A habitat is an ecological or environmental area that is inhabited by a particular species of animal, plant, or other type of organism. The term typically refers to the zone in which the organism lives and it is the natural environment in which an organism lives, or the physical environment that surrounds a species population. Every organism has certain habitat needs for the conditions in which it will thrive, habitat types include polar, temperate and tropical. The terrestrial vegetation type may be forest, grassland, the word habitat has been in use since about 1755 and derives from the Latin third-person singular present indicative of habitāre, to inhabit, from habēre, to have or to hold. Habitat can be defined as the environment of an organism. It is similar in meaning to a biotope, an area of environmental conditions associated with a particular community of plants. Generally speaking, animal communities are reliant on specific types of plant communities, some plants and animals are generalists, and their habitat requirements are met in a wide range of locations.
The small white butterfly for example is found on all the continents of the world apart from Antarctica and its larvae feed on a wide range of Brassicas and various other plant species, and it thrives in any open location with diverse plant associations. Disturbance is important in the creation of biodiverse habitats, in the absence of disturbance, a climax vegetation cover develops that prevents the establishment of other species. Lightning strikes and toppled trees in tropical forests allow species richness to be maintained as pioneering species move in to fill the gaps created. Similarly coastal habitats can become dominated by kelp until the seabed is disturbed by a storm, another cause of disturbance is when an area may be overwhelmed by an invasive introduced species which is not kept under control by natural enemies in its new habitat. Terrestrial habitat types include forests, grasslands and deserts, within these broad biomes are more specific habitats with varying climate types, temperature regimes, soils and vegetation types.
Many of these habitats grade into each other and each one has its own communities of plants. A habitat may suit a particular species well, but its presence or absence at any particular location depends to some extent on chance, on its dispersal abilities, freshwater habitats include rivers, lakes, ponds and bogs. Although some organisms are found across most of these habitats, the majority have more specific requirements, aquatic plants can be floating, semi-submerged, submerged or grow in permanently or temporarily saturated soils besides bodies of water. Marine habitats include brackish water, bays, the sea, the intertidal zone. Further variations include rock pools, sand banks, brackish lagoons and pebbly beaches, the benthic zone or seabed provides a home for both static organisms, anchored to the substrate, and for a large range of organisms crawling on or burrowing into the surface. A desert is not the kind of habitat that favours the presence of amphibians, with their requirement for water to keep their skins moist, some frogs live in deserts, creating moist habitats underground and hibernating while conditions are adverse
California State Route 76
State Route 76 is a state highway 52.63 miles long in the U. S. state of California. It is a much used east–west route in the North County region of San Diego County that begins in Oceanside near Interstate 5, the highway is a major route through the region, passing through the community of Bonsall and providing access to Fallbrook. East of the junction with I-15, SR76 goes through Pala, a route along the corridor has existed since the early 20th century, as has the bridge over the San Luis Rey River near Bonsall. The route was added to the highway system in 1933. The section of the highway through Oceanside and Bonsall is mostly an expressway, east of Bonsall. Originally, the highway was two lanes wide, west of Bonsall, the route was widened in stages, after decades of funding shortages, planning. The California Department of Transportation plans to expand the length of the highway west of I-15 to an expressway. As of March 2016, construction is under way between Bonsall and I-15, there is soon an interchange with I-5, after which SR76 becomes a four-lane expressway known as the San Luis Rey Mission Expressway.
From I-5 to Mission Avenue, the highway parallels the San Luis Rey River until it passes by Oceanside Municipal Airport, during this stretch, SR76 intersects Loretta Street, Canyon Drive, Benet Road, Airport Road, and Foussat Road. There are two overpasses, one over Mission Avenue, and one over El Camino Real, before the road intersects Douglas Drive, as it enters rural Oceanside, SR76 intersects with North Santa Fe Avenue, Guajome Lake Road, and Melrose Drive. SR76 intersects the segment of CR S13, known as East Vista Way. The highway passes through Bonsall, intersecting Via Montellano, Olive Hill Road, SR76 meets the northern segment of CR S13, known as South Mission Road, while heading north into Fallbrook, SR76 is the primary road connecting the two portions of CR S13. Here, SR76 becomes known as Pala Road, narrowing to two lanes and it intersects Via Monserate and Gird Road south of Fallbrook before crossing the former routing of US395 and the current routing of I-15 in the community of Pala Mesa Village.
SR76 goes through Pala and the Pala Indian Reservation, providing access to the Pala Casino and intersecting CR S16, SR76 intersects the southern leg of CR S6, leading to Valley Center and Escondido. It briefly passes through the Cleveland National Forest and meets the terminus of CR S7. SR76 passes along the shores of Lