Luzia Woman is the name for an Upper Paleolithic period skeleton of a Paleo-Indian woman, found in a cave in Brazil. Some archaeologists believed the young woman may have been part of the first wave of immigrants to South America; the 11,500-year-old skeleton was found in a grotto in Lapa Vermelha, Pedro Leopoldo, Great Belo Horizonte, Brazil, in 1974 by archaeologist Annette Laming-Emperaire. The nickname "Luzia" pays homage to the Australopithecus fossil "Lucy"; the fossil was kept at the National Museum of Brazil, where it was shown to the public until it was fragmented during a fire that destroyed the museum on September 2, 2018. On October 19, 2018, it was announced that most of Luzia's remains were identified from the Museu Nacional debris, which allowed them to rebuild part of her skeleton. Luzia was discovered in 1974 in a rock shelter by a joint French-Brazilian expedition, working not far from Belo Horizonte, Brazil; the remains were not articulated. The skull, separated from the rest of the skeleton but was in good condition, was buried under more than forty feet of mineral deposits and debris.
There were no other human remains at the site. New dating of the bones announced in 2013 confirmed that at an age of 10,030 ± 60 14C yr BP, Luzia is one of the most ancient American human skeletons discovered. Forensics have determined. Although flint tools were found nearby, hers were the only human remains found in Vermelha Cave; the fossil of Luzia was believed to have been destroyed when the National Museum burned, according to officials, but firefighters discovered a human skull within the burned museum. On October 19, 2018 it was announced that the Luzia skull was indeed found, but in a fragmented state. 80% of the fragments were identified as being part of the frontal, bones that are more resistant and the fragment of her femur that belonged to the fossil and was stored. A part of the box that contained Luzia's skull was recovered; the reassembly of the bones has not yet been undertaken. Her facial features included a narrow, oval cranium, projecting face and pronounced chin, strikingly dissimilar to most Native Americans and their indigenous Siberian forebears.
Anthropologists variously described Luzia's features as resembling those of Negroids, Indigenous Australians and the Negritos of Southeast Asia. Walter Neves, an anthropologist at the University of São Paulo, suggested that Luzia's features most resembled those of Australian Aboriginal peoples. Richard Neave of Manchester University, who undertook a forensic facial reconstruction of Luzia, described it as negroid. Neves and other Brazilian anthropologists theorized that Luzia's Paleo-Indian predecessors lived in South East Asia for tens of thousands of years after migrating from Africa and began arriving in the New World as early as 15,000 years ago; the oldest confirmed date for an archaeosite in the Americas is 18,500 and 14,500 cal BP for the Monte Verde site in southern Chile. Some anthropologists have hypothesized that a population from coastal East Asia migrated in boats along the Kuril island chain, the Beringian coast and down the west coast of the Americas during the decline of the Last Glacial Maximum.
In 1998, Neves and archaeologist André Prous studied and dated 11,400 years for the skull of Luzia after naming her. Neves' conclusions have been challenged by research done by anthropologists Rolando González-José, Frank Williams and William Armelagos, who have shown in their studies that the cranio-facial variability could just be due to genetic drift and other factors affecting cranio-facial plasticity in Native Americans. A comparison in 2005 of Lagoa Santa specimens with modern Aimoré people of the same region showed strong affinities, leading Neves to classify the Aimoré as Paleo-Indians. Researchers recreated the skull of Luzia with 3D printers by studies resumed in a laboratory of the National Institute of Technology by master's and doctoral students of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. In November 2018, scientists of the University of São Paulo and Harvard University released a study that contradicts the alleged Australo-Melanesian physical appearance of Luzia. Using DNA sequencing, the results showed.
