional monarchy where the sovereign exercises little discretion over the country's political or executive affairs, whether vested with ultimate executive authority or not. As an informal term, "crowned republic" lacks any set definition as to its meaning, the precise difference between a constitutional monarchy and a "crowned republic" remains vague. Different individuals have described various states as crowned republics for varied reasons. For example James Bryce wrote in 1921: "By Monarchy I understand the thing not the Name i.e. not any State the head of, called King or Emperor, but one in which the personal will of the monarch is effective, in the last resort predominant, factor of government.

Thus, while such a monarchy as that of Norway is a Crowned Republic, indeed a democratic republic, monarchy was in Russia before 1917, in Turkey before 1905, to a less degree in Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy until 1918, an appreciable force in the conduct of affairs". The Australian Republic Advisory Committee described the country as a "crowned republic" and stated it was "a state in which sovereignty resides in its people, in which all public offices, except that at the apex of the system, are filled by persons deriving their authority directly or indirectly from the people" so "it may be appropriate to regard Australia as a crowned republic". H. G. Wells used the term in his book A Short History of the World to describe the United Kingdom, as did Alfred, Lord Tennyson in 1873 in an epilogue to Idylls of the King. In the Kingdom of Greece, the term Βασιλευομένη Δημοκρατία became popular after the 23 October 1862 Revolution, which resulted in the introduction of the 1864 constitution.

The Constitution of 1952 enshrined the concept into law by declaring the form of government that of a Crowned Republic. This is sometimes translated as "Crowned Democracy". Popular monarchy Aristocratic republic "Ελλάς"; the Great Greek Encyclopedia. Athens: Pyrsos Publishing. 1934. P. 239. Retrieved 31 August 2018. Through the Constitution of 1864, constitutional monarchy, or, as it had been described,'crowned democracy', or'democratic monarchy', was consolidated as the form of government in Greece. Bryce, James. Modern democracies. 2. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 1-4179-1173-5. Patmore, Glenn. Choosing the Republic. University of New South Wales Press. ISBN 1-74223-015-6. "Σύνταγμα της Ελλάδος". Athens: Hellenic Parliament. 1952. P. 6. Retrieved 31 August 2018. Article 21: The Form of Government of Greece is that of a Crowned Republic. All powers are exercised in accordance with the Constitution. Tennyson, Lord. "To the Queen". Idylls of the King. Wells, H. G.. "LXIV. The British Empire in 1914".

A Short History of the World

Agnee (2014 film)

Agnee is a Bangladeshi action film directed by Iftakar Chowdhury and produced by Abdul Aziz under the banner of Jaaz Multimedia banner. It is a remake of French film Colombiana, released in 2011; the film features Arifin Shuvoo and Mahiya Mahi in the lead roles and Misha Sawdagor, portraying the main antagonist of the film. The film is about Tanisha, a nine-year-old girl in Dhaka whose family is killed by underworld mafia Gulzar and Haydar. Fifteen years a 24 years old Tanisha has become an accomplished assassin. Though both the killers is now under protection of the government of Thailand and are guarded by a powerful group, led by Dragon, Tanisha uses every means at her disposal, to find where Gulzar and Haydar are hiding and avenge her family's death. Agnee was released on 14 February 2014 in Bangladesh; the film was a huge financial success as it become one of the Highest grossing Bangladeshi films of 2014. The sequel of the film titled Agnee II was released in 2015. Tanisha is a young daughter of a man working for Haydar.

When Tanisha's father decides he wants to leave the crime world to make a better life for his daughter and Haydar kills him, family in order to eliminate a potential threat. Gulzar kills everyone in the family, when he is about to kill Tanisha, she stabs him and vows she will kill them one day before escaping, she grows up to be a stone-cold assassin. She receives training from her uncle and engages in vigilante murders that she hopes will lead her to her ultimate target, the powerful underworld crime syndicate responsible for her parents' death. During mid 2013, Jaaz Multimedia announced the project with Mahiya Mahi as the main lead and Iftakar Chowdhury as the director, it was announced that Arifin Shuvoo will join the cast as the main male lead. The film's soundtrack is composed by Adit, Shafiq Tuhin, Ahmed Humayan and with lyrics penned by Ahmed Imtiaz Bulbul, Robiul Islam Jibon, Abdul Aziz and Sudip Kumar Dip. Director Iftakar Chowdhury has made a sequel, Agnee 2; the film released in 2015.

Chaity, Afrose Jahan. "Four films hit cinemas this Valentine's Day". Dhaka Tribune. "Agnee takes box office by storm". The Daily Star. 17 February 2014. "Agnee crosses Tk3 crore mark in 3 days". Dhaka Tribune. 18 February 2014. Hossain, Rafi. "Stepping Forward". The Daily Star. "Agnee the Female Protagonist". The Daily Star. 1 March 2014. Hriyad, Saddam Hossain. "Feel the heat of Agnee, the girl with the big guns". Dhaka Tribune. Islam, Mohammad Zahidul. "Women in Media". The Daily Star. Feroze, Towheed. "In the flames of Agnee". Dhaka Tribune. Agnee on IMDb

Bjorbekk Church

Bjorbekk Church is a parish church in Arendal municipality in Aust-Agder county, Norway. It is located in the village of Bjorbekk, it is the church for the Øyestad parish, part of the Arendal prosti in the Diocese of Agder og Telemark. The white, wooden church was built in 1884 using designs by the architect Johan Christoff Friedrich Reuter; the church seats about 650 people. It was built to replace the centuries-old Øyestad Church, why this church is sometimes called the "new" Øyestad Church; the church cost about 40,000 kr to construct at that time. List of churches in Aust-Agder