The pallium is an ecclesiastical vestment in the Roman Catholic Church peculiar to the Pope, but for many centuries bestowed by the Holy See upon metropolitans and primates as a symbol of their conferred jurisdictional authorities, still remains papal emblems. Schoenig, Steven A. SJ. Bonds of Wool: The Pallium and Papal Power in the Middle Ages (Washington, DC: The Catholic University of America Press, 2017. ISBN 978-0-8132-2922-5. In its present form, the pallium is a long and "three fingers broad" white band adornment, woven from the wool of lambs raised by Trappist monks, it is donned by looping its middle around one's neck, resting upon the chasuble and two dependent lappets over one's shoulders with tail-ends on the left with the front end crossing over the rear. When observed from the front or rear the pallium sports a stylistic letter'y', it is decorated with one near each end and four spaced out around the neck loop. At times the pallium is embellished aft with three gold gem-headed stickpins.

The doubling and pinning on the left shoulder survive from the Roman pallium. The pallium and the omophor originate from the same vestment, the latter a much larger and wider version worn by Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic bishops of the Byzantine Rite. A theory relates origination to the paradigm of the Good Shepherd shouldering a lamb, a common early Christian art image — but this may be an explanation a posteriori, however the ritual preparation of the pallium and its subsequent bestowal upon a pope at coronation suggests the shepherd symbolism; the lambs whose fleeces are destined for pallia are solemnly presented at altar by the nuns of the convent of Saint Agnes and the Benedictine nuns of Santa Cecilia in Trastevere weave their wool into pallia. At present, only the pope, metropolitan archbishops, the Latin Rite Patriarch of Jerusalem wear the pallium. Under the 1917 Code of Canon Law, a metropolitan had to receive the pallium before exercising his office in his ecclesiastical province if he was metropolitan elsewhere, but these restrictions were absent in the revised 1983 Code of Canon Law.

No other bishops non-metropolitan archbishops or retired metropolitans, are allowed to wear the pallium unless they have special permission. An explicit exception is made for the realised scenario in which a person not yet a bishop is elected pope, in which case the bishop ordaining the new pope wears the pallium during the ceremony; when a pope or metropolitan dies, he is buried wearing the last pallium he was granted, the other pallia are rolled up and placed in the coffin. It is unknown when the pallium was first introduced. Although Tertullian wrote an essay no than 220 AD titled De Pallio, according to the Liber Pontificalis, it was first used when Pope Marcus conferred the right to wear the pallium on the Bishop of Ostia, because the consecration of the pope appertained to him, it seems that earlier, the pope alone had the absolute right of wearing the pallium. We hear of the pallium being conferred on others, as a mark of distinction, no earlier than the sixth century; the honour was conferred on metropolitans those nominated vicars by the pope, but it was sometimes conferred on simple bishops.

The use of the pallium among metropolitans did not become general until the eighth century, when a synod convened by St Boniface laid an obligation upon Western metropolitans of receiving their pallium only from the pope in Rome. This was accomplished by journeying there or by forwarding a petition for the pallium accompanied by a solemn profession of faith, all consecrations being forbidden them before the reception of the pallium; the oath of allegiance which the recipient of the pallium takes today originated in the eleventh century, during the reign of Paschal II, replaced the profession of faith. The awarding of the pallium became controversial in the Middle Ages, because popes charged a fee from those receiving them, acquiring hundreds of millions of gold florins for the papacy and bringing the award of the pallium into disrepute, it is certain that a tribute was paid for the reception of the pallium as early as the sixth century. This was abrogated by Pope Gregory I in the Roman Synod of 595, but was reintroduced as partial maintenance of the Holy See.

This process was condemned by the Council of Basel in 1432, which referred to it as "the most usurious contrivance invented by the papacy". The fee was abandoned amid charges of simony. There are many different opinions concerning the origin of the pallium; some trace it to an investiture by Constantine I. Others declare that its origin is traceable to a mantle of St. Peter, symbolic of his office as supreme pastor. A fourth hypothesis finds its origin in a liturgical mantle, used by the early popes, which over time was folded into the shape of a band.

Fazzan Basin

The Fazzan Basin, or Fezzan Basin, is a large endorheic basin in Libya. It contains large areas of desert or semi-arid land, it is one of two basins in southern Libya on the northern flanks of the Tibesti Mountains in the central Sahara desert, the other being the Kufra Basin, further to the east. The Fazzan Basin is situated on the junction between two tectonic plates. Collision between these occurred in the Paleozoic period and caused thickening of the earth's crust, which downwarped under its own weight to form a depression in the ground, the Fazzan Basin. Since there has been a deposition of "continental intercalaire" and other continental rocks, large quantities of water have been trapped in underground aquifers. An outcrop of basalt occurs between the Fazzan and the Kufra Basins, both are overlaid by sand; the climate of this region has varied in the past, with pluvial and dry periods alternating. During its geologic history, the Fazzan Basin has on at least four occasions during the Pleistocene been inundated with water to form a large lake.