The bust of Luzia displaying African features was done in the 1990's. "However, skull shape isn't a reliable marker of geographic origin. Genetics is the best basis for this type of inference," Strauss explained."The genetic results of the new study show categorically that there was no significant connection between the Lagoa Santa people and groups from Africa or Australia. So the hypothesis that Luzia's people derived from a migratory wave prior to the ancestors of today's Amerindians has been disproved. On the contrary, the DNA shows that Luzia's people were Amerindian." Luzia stood just under five feet tall. Her remains seem to indicate that she died when she was 20 years old, either in an accident or as the result of an animal attack, she was a member of a group of hunter-gatherers. Collection of fossils in the National Museum of Brazil Genetic history of indigenous peoples of the Americas Settlement of the AmericasHuman remains Arlington Springs Man Peñon woman Buhl Woman Kennewick Man Kwäday Dän Ts'ìnchiArcheological sites Mummy Cave Paisley Caves Xá:ytem Calico Early Man Site Cueva de las Manos—Cave paintings Fort Rock Cave Marmes Rockshelter Media related to Luzia at Wikimedia Commons
Dutch Brazil known as New Holland, was the northern portion of the Portuguese colony of Brazil, ruled by the Dutch during the Dutch colonization of the Americas between 1630 and 1654. The main cities of the Dutch colony of New Holland were the capital Mauritsstad, Nieuw Amsterdam, Saint Louis, São Cristóvão, Sirinhaém and Olinda. From 1630 onward, the Dutch Republic conquered half of Brazil's settled European area at the time, with their capital in Recife; the Dutch West India Company set up their headquarters in Recife. The governor, Johan Maurits, invited artists and scientists to the colony to help promote Brazil and increase immigration. However, the tide turned against the Dutch when the Portuguese won a significant victory at the Second Battle of Guararapes in 1649. On 26 January 1654, the Dutch surrendered and signed the capitulation, but only as a provisional pact. By May 1654, the Dutch demanded. On 6 August 1661, New Holland was formally ceded to Portugal through the Treaty of The Hague.
While of only transitional importance for the Dutch, this period was of considerable importance in the historical memory in Brazil. It did not have lasting changes on the institutional development of Portuguese Brazil. Local Portuguese settlers had to oppose the Dutch by their own resources, including mobilizing black and indigenous allies, made use of their knowledge of local conditions; this struggle is counted, in Brazilian historical memory, as laying the seeds of Brazilian nationhood. This period precipitated a decline in Brazil's sugar industry, since conflict between the Dutch and Portuguese disrupted Brazilian sugar production, amidst rising competition from British and Dutch planters in the Caribbean; the Habsburg family had ruled the Low Countries from 1482. As part of the war, Dutch raiders attacked Spanish lands and ships. In 1594 Philip II, king both of Spain and of Portugal, gave permission for Dutch ships bound for Brazil to sail together once a year in a fleet of twenty ships.
In 1609 the Habsburgs and the Dutch Republic signed a Twelve Years' Truce, during which the Dutch Republic was allowed to trade with Portuguese settlements in Brazil. Portugal's small geographic size and small population meant that it needed "foreign participation in the colonization and commerce of its empire", the Dutch had played such a role, mutually beneficial; as part of the truce of 1609-1621 the Dutch agreed to delay the establishment of a West India Company, a counterpart to the existing Dutch East India Company. By the end of the truce, the Dutch had vastly expanded their trade networks and gained over half of the carrying trade between Brazil and Europe. In 1621, the twelve-year peace treaty expired and the United Netherlands chartered a Dutch West India Company; the Dutch–Portuguese War, which had started in 1602, through the new company the Dutch now started to interfere with the Spanish and Portuguese colonies in America. As part of the Groot Desseyn plan, Admiral Jacob Willekens in December 1623 led a West Indische Compagnie force to Salvador, the capital of Brazil and the center of a captaincy famous for its sugarcane.
The expedition consisted of 3,300 men. They arrived there on May 8, 1624, whereupon the Portuguese Governor Diogo Tristão de Mendonça Furtado surrendered. However, on April 30, 1625, the Portuguese recaptured the city with the help of a combined Spanish and Portuguese force consisting of 52 ships and 12,500 men; the city would play a critical role as a base of the Portuguese struggle against the Dutch for the control of Brazil. In 1628, the seizure of a Spanish silver convoy by Piet Heyn in Matanzas Bay provided the Dutch WIC the funds for another attempt to conquer Brazil at Pernambuco. In the summer of 1629, the Dutch coveted a newfound interest in obtaining the Brazilian state of Pernambuco, the largest and richest sugar-producing area in the world; the Dutch fleet of 65 ships was led by Hendrick Corneliszoon Loncq. Matias de Albuquerque, the Portuguese governor, led a strong Portuguese resistance which hindered the Dutch from developing their forts on the lands which they had captured. By 1631, the Dutch left Olinda and tried to gain control of the Fort of Cabedello on Paraíba, the Rio Grande, Rio Formoso, Cabo de Santo Agostinho.
These attempts were unsuccessful, however. Still in control of António Vaz and Recife, the Dutch gained a foothold at Cabo de Santo Agostinho. By 1634 the Dutch controlled the coastline from the Rio Grande do Norte to Pernambuco's Cabo de Santo Agostinho, they still maintained control of the seas as well. By 1635 many Portuguese settlers were choosing Dutch-occupied land over Portuguese-controlled land; the Dutch offered freedom of security of property. In 1635 the Dutch conquered three strongholds of the Portuguese: the towns of Porto Calvo, Arraial do Bom Jesus, Fort Nazaré on Cabo de Santo Agostinho; these strongholds gave the Dutch increased sugar lands. In 1637, the WIC gave control of its Brazilian conquests, now called "Nieuw Holland," to Johan Maur
History of the Constitution of Brazil
During its independent political history, Brazil has had seven constitutions. The most recent was ratified on October 5, 1988. Prior to its independence, on September 7, 1822, Brazil had no formal Constitution, since Portugal only adopted its first Constitution on September 23, 1822, 16 days after Brazilian proclaimed independence. In 1823, the Emperor Pedro I started the political process of writing a Constitution; the elaboration of the first Constitution of Brazil was quite difficult and the power struggle involved resulted in a long-lasting unrest that plagued the country for nearly two decades. Two major facts increased the troubles: Large numbers of recent immigrants from Portugal, who wanted to keep their privileges or who were still loyal to the metropolitan government; these were found both among the wealthier parts of the population, as businessmen controlling Brazil's international trade, the lower ones, as tradesmen and free urban workers. The majority of the population was composed of slaves, prompting the whites to fear being massacred in the event of a rebellion caused by a failing state.
The first circumstance meant that despite strong support of the Crown Prince Pedro I by the Brazilian landowners, the opinions of the reinóis should be considered. As each side had distinct and different objectives none could prevail and a compromise was needed. There were extra problems involved: the Constitutional Assembly had been elected to decide the applicability of Portuguese laws in Brazil, not to draft a new constitution; as a result, some of the Portuguese deputies refused to take part in it. On the other hand, some of the Brazilian deputies, the "liberal" ones, had been persecuted, some exiled others imprisoned, thus the Constitutional Assembly did not hear an appreciable number of opinions and would end reflecting the objectives of the "Brazilian Party", to the detriment of the "Portuguese Party" and the liberals. As the draft constitution progressed it became clear that the deputies were trying to establish a constitution that would: curtail the powers of the monarch, restrict most political rights to landowners and deny them to the Portuguese, establish an authoritarian, but constitutional, whose head of government would be the Emperor himself, aided by a group of ministers of his choice.
The emperor did not want to be removed out all powers and serve as a mere decorative figurehead, but rather to protect the interests of the Portuguese businessmen and prevent any further of his power to the Parliament. In a quite predictable move, in the light of the wave of conservatism led by the Holy Alliance, the Emperor used his influence over the Brazilian Army to dissolve the Constitutional Assembly, in what became known as the Night of Agony, imposed on the country a constitution that concentrated the executive power on the Emperor himself; the Constitution endowed the Assembly with both status and authority, created legislative, moderating and judicial branches as "delegations of the nation" with the separation of those powers envisaged as providing balances in support of the Constitution and the rights it enshrined. The Constitution of 1824 was rather less parliamentary than the draft prepared by the Constituent Assembly. In fact, it was for all purposes a unique regime: a "presidential" monarchy.
