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Palmyra

Palmyra is an ancient Semitic city in present-day Homs Governorate, Syria. Archaeological finds date back to the Neolithic period, documents first mention the city in the early second millennium BC. Palmyra changed hands on a number of occasions between different empires before becoming a subject of the Roman Empire in the first century AD; the city grew wealthy from trade caravans. Palmyra's wealth enabled the construction of monumental projects, such as the Great Colonnade, the Temple of Bel, the distinctive tower tombs. Ethnically, the Palmyrenes combined elements of Amorites and Arabs; the city's social structure was tribal, its inhabitants spoke Palmyrene, while using Greek for commercial and diplomatic purposes. Greco-Roman culture influenced the culture of Palmyra, which produced distinctive art and architecture that combined eastern and western traditions; the city's inhabitants worshiped local Semitic deities and Arab gods. By the third century AD Palmyra had become a prosperous regional center.

It reached the apex of its power in the 260s, when the Palmyrene King Odaenathus defeated Persian Emperor Shapur I. The king was succeeded by regent Queen Zenobia, who rebelled against Rome and established the Palmyrene Empire. In 273, Roman emperor Aurelian destroyed the city, restored by Diocletian at a reduced size; the Palmyrenes converted to Christianity during the fourth century and to Islam in the centuries following the conquest by the 7th-century Rashidun Caliphate, after which the Palmyrene and Greek languages were replaced by Arabic. Before AD 273, Palmyra enjoyed autonomy and was attached to the Roman province of Syria, having its political organization influenced by the Greek city-state model during the first two centuries AD; the city became a Roman colonia during the third century, leading to the incorporation of Roman governing institutions, before becoming a monarchy in 260. Following its destruction in 273, Palmyra became a minor center under the Byzantines and empires, its destruction by the Timurids in 1400 reduced it to a small village.

Under French Mandatory rule in 1932, the inhabitants were moved into the new village of Tadmur, the ancient site became available for excavations. During the Syrian Civil War in 2015, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant destroyed large parts of the ancient city, recaptured by the Syrian Army on 2 March 2017. Records of the name "Tadmor" date from the early second millennium BC. Aramaic Palmyrene inscriptions; the etymology of the name is unclear. The Greek name Παλμύρα was first recorded by Pliny the Elder in the 1st century AD, it was used throughout the Greco-Roman world. It is believed that "Palmyra" derives from "Tadmor" and linguists have presented two possibilities. According to the suggestion by Schultens, "Palmyra" could have arisen as a corruption of "Tadmor", via an unattested form "Talmura", changed to "Palmura" by the influence of the Latin word palma, in reference to the city's palm trees the name reached its final form "Palmyra"; the second view, supported by some philologists, such as Jean Starcky, holds that Palmyra is a translation of "Tadmor", which had derived from the Greek word for palm, "palame".

An alternative suggestion connects the name to the Syriac tedmurtā "miracle", hence tedmurtā "object of wonder", from the root dmr "to wonder". Michael Patrick O'Connor suggested that the names "Palmyra" and "Tadmor" originated in the Hurrian language; as evidence, he cited the inexplicability of alterations to the theorized roots of both names. According to this theory, "Tadmor" derives from the Hurrian word tad with the addition of the typical Hurrian mid vowel rising formant mar. According to this theory, "Palmyra" derives from the Hurrian word pal using the same mVr formant; the city of Palmyra lies 215 km northeast of Damascus. The city is located in an oasis surrounded by palms. Two mountain ranges overlook the city. In the south and the east Palmyra is exposed to the Syrian Desert. A small wadi crosses the area, flowing from the western hills past the city before disappearing in the eastern gardens of the oasis. South of the wadi is Efqa. Pliny the Elder described the town in the 70s AD as famous for its desert location, the richness of its soil, the springs surrounding it, which made agriculture and herding possible.

