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Palm wine

Palm Wine is an alcoholic beverage created from the sap of various species of palm tree such as the palmyra, date palms, coconut palms. It is known by various names in different regions and is common in various parts of Asia, the Caribbean, South America, Micronesia. Palm wine production by smallholders and individual farmers may promote conservation as palm trees become a source of regular household income that may economically be worth more than the value of timber sold. Palm wine is known as matango, tumbu liquor, white stuff in Cameroon. On the island of Leyte in the central Philippines, the red tubâ is aged with the tan bark for up to six months to two years, until it gets dark red and tapping its glass container gives off a deep hollow sound; this type of tubâ is called bahalina. Toddy is consumed in Sri Lanka and Myanmar, where in Sri Lanka it is known in sinhalese as thal ra, kithul ra ගල් රා), or pol ra; the sap is collected by a tapper. The sap is collected from the cut flower of the palm tree.

A container is fastened to the flower stump to collect the sap. The white liquid that collects tends to be sweet and non-alcoholic before it is fermented. An alternative method is the falling of the entire tree. Where this is practised, a fire is sometimes lit at the cut end to facilitate the collection of sap. Palm sap begins fermenting after collection, due to natural yeasts in the air. Within two hours, fermentation yields an aromatic wine of up to 4% alcohol content, mildly intoxicating and sweet; the wine may be allowed to ferment longer, up to a day, to yield a stronger, more sour and acidic taste, which some people prefer. Longer fermentation produces vinegar instead of stronger wine. Palm wine may be distilled to create a stronger drink, which goes by different names depending on the region. Throughout Nigeria, this is called ogogoro. In some parts of Cameroon, it is known as Afofo. In parts of southern Ghana distilled palm wine is called burukutu. In Togo and Benin it is called sodabe. In coastal parts of Kenya, it is known as "chang'aa".

Chang'aa can be applied to wounds to stop heavy bleeding. In Ivory Coast, it is called "koutoukou". In the Philippines, the most common distilled palm liquor is lambanog, made from aged tubâ, it has high alcohol by volume, at 40 to 45% abv. In Africa, the sap used to create palm wine is most taken from wild datepalms such as the silver date palm, the palmyra, the jaggery palm, or from oil palm such as the African Oil Palm or from Raffia palms, kithul palms, or nipa palms. In part of central and western Democratic Republic of the Congo, palm wine is called malafu. Palm wine tapping is mentioned in the novel Things Fall Apart by the Nigerian writer Chinua Achebe and is central to the plot of the novel The Palm Wine Drinkard by Nigerian author Amos Tutuola. Palm wine plays an important role in many ceremonies in parts of Nigeria such as among the Igbo peoples, elsewhere in central and western Africa. Guests at weddings, birth celebrations, funeral wakes are served generous quantities. Palm wine is infused with medicinal herbs to remedy a wide variety of physical complaints.

As a token of respect to deceased ancestors, many drinking sessions begin with a small amount of palm wine spilled on the ground. Palm wine is enjoyed by men and women, although women drink it in less public venues. In parts of southeastern Nigeria, namely Igboland, palm wine is locally referred to as "mmanya ocha", with "ngwo" and "nkwu" variants, it plays a important role in traditional Igbo settings. In Urualla, for instance, other "ideator" towns, it is the drink of choice for traditional weddings. A young man, going for the first introduction at his in-laws’ house is required to bring palm wine with him. There are varying gallons of palm wine required, depending on the customs of the different regions in Igboland; this culture can be observed in a similar fashion in the neighbouring north-western regions of Cameroon.. There are four types of palm wine in the southern Democratic Republic of the Congo. From the oil palm comes ngasi, dibondo comes from the raffia palm, cocoti from the coconut palm, mahusu from a short palm which grows in the savannah areas of western Bandundu and Kasai provinces.

In India and South Asia, coconut palms and Palmyra palms such as the Arecaceae and Borassus are preferred. It is produced from the lala palm by cutting the stem and collecting the sap. In some areas of India, palm wine is evaporated to produce the unrefined sugar called jaggery. In parts of India, the unfermented sap is called neera and is refrigerated and distributed by semi-government agencies. A little lime is

Calvin Wooster

Hezekiah Calvin Wooster was a circuit rider in the Methodist Episcopal Church. He was one of the first Methodists to preach in Upper Canada, where his straightforward style of preaching that appealed to direct emotional connection to God allowed him to convert many of the inhabitants. Wooster was born May 1771 in Woodbury, Connecticut. Around 1787, he moved with his family to New York, he was convicted of sin October 9, 1791, subsequently became a born again Christian on December 1, 1791. His conversion was completed by sanctification on February 6, 1792, he was accepted on trial for the Methodist itinerary at the 1793 conference, assigned to ride the Granville Circuit in Massachusetts. After a few months on the Granville circuit, he was reassigned to the Pittsfield circuit. After another few months, he was again reassigned, this time to the Cambridge circuit. In 1794, he was assigned to the Elizabeth Town Circuit in New Jersey. At the 1795 conference in White Plains, New York, Wooster's trial period was ended, he was given his deacon's orders.