That did not mean, by any means, that the Brazilian monarch had prerogatives resembling those of a tyrant or dictator. The individual guarantees that guarantee human liberty and dignity were inserted into the articles of the Charter and were respected; the Emperor would not act in areas reserved to the legislative branch and the judiciary, such as to create laws or to judge and sentence. Based on the French constitution of 1792 and the Spanish constitution of 1812, the Imperial constitution was considered one of the most liberal of the times, in front of many European liberal powers; the new constitution, published on March 25, 1824 outlined the existence of four powers: Executive — The State Council Legislative — The General Assembly, formed by the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies Judiciary — The Courts Moderator — Vested in the Emperor, was supposed to resolve any incompatibilities between the other three, acting as a "neutral" power, in accordance to the theories of the Swiss thinker Benjamin Constant.
The Emperor controlled the Executive by nominating the members of the State Council, influenced the Legislative by being allowed to propose motions and having the power to dissolve the Chamber of Deputies and influenced the Judiciary, by appointing the members of the Highest Court. This constitution established the Brazilian Empire as a Unitary state; the Amendment of August 12, 1834, enacted in a period of liberal reform, authorized the provinces to create their own legislative chambers, which were empowered to legislate on financial matters, create taxes and their own corps of civil servants under a chief executive nominated by the central power. On July 20, 1847, a Decree established the post of President of the Council of Ministers (not to be confused with the State Council, whose ten members sat for life and which in the late Empire functi
Pedro II of Brazil
Dom Pedro II, nicknamed "the Magnanimous", was the second and last monarch of the Empire of Brazil, reigning for over 58 years. He was born in Rio de Janeiro, the seventh child of Emperor Dom Pedro I of Brazil and Empress Dona Maria Leopoldina and thus a member of the Brazilian branch of the House of Braganza, his father's abrupt abdication and departure to Europe in 1831 left the five year-old as Emperor and led to a grim and lonely childhood and adolescence, obliged to spend his time studying in preparation for rule. He encountered few friends of his age, his experiences with court intrigues and political disputes during this period affected his character. Pedro II inherited an empire on the verge of disintegration, but he turned Brazil into an emerging power in the international arena; the nation grew to be distinguished from its Hispanic neighbors on account of its political stability, zealously guarded freedom of speech, respect for civil rights, vibrant economic growth, form of government—a functional representative parliamentary monarchy.
Brazil was victorious in the Platine War, the Uruguayan War, the Paraguayan War, as well as prevailing in several other international disputes and domestic tensions. Pedro II steadfastly pushed through the abolition of slavery despite opposition from powerful political and economic interests. A savant in his own right, the Emperor established a reputation as a vigorous sponsor of learning and the sciences, he won the respect and admiration of people such as Charles Darwin, Victor Hugo, Friedrich Nietzsche, was a friend to Richard Wagner, Louis Pasteur, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, among others. There was no desire for a change in the form of government among most Brazilians, but the Emperor was overthrown in a sudden coup d'état that had no support outside a clique of military leaders who desired a form of republic headed by a dictator. Pedro II had become weary of emperorship and despaired over the monarchy's future prospects, despite its overwhelming popular support, he did not support any attempt to restore the monarchy.
He spent the last two years of his life in exile in Europe, living alone on little money. The reign of Pedro II thus came to an unusual end—he was overthrown while regarded by the people and at the pinnacle of his popularity, some of his accomplishments were soon brought to naught as Brazil slipped into a long period of weak governments and constitutional and economic crises; the men who had exiled him soon began to see in him a model for the Brazilian republic. A few decades after his death, his reputation was restored and his remains were returned to Brazil with celebrations nationwide. Historians have regarded the Emperor in an positive light and several have ranked him as the greatest Brazilian. Pedro was born at 02:30 on 2 December 1825 in the Palace of São Cristóvão, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Named after St. Peter of Alcantara, his name in full was Pedro de Alcântara João Carlos Leopoldo Salvador Bibiano Francisco Xavier de Paula Leocádio Miguel Gabriel Rafael Gonzaga. Through his father, Emperor Dom Pedro I, he was a member of the Brazilian branch of the House of Braganza and was referred to using the honorific "Dom" from birth.