Palmyra began as a small settlement near the Efqa spring on the southern bank of Wadi al-Qubur. The settlement, known as the Hellen

Egara-guti

Egara-guti is a two-player abstract strategy game from India from Central Provinces, it was described by H. J. R. Murray in A History of Board-Games Other Than Chess; the game is related to Draughts and more so to Alquerque. Pieces are captured by leaping over them. Egara-Guti consists of a Lau kata kati board, but with the addition of two lines connecting the two triangles and running through them. Egara-guti belongs to a specific category of games called Indian War-games, the other games in this category are Lau kata kati, Dash-guti, Gol-skuish. All Indian War-games have one important thing in common, and, that all the pieces are laid out on the grid patterned board in the beginning, with only one vacant point in the center; this forces the first move to be played on the central point, captured by the other player's piece. The board consist of two triangles connected together at a common vertex. Players play on opposite sides of the board with the base of each triangle forming the first rank of each player.

Two lines cross the breadth of each triangle forming the second and third ranks of each player. The common vertex is the fourth rank of each player, is the central point of the board. A single line perpendicular to the base of each triangle runs through the common vertex. Two more lines connect the two triangles where the second ranks intersect with their respective triangles and extend all the way to each triangle's base. There are a total of 23 intersection points. Pieces are situated on the intersection points, move along the lines; each player has 11 pieces. One plays the black pieces, the other plays the white pieces, however any two colors or distinguishable objects will do. Players choose which color to play, who starts first; the 11 black pieces are placed on the intersection points of one of the triangles, the 11 white pieces are placed on the intersection points of the other triangle. The only intersection point vacant is the central point of the board. Intersection points hereforth will be referred to as "points".

Players alternate their turns using one piece to either move or capture per turn. A piece moves one space per turn onto a vacant adjacent point along a line. Captures are compulsory and are done by the short leap as in draughts and Alquerque, where the adjacent enemy piece is leaped over onto a vacant point adjacently behind; the captures must be done in a straight line following the pattern on the board. A piece must continue to capture. Captured pieces are removed from the board. If a player captures all of their opponent's pieces, he or she is the winner. If a player cannot perform a move or a capture because its pieces have been blocked or immobilized by the other player's pieces, this is known as a stalemate, the player loses. If neither player can capture any more pieces, the player with most pieces wins. If both players have the same number of pieces the game is a draw. Lau kata kati, Dash-guti, Pretwa, Gol-skuish, Alquerque

Vice-Admiral of Cheshire

The holder of the post Vice-Admiral of Cheshire was responsible for the defence County of Cheshire, England. As a Vice-Admiral, the post holder was the chief of naval administration for his district, his responsibilities included pressing men for naval service, deciding the lawfulness of prizes, dealing with salvage claims for wrecks and acting as a judge. The earliest record of an appointment was of 3rd Earl of Derby bef. 1569–1572 In 1863 the Registrar of the Admiralty Court stated that the offices had'for many years been purely honorary'. Appointments were made by the Lord High Admiral; when the admiralty was in commission appointments were made by the crown by letters patent under the seal of the admiralty court. This is a list of people. Cheshire and LancashireEdward Stanley, 3rd Earl of Derby bef. 1569–1572 Henry Stanley, 4th Earl of Derby 1573–1593 Ferdinando Stanley, 5th Earl of Derby 1593–1594 vacant William Stanley, 6th Earl of Derby bef. 1606–1638 James Stanley, 7th Earl of Derby 1638–?

CheshireSir William Brereton, 1st Baronet 1644–1649 Interregnum Charles Stanley, 8th Earl of Derby 1661–1672 William Banks 1673–1676 vacant William Stanley, 9th Earl of Derby 1684–1691 Charles Gerard, 2nd Earl of Macclesfield 1691–1701 Richard Savage, 4th Earl Rivers 1702–1703 Hugh Cholmondeley, 1st Earl of Cholmondeley 1703–1725 George Cholmondeley, 2nd Earl of Cholmondeley 1725–1733 George Cholmondeley, 3rd Earl of Cholmondeley 1733–1770 George Cholmondeley, 1st Marquess of Cholmondeley 1770–1827 George Grey, 6th Earl of Stamford 1827–1845 vacant Bertram Talbot, 17th Earl of Shrewsbury 1854–1856 Institute of Historical Research