Palo Duro Canyon

Palo Duro Canyon is a canyon system of the Caprock Escarpment located in the Texas Panhandle near the cities of Amarillo and Canyon. As the second-largest canyon in the United States, it is 120 mi long and has an average width of 6 mi, but reaches a width of 20 mi at places, its depth is around 820 ft, but in some locations, it increases to 1,000 ft. Palo Duro Canyon has been named "The Grand Canyon of Texas" both for its size and for its dramatic geological features, including the multicolored layers of rock and steep mesa walls similar to those in the Grand Canyon; the canyon was formed by the Prairie Dog Town Fork Red River, which winds along the level surface of the Llano Estacado of West Texas suddenly and runs off the Caprock Escarpment. Water erosion over the millennia has shaped the canyon's geological formations. Notable canyon formations include hoodoos. One of the best-known and the major signature feature of the canyon is the Lighthouse Rock. A multiple-use, 6 mi round-trip loop trail is dedicated to the formation.

Palo Duro Canyon was downcut by the Prairie Dog Town Fork Red River, during the Pleistocene, when the whole region was uplifted. Most of the strata visible in the canyon were deposited during the Triassic periods. From oldest to youngest, each separated by an unconformity, the formations are: The Quartermaster Formation is Permian in age, forms the red, lower slopes of the Canyon; this layer was deposited in a near-shore shallow-marine environment consisting of siltstones and shales with ripple marks and cross bedding, that alternated with dry tidal flats indicated by satin spar gypsum and halite cast evaporite deposits. The red color indicates periods of oxidation; the Quartermaster Formation forms the lower wall and canyon floor, averaging 60 ft in thickness where it outcrops. In particular, this alternating red and white formation forms the steep and gullied lower portion of the north flank of Timber Mesa, with the maroon and lavender smooth slopes of the Tecovas Shale above; the Tecovas Formation is a part of the Dockum Group with the Trujillo Formation.

This multicolored Triassic unit consists of shale and sandstone. Deposited in streams and swamps, its colors indicate varying oxidizing conditions, the alternating dry/wet cycles typical of such environments; these rocks are fossiliferous, containing the remains of phytosaurs and fish, including Metoposaurus, Desmatosuchus and lungfish, besides coprolites and the petrified wood remains of Araucarioxylon. Septarian calcite concretions and calcite geodes are numerous, the shale forms the less steep canyon walls covered by talus slopes. A prominent band of jointed white sandstone about 15 ft thick marks the middle of this 200 ft formation. Lavender and white shales lie below this sandstone, while an orange shale lies between this sandstone and the Trujillo Formation above; the Quartermaster and Tecovas Formations make up Capital Peak. The lower third of Triassic Peak is composed of the furrowed Quartermaster Formation, overlain by the gentle slopes and smooth surface of the Tecovas Formation shales, all capped by the weather-resistant Trujillo Formation sandstone.

Large blocks of this sandstone, due to mass wasting, are found along the flanks and base of the peak. The Trujillo Formation is a Triassic formation, harder than the underlying Tecovas, forms many of the Canyon's ledges. Composed of coarse sandstone, river cross-bedding indicates deposition in a stream environment. Fossils are rare; the sandstone has alternating layers of marl-pebble conglomerate. The formation is massively bedded sandstone, making a distinct contact with the underlying Tecovas Formation, forming cliffs, prominent benches and mesas within the canyon; the formation includes a basal and upper sandstone members, separated by shales. The middle sandstone member forms conspicuous cliffs. Phytosaur and Koskinonodon remains, plus leaf imprints and mineralized wood have been found within the formation. Erosion resistant sandstones protect pedestals of underlying shale, giving rise to hoodoos, including the Lighthouse, the hoodoo at the south end of Capitol Peak; the Rock Garden is composed of Trujillo sandstone boulders.

The Ogallala Formation is a late Miocene to early Pliocene unit which forms the cliffs and ledges at the top of the canyon. Composed of sandstone and conglomerate eroded from a late Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains, it is separated from the lower Trujillo Formation by a disconformity. The coarse, porous sedimentary units of the Ogallala Formation constitute the Ogallala Aquifer, which has functioned as a major source of drinking water for much of the High Plains. Fossils of saber-toothed cats, bone-crushing dogs, horses, long-necked camels and large tortoises up to 3 feet in length, are present in the Ogallala; the siltstone and sandstone have been cemented by silica, which gives rise to the occurrence of common opal and almost-chert pockets. The upper portion of the formation has thick deposits of caliche evident at the Coronado Lodge on the northwest rim of the canyon. Fortress Cliff, on the eastern rim of the canyon, has a spectacular exposure of the Ogallala Formation. Headward erosion by the Prairie Dog Town fork of the Red River, into the caprock escarpment of the Llano Estacado, caused differential erosion.

This meant the more resistant Ogallala and Trujillo formations formed the steeper walls of the canyon. The first evidence of human habitati

Empire of Lust

Empire of Lust is a 2015 South Korean period film starring Shin Ha-kyun, Jang Hyuk, Kang Han-na and Kang Ha-neul. Kim Min-jae, is a brilliant general who's distinguished himself by protecting the borders of the established Joseon dynasty, he keeps a close eye on Yi Bang-won, the fifth son of King Taejo, whom he believes has ambitions of seizing the throne, Jin, is Kim Min-Jae's son and the King's son-in-law. Due to his position as the King's son-in-law, he is unable to take part in politics and only seeks out pleasure. Yi Bang-won was instrumental in helping his father overthrow the Goryeo dynasty and founding Joseon, but was passed over when Taejo chose his successor. Meanwhile, Kim Min-jae falls in love for the first time with a gisaeng named Ka-hee, whom he takes as his concubine, not realizing that she aims to carry out a vendetta against him. Shin Ha-kyun as Kim Min-jaeSung Yu-bin as young Kim Min-jae Jang Hyuk as Yi Bang-won Kang Han-na as Ka-hee Kang Ha-neul as Kim Jin Son Byong-ho as King Taejo Lee Jae-yong as Jeong Do-jeon Choi Moo-sung as Jo Yeong-gyu Kang Kyung-heon as Lady Jeong Kim Da-ye as Princess Gyeongsun Kim Gu-taek as Ha Ryun Gi Ju-bong as Jo Jun Kim Seung-gi as Yi Je Lee So-yoon as Sun-bun Hwang Geum-hee as Mae-hyang Sa-hee as Lady Min Kim Young as Kim Min-jae's old servant Moon Young-dong as Nam Eun Yang Young-jo as Shim Hyo-saeng Kim Wang-geun as the Head Eunuch Hyun Seok-jun as the Crown Prince Jo Hee-bong as a hwajeon owner Official website Empire of Lust at the Korean Movie Database Empire of Lust on IMDb Empire of Lust at HanCinema

City of Nottingham Water Department

The City of Nottingham Water Department the Nottingham Corporation Water Department, was responsible for the supply of water to Nottingham from 1880 to 1974. The first water supply company in the town was the Nottingham Waterworks Company, established in 1696, which took water from the River Leen, from springs at Scotholme, when the river became polluted. Other companies were set up in the late 18th century and in 1824, while in 1826 the Trent Water Company was established, they employed Thomas Hawksley as their engineer, who became one of the great water engineers of the period, Nottingham had the first constant pressurised water supply system in the country. The various companies amalgamated in 1845, Hawksley remained as the consulting engineer until 1879. Nottingham is located on top of a huge layer of Bunter sandstone, Hawksley masterminded plans to extract filtered water from this aquifer; the Park Hill or Sion Hill pumping station was the first to be built in 1850, but was abandoned in 1880 as the water was too hard, there were fears of pollution from the General Cemetery.

Bagthorpe or Basford Works followed in 1857, as the town expanded, further works were built to the north. Bestwood Pumping Station opened in 1871; the pumping stations were steam powered, Hawksley constructed a number of reservoirs to store the water, the final one under his jurisdiction being at Papplewick, completed just before water supply was taken over by the Corporation in 1880. Acquisition of the water company by the Corporation was first considered in 1852, but the water company resisted the proposals, when Marriott Ogle Tarbotton was appointed as Borough Engineer in 1859, he had more serious issues to contend with, including sewage disposal and upgrading the infrastructure of a town which had expanded rapidly in a short period. Takeover happened in 1880, when the Nottingham Corporation Water Department was created, Tarbotton commissioned the building of Papplewick Pumping Station, completed in 1884. Boughton Pumping Station, opened in 1905, was the last to use large-diameter wells, as other sites used boreholes.

The first of these was at Burton Joyce, started at a similar time to Boughton, but completed in 1898. Nottingham became a city in 1897, the water department was renamed as the City of Nottingham Water Department in 1912; the Corporation co-operated with Derby, Leicester and Derbyshire County, to create the Derwent Valley Water Board in 1899. Plans to construct reservoirs in the Derwent Valley in Derbyshire came to fruition in 1912 when Howden Reservoir was completed, although Nottingham did not use the water until 1917, due to quality issues. Ladybower Reservoir followed in 1945, Derwent Reservoir in 1960. Five more borehole stations were built between 1945 and 1969, steam engines were replaced by electric pumps in the 1960s. A new works and reservoir at Church Wilne on the Derwent was completed in 1967, but the planned reservoir at Carsington Water took until 1992 to complete. Meanwhile, water supply and sewerage ceased to be the responsibility of the City of Nottingham, became part of the remit of the Severn Trent Water Authority in 1974.

Following privatisation of the water industry in 1989, the responsibility passed to Severn Trent Water, one of ten water and sewage companies in England and Wales. Prior to 1696, water for the people of Nottingham was obtained from the river or from shallow wells, carriers, known as Higglers, delivered it to those who wanted it. In 1696, the first Nottingham Waterworks Company obtained a lease from the Corporation, allowing it to build pumps and a water wheel to drive them, to extract water from the River Leen; the water was pumped to a reservoir to the east of Park Row, from where a network of pipes fed much of the town. The waterwheel and pumps were similar to a system which the engineer George Sorocold had installed at London Bridge, he may have been associated with the Nottingham scheme, but it is possible that it was the Nottingham engineer Peter Whalley who designed it. In the eighteenth century Nottingham experienced rapid growth, as a result of the development of the frame knitting industry and the lace industry, with the population expanding five-fold from 10,000 in 1720 to 50,000 in 1830.

The River Leen could no longer provide sufficient water to meet the need, it became polluted with sewage and industrial waste. There were complaints about the quality of the water. By 1830 the River Leen was sufficiently polluted that it was abandoned as a source of water, instead, the company constructed a reservoir covering about 1 acre in Scotholme, fed by spring water, they constructed a new pumping station close to the Lean near Castle Rock. Water flowed by gravity from the new reservoir to the pumping station, through a 10-inch iron pipe, from where it was pumped to a service reservoir close to the site of the General Hospital. Power could be provided either by a 16 hp waterwheel or by a beam engine with a similar power output; the pumping station was located in Brewhouse Yard, appeared on the first edition of the Ordnance Survey maps in 1880. A second private company, the Zion Hill Water and Marble Works was formed in the late 18th century. Zion Hill was in the Canning Circus area, the company had two wells near Alfreton Road.

The wells were 230 feet deep, from which water was pumped by steam engines, which powered some lace making machines and saws to cut marble. They supplied a small area with good quality water through pipes, by using water carriers to deliver the product; the company had ceased to function independently by 1824. In order to supply water to the north-eastern part of the c