He was the grandson of Portuguese King Dom João VI and nephew of Dom Miguel I. His mother was the Archduchess Maria Leopoldina of Austria, daughter of Franz II, the last Holy Roman Emperor. Through his mother, Pedro was a nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte and first cousin of Emperors Napoleon II of France, Franz Joseph I of Austria-Hungary and Don Maximiliano I of Mexico; the only legitimate male child of Pedro I to survive infancy, he was recognized as heir apparent to the Brazilian throne with the title Prince Imperial on 6 August 1826. Empress Maria Leopoldina died on 11 December 1826, a few days after a stillbirth, when Pedro was a year old. Two and a half years his father married Amélie of Leuchtenberg. Prince Pedro developed an affectionate relationship with her. Pedro I's desire to restore his daughter Maria II to her Portuguese throne, usurped by his brother Miguel I, as well as his declining political position at home led to his abrupt abdication on 7 April 1831, he and Amélie departed for Europe, leaving behind the Prince Imperial, who became Emperor Dom Pedro II.
Upon leaving the country, Emperor Pedro I selected three people to take charge of his son and remaining daughters. The first was José Bonifácio de Andrada, his friend and an influential leader during Brazilian independence, named guardian; the second was Mariana de Verna, who had held the post of aia since the birth of Pedro II. As a child, the then-Prince Imperial called her "Dadama", as he could not pronounce the word dama correctly, he regarded her as his surrogate mother, would continue to call her by her nickname well into adulthood out of affection. The third person was an Afro-Brazilian veteran of the Cisplatine War, he was an employee in the Palace of São Cristóvão whom Pedro I trusted and asked to look after his son—a charge that he carried out for the rest of his life. Bonifácio was replaced by another guardian. Pedro II spent his days studying, with only two hours set aside for amusements. Intelligent, he was able to acquire knowledge with great ease. However, the hours of study were strenuous and the preparation for his role as monarch w
Transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil
The transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil occurred with the strategic retreat of Queen Maria I of Portugal, Prince Regent John referred to as Dom João or Dom João VI, the Braganza royal family and its court of nearly 15,000 people from Lisbon on November 29, 1807. The Braganza royal family departed for the Portuguese colony of Brazil just days before Napoleonic forces invaded Lisbon on December 1; the Portuguese crown remained in Brazil from 1808 until the Liberal Revolution of 1820 led to the return of John VI of Portugal on April 26, 1821. For thirteen years, Rio de Janeiro, functioned as the capital of the Kingdom of Portugal in what some historians call a "metropolitan reversal", i.e. a colony exercising governance over the entirety of the empire. The period in which the court was located in Rio brought significant changes to the city and its residents, can be interpreted through several perspectives, it had profound impacts on Brazilian society, economics and politics. The transfer of the king and the royal court "represented the first step toward Brazilian independence, since the king opened the ports of Brazil to foreign shipping and turned the colonial capital into the seat of government."
In 1807, at the outset of the Peninsular War, Napoleonic forces invaded Portugal due to the Portuguese alliance with Great Britain. The prince regent of Portugal at the time, John VI, had formally governed the country on behalf of Maria I of Portugal since 1799. Anticipating the invasion of Napoleon's army, John VI ordered the transfer of the Portuguese royal court to Brazil before he could be deposed. Setting sail for Brazil on November 29, the royal party navigated under the protection of the British Royal Navy, eight ships of the line, five frigates, four smaller vessels of the Portuguese Navy, under the command of Admiral Sir Sidney Smith. On December 5 halfway between Lisbon and Madeira, Sidney Smith, along with Britain's envoy to Lisbon, Lord Strangford, returned to Europe with part of the British flotilla. Graham Moore, a British sailor and career officer in the Royal Navy, continued escorting the Portuguese royal family to Brazil with the ships Marlborough, London and Monarch. On January 22, 1808, John and his court arrived in Brazil.