That year he was assigned to the Columbia Circuit in New York. In 1796, he volunteered to ride in Upper Canada, was assigned to the Oswegotchie Circuit, he travelled north with fellow circuit rider Samuel Coate, reaching the quarterly meeting of the Upper Canada district after a twenty-one-day journey through a populated wilderness. There he met the presiding elder Darius Dunham. At the end of the day's public business, Dunham retired with the other conference leaders to discuss organisational matters. Wooster remained behind talking to those who remained in the meeting room, proselytizing to them that they should find full redemption in the blood of Christ. Many were quite stirred by his preaching, shouting and praised God aloud, while others were so overcome with emotion that they fell prostrate to the floor; the commotion attracted the attention of Dunham. Dunham, a "fire and brimstone" preacher, was indignant to find many of the Methodists on the floor in emotional outburst, he began praying loudly, for God to put a stop to "the raging of the wild fire."

Wooster knelt beside him, prayed "Lord Bless brother Dunham!" The pair prayed against each other for several minutes, before Dunham was overcome and fell to the floor in emotional outburst. Afterwards, Dunham adopted much of the theological bent towards emotional preaching and theatrics of Wooster. Although Wooster was a preacher of significant faith and fervor, he had a poor constitution, after circuiting riding in Upper Canada through June 1798, he returned to his parent home ill, suffering from tuberculosis, died on November 6, 1798. Circuit rider Lorenzo "Crazy" Dow visited Wooster on his deathbed, was inspired to follow Wooster's example, volunteer to be sent to Upper Canada. There he preached numerous sermons around Kingston centering on what he maintained were Wooster's last words: "Ye must be sanctified or damned". Wooster preached in a simple, straightforward style, employing common language which allowed him to appeal to people unfamiliar with theology. Where John Wesley had written that sanctification must come from solemn spiritual reflection, Wooster preached that sanctification was achieved by being smitten by God, a strong, emotional experience.

As a consequence, Wooster was able to preach to common folk not well acquainted with religious doctrine, induced emotional outbursts from his audience while preaching. Wooster employed a variety of theatrical devices in his preaching. At one Methodist meeting around the Bay of Quinte, an audience member was arranged to be disruptive and swearing during the sermon. After some time, Wooster pointed at him and exclaimed "My God, smite him!", the man dutifully dropped straight to the floor. In other cases, he would begin a sermon by descending a ladder, evoking Moses descending from the mount. Autobiography of Elbert Osborn. 1. New York: Elbert Osborn. 1865. Carroll, John. Case and his cotemporaries, or, The Canadian itinerants' memorial constituting a biographical history of Methodism in Canada, from its introduction into the Province, till the death of the Rev. Wm. Case in 1855. I. Toronto: Wesleyan Conference Office. OL 7060116M. French, G. S.. "Wooster, Hezekiah Calvin". In Halpenny, Francess G. Dictionary of Canadian Biography.

IV. University of Toronto Press. Rawlyk, George A.. The Canada Fire:Radical Evangelicalism in British North America, 1775-1812. McGill-Queen's Press. ISBN 9780773512214. Rawlyk, George A.. The Canadian Protestant Experience, 1760-1990. McGill-Queen's Press. ISBN 9780773511323. Sprague, William Buell. Annals of the American Pulpit: Methodist. Robert Carter & Brothers

Ideal Institute of Technology

College code - 028 Ideal Institute of Technology is an engineering college in Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India. It is affiliated to Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam Technical University the name was Uttar Pradesh Technical University, Lucknow; the college was affiliated to Mahamaya Technical University, Noida until it was merged and the college came under the jurisdiction of the present university. The institute is located close to the Ghaziabad Industrial Area; the institute, 4 km from Delhi-Lucknow Highway NH-24 6 km from the Ghaziabad bus stand, 7.5 km from the Ghaziabad railway station. The college infrastructure includes three educational buildings, a central library, a mechanical engineering laboratory; the college has student support facilities, including hostels, a canteen, stationery shop, medical support, a student activity center. Students are admitted through the state level counseling for the SEE-UPTU; the exam is held in the third week of April and the results are announced the next month. About 70% seats are reserved and 30% are open.

50% of the seats belong to the reserved categories as notified by the Government of India notifications. Out of the remaining seats, 10% are reserved for girls, 5% for the armed forces, 5% for the physically handicapped, 5% for freedom fighter quota. Out of the total seats, 15% seats are for the management quota; the branches are allocated on the counseling day itself. The college offers a Bachelor of Technology degree in the following fields: Ideal Institute Of Technology Homepage AKTU Oracle