On each occasion, a thick layer of limestone was deposited. Armitage et al. estimated that two of these events occurred earlier than 400,000 years ago, another one was in MIS 11 and a further one in MIS 5. Geye and Thiedig recognise further lake sedimentation periods in MIS 9 and MIS 7, they have estimated that the lake extended to 100,000 km2 in MIS 11, this was when it was at its maximum size. By MIS 5, the lake was reduced to 1,400 km2 and less than 100 km2 during the most recent iteration in the Halocene. However, Armitage et al. citing Brooks et al. put the Halocene lake area at 76,250 km2. Although there is some disagreement about the exact timing and the size of Lake Megafazzan, both authorities agree that there has been no lacustrine activity between MIS 5 and the Halocene; the MIS 5 deposits include fossils of Cerastoderma glaucum, which indicates that the water was brackish. During the Miocene, Libya was drained by two large rivers systems, both flowing into the Mediterranean Sea, the Wadi Nashu River in the west and the Sahabi River in the centre and east.

In the late Miocene and early Messinian, increased volcanic activity in northeastern Libya resulted in the damming back of the Wadi Nashu, which caused water to accumulate in the Fazzan Basin, forming the proto-Lake Megafazzan during humid periods

Gus & Waldo

Gus & Waldo are a couple of fictional anthropomorphic gay penguins that share love for one another. They are the creation of an Italian-born and London-based artist, their stories lampoon many aspects of the human condition including popular culture and the media Since their debut in 2006, Gus and Waldo have appeared in three books published in the UK and all Commonwealth countries, with the first book of the series translated and published in a number of non-English-speaking countries. Merchandise is available and a TV series is in development. Gus and Waldo are penguins of an unidentified subspecies, they look similar, with only one difference to tell them apart: Gus has pointy beak and Waldo has a rounded one. This is symbolic of the slight difference in their characters: Gus is more nervous and prefers high-brow culture. Waldo is mellow and loves gossip and trash magazines, they live in a fictional metropolitan city, in a society formed by all sorts of anthropomorphic animals. Gus & Waldo's Book of Love is a picture book that deals with the love that Gus and Waldo share for one another.

Synopsis: Gus and Waldo love each other and they love life and its many aspects: food, shopping and a bed together. They have many personal tastes in common, but divergent views on some issues, their relationship experiences slight turbulence over such everyday foibles as bedtime snoring, divergent red and yellow tastes in sunglasses frames, extravagant shopping and other issues, which leads the couple to a chameleon relationship counsellor who informs them that ‘penguins mate for life’. The book ends as the loving birds decide that as ‘Fighting's Neither Fun Nor Clever/Gus and Waldo Love Each Other Forever!’. Foreign language editions: Finland: Gus & Waldo Sillä Siivellä. Synopsis: Although in love with each other and Waldo explain their quest for stardom as being a desire for the'whole world' to fall in love with them. After a few failed stabs at fame and Waldo publish their first book: Gus and Waldo's Book of Love, it's a hit, they are on the covers of glossy magazines, owners of a Hollywood mansion and the ‘faces' of a variety of products.

It seems Waldo have made it. But Fame is fickle and a cooler penguin, takes the world by storm. Gus and Waldo are soon forgotten. In the end Gus and Waldo, now reclining in rehab, have a shared moment of revelation about the capacity of fame and fortune to deliver happiness and increase the amount of love in their lives. A gin-swigging peacock delivers a line worth remembering: ‘Get the whole world to love you? Why bother!?! You love each other!’ In detailing what is required to maintain fame and fortune, this book manages to define what love is not. Many aspects of popular culture are satirized in this book, from TV talent shows to blockbuster films, from workout videos to brand endorsement. In the third volume of the series, Gus & Waldo’s Book of Sex, the penguins face a cooling phase in their sex life and through a series of trial-and-error experiments try to regain their passion for one another. Synopsis: Gus and Waldo are suffering between the sheets and set out to rekindle the flame both in and out of the bedroom.

They didn't just mate for life, they mated all the time, but will the routine of married life put their sex life on ice? They are willing to try anything and everything from pole dancing to Viagra, from role play to aphrodisiac food; the clumsy penguins ask all their friends for advice, but after many failed attempts, they take the leap and decide to open their relationship. But all the possible partners they eye up are wrong, when they think they've found a good one in the dark room of a swinger's party, they realize they've in fact found each other. They're destined to be a monogamous couple and with a huge relief they realize the whole problem was all in their minds: ‘Oh my love we were wrong, we were fine all along! It was so stupid to vex, our love could fill a book of sex!’ Gus & Waldo’s Book of Sex is a wry and witty look at our attitudes to our own sex lives and everybody else's. In a similar way as in their previous two books, by mocking all the fads and paraphernalia that are associated with today's approach to sex and Waldo expose the reality of all of this: all nice games, but not a substitute for love.

Foreign language editions: Italy: Il Libro Del Sesso Di Gus & Waldo The fourth title of the series is a compendium of two published titles: Gus & Waldo’s Book of Fame and Gus & Waldo’s Book of Sex, with only a few unpublished illustrations to connect the plots of the two books into a single narrative. Fenati, Massimo (