There, Prince John signed the "Abertura dos Portos" law which allowed commerce between Brazil and "friendly nations". This was beneficial for Great Britain and can be seen as one of many ways Prince John found to reward the British Empire for their assistance; this new law, broke the colonial pact that had permitted Brazil to maintain direct commercial relations with Portugal only. This transformed the Brazilian economy, subsequently, its demographics and society. Secret negotiations at London in 1807 by Portuguese ambassador Domingos António de Sousa Coutinho guaranteed British military protection in exchange for British access to Brazil's ports and to Madeira as a naval base. Coutinho's secret negotiations paved the way for Prince John's law to come to fruition in 1808. On, in attempts to modernize the economy and diversify the production of the colony, Dom João allowed for the establishment of manufacturing industries in 1808 through the signing of the "Alvará de Liberdade para as Indústrias".
This meant. In this decree, Dom João said that in an attempt to promote national wealth and recognize that manufacturing, industrial labor, multiplication of labor promote means of subsistence for subjects, Brazil should invest in those sectors effective immediately, he abolished any prohibition to industrial development. This attracted investment from Great Britain and, in a way, did expand the demand for labor; when the Portuguese court arrived in Rio de Janeiro on March 7, 1808, Brazil was sparsely populated, with a little over 3 million inhabitants. Around one-third of the colony’s population consisted of enslaved peoples, most having been captured and shipped from Africa; the indigenous population at the time was of around 800,000 people, having been reduced and isolated during the first 300 years of exploration and colonization. Population density was concentrated along the Atlantic coastline. Rio de Janeiro, around the start of the 19th century, was experiencing a sizeable population boom.
Over the 18th century, the population had increased tenfold due to the discovery of gold and diamonds and the migration of 800,000 individuals that ensued. In addition, it is estimated that 2 million enslaved Africans were brought to Brazil to work in mines and power the sugar industry. Brazilians were illiterate and lacking several basic needs, including medical care and public health services. Only 2.5% of free men were literate. These changes made the city crammed, the population was displeased, rudimentary colonial administrations were not enough to ensure progress; the small city of Rio de Janeiro was not prepared to welcome the Portuguese court. While the royal family was greeted with cheer and festivities that lasted for weeks, 10,000 houses were branded with the letters ‘PR’ standing for príncipe regente or prince regent, which meant that the homeowners had to evacuate to allow for the nobility to move in. In an silent form of protest, Brazilians gave another meaning to the letters, they started to read ‘PR’ as ponha-se na rua, a phrase that directly translates into to “put yourselves out on the street.”
Another example of implicit forms of protest or negative reactions of the relocation of the court was the intensified presence of caricaturized depictions of Dom João and Carlota. Making its way through popular discourse and taking stereotypical exaggerations that built up Brazilian folklore, Dom
Pedro I of Brazil
Dom Pedro I, nicknamed "the Liberator", was the founder and first ruler of the Empire of Brazil. As King Dom Pedro IV, he reigned over Portugal, where he became known as "the Liberator" as well as "the Soldier King". Born in Lisbon, Pedro I was the fourth child of King Dom João VI of Portugal and Queen Carlota Joaquina, thus a member of the House of Braganza; when their country was invaded by French troops in 1807, he and his family fled to Portugal's largest and wealthiest colony, Brazil. The outbreak of the Liberal Revolution of 1820 in Lisbon compelled Pedro I's father to return to Portugal in April 1821, leaving him to rule Brazil as regent, he had to deal with threats from revolutionaries and insubordination by Portuguese troops, all of which he subdued. The Portuguese government's threat to revoke the political autonomy that Brazil had enjoyed since 1808 was met with widespread discontent in Brazil. Pedro I chose the Brazilian side and declared Brazil's independence from Portugal on 7 September 1822.
On 12 October, he was acclaimed Brazilian emperor and by March 1824 had defeated all armies loyal to Portugal. A few months Pedro I crushed the short-lived Confederation of the Equator, a failed secession attempt by provincial rebels in Brazil's northeast. A secessionist rebellion in the southern province of Cisplatina in early 1825, the subsequent attempt by the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata to annex it, led the Empire into the Cisplatine War. In March 1826, Pedro I became king of Portugal before abdicating in favor of his eldest daughter, Dona Maria II; the situation worsened in 1828. During the same year in Lisbon, Maria II's throne was usurped by Prince Dom Miguel, Pedro I's younger brother; the Emperor's concurrent and scandalous sexual affair with a female courtier tarnished his reputation. Other difficulties arose in the Brazilian parliament, where a struggle over whether the government would be chosen by the monarch or by the legislature dominated political debates from 1826 to 1831.
Unable to deal with problems in both Brazil and Portugal on 7 April 1831 Pedro I abdicated in favor of his son Dom Pedro II, sailed for Europe. Pedro I invaded Portugal at the head of an army in July 1832. Faced at first with what seemed a national civil war, he soon became involved in a wider conflict that enveloped the Iberian Peninsula in a struggle between proponents of liberalism and those seeking a return to absolutism. Pedro I died of tuberculosis on 24 September 1834, just a few months after he and the liberals had emerged victorious, he was hailed by both contemporaries and posterity as a key figure who helped spread the liberal ideals that allowed Brazil and Portugal to move from Absolutist regimes to representative forms of government. Pedro was born at 08:00 on 12 October 1798 in the Queluz Royal Palace near Portugal, he was named after St. Peter of Alcantara, his full name was Pedro de Alcântara Francisco António João Carlos Xavier de Paula Miguel Rafael Joaquim José Gonzaga Pascoal Cipriano Serafim.
He was referred to using the honorific "Dom" from birth. Through his father, Prince Dom João, Pedro was a member of the House of Braganza and a grandson of King Dom Pedro III and Queen Dona Maria I of Portugal, who were uncle and niece as well as husband and wife, his mother, Doña Carlota Joaquina, was the daughter of King Don Carlos IV of Spain. Pedro's parents had an unhappy marriage. Carlota Joaquina was an ambitious woman, who always sought to advance Spain's interests to the detriment of Portugal's. Reputedly unfaithful to her husband, she went as far as to plot his overthrow in league with dissatisfied Portuguese nobles; as the second eldest son, Pedro became his father's heir apparent and Prince of Beira upon the death of his elder brother Francisco António in 1801. Prince Dom João had been acting as regent on behalf of his mother, Queen Maria I, after she was declared incurably insane in 1792. By 1802, Pedro's parents were estranged. Pedro and his siblings resided in the Queluz Palace with their grandmother Maria I, far from their parents, whom they saw only during state occasions at Queluz.
In late November 1807, when Pedro was nine, the royal family escaped from Portugal as an invading French army sent by Napoleon approached Lisbon. Pedro and his family arrived in Rio de Janeiro, capital of Brazil Portugal's largest and wealthiest colony, in March 1808. During the voyage, Pedro read Virgil's Aeneid and conversed with the ship's crew, picking up navigational skills. In Brazil, after a brief stay in the City Palace, Pedro settled with his younger brother Miguel and their father in the Palace of São Cristóvão. Although never on intimate terms with his father, Pedro loved him and resented the constant humiliation his father suffered at the hands of Carlota Joaquina due to her extramarital affairs; as an adult, Pedro would call his mother, for whom he held only feelings of contempt, a "bitch". The early experiences of betrayal and neglect had a great impact on the formation of Pedro's character. A modicum of stability during his childhood was provided by his aia, Maria Genoveva do Rêgo e Matos, whom he loved as a mother, by his aio friar António de Arrábida, who became his mentor.
Both attempted to furnish him with a suitable education. His instruction encompassed a broad array of subjects that included mathematics, political economy, logic and geography, he learned to speak and write not only in Por
Alagoas is one of the 27 states of Brazil and is situated in the eastern part of the Northeast Region. It borders: Pernambuco, it occupies an area of 27,767 km², being larger than Haiti. Its capital is the city of Maceió, it is made up of 102 municipalities and its most populous cities are Maceió, Palmeira dos Índios, Rio Largo, União dos Palmares, São Miguel dos Campos, Santana do Ipanema, Delmiro Gouveia, Marechal Deodoro, Campo Alegre. It is the second smallest Brazilian state in area, with Sergipe it is sometimes called the Rhode Island of Brazil, it is 16th in population. It is one of the largest producers of sugarcane and coconuts in the country, has an economy based on cattle raising. Land of the sururu, lagoon shellfish which serves as food for the coastal population, of coconut water, Alagoas possesses some of the country's richest folklore; the Alagoano territory constituted the southern part of the Captaincy of Pernambuco and only gained its autonomy in 1817. Its occupation pushed the expansion of the captaincy's sugarcane farming, which required new areas of cultivation, southward.
Thus arose Porto Calvo and Penedo, nuclei which guided the colonization and social life of the region for a long time. The Dutch invasion in Pernambuco was extended to Alagoas in 1631; the invaders were expelled in 1645, after intense fighting in Porto Calvo, leaving the economy in ruins. The escape of African slaves during the Dutch invasion created a serious labour shortage problem on the sugarcane plantations. Grouped in villages called quilombos, the Africans were only dominated at the end of the 17th century with the destruction of the most important quilombo, Palmares. During the empire, the separatist and republican Confederation of the Equator received the support of noteworthy Alagoano figures. Throughout the 1840s, political life was marked by the conflict between the lisos and the cabeludos, liberals. At the beginning of the 20th century, the Alagoano hinterland lived through the pioneering experience of Delmiro Gouveia, a Pernambucano entrepreneur who installed the Estrela thread factory, which came to produce 200 spools daily.
Delmiro Gouveia was killed in October 1917 in circumstances still unclarified, after being pressured, according to rumor, to sell his factory to competing foreign firms. After his death, his machines would be thrown into Paulo Afonso Falls. Nicknamed the Land of the Marshals, for being the birthplace of Deodoro da Fonseca and Floriano Peixoto, Alagoas gave the country numerous illustrious Brazilians among whom are the anthropologist Arthur Ramos, the maestro Hekel Tavares, the philologist Aurélio Buarque de Holanda, the musicians Djavan and Hermeto Pascoal the poet Jorge de Lima, the jurists Pontes de Miranda and Marcos Bernardes de Mello, besides the writers Lêdo Ivo and Graciliano Ramos; the Latin lacus, "reservoir, lake" is the origin, in the primitive vocabulary heritage, of the Portuguese and Italian lago, French lac, one of its derivatives, the Latin lacuna, "pitfall, hole", "lack, neglect", explains the Spanish and Italian laguna. But the Portuguese lagoa, coincidentally with the Spanish lagona and Mirandese llagona, suggests a change in suffix documented in a 938 document from Valencia, under the spelling lacona, in another from 1094, in Sahagún, under the spelling lagona.
The Portuguese lagoa under the spelling lagona, is documented in the 14th century, alternated with the other for a long time. The name appears as a competitor with the names of the lagoons of Manguaba, a lagoa do sul, Mundaú, a lagoa do norte in the 16th century, when settlements were founded near the Alagoa do Norte and the Alagoa do Sul, the Alagoas, with the inclusion of the rest of the lagoons in the area; the suffix -ano is characteristic of Brazil, alagoano, baiano and acriano. The state's name originates with the lakes along its coast near the city of Maceió; the coast is bordered by many fine beaches. Behind the beaches, sometimes only hundreds of meters and defined by steep scarps, lies a stretch of green coastal hills having enough rainfall for considerable agriculture and scarce remnants of the Mata Atlântica that now is limited to steep hill tops or steep valley sides and bottoms; this is the area long dominated by sugar cane. Still farther inland lies the Sertão of the Northeast region of the nation.
The Sertão is a high dry region dominated by scrub, thorn-filled and sometimes toxic, the caatinga. This area and its people are famed in song, it is the land of the cowboy, clad from head to toe with thick leather to avoid the sharp vegetation. See also: History of Alagoas During the first three centuries of its history, Alagoas was part of the captaincy of Pernambuco, only changing into an independent captaincy in 1817; as a reprisal against the Pernambucan Revolution, the King John VI of Portugal ordered a vast portion of the Pernambucan territory to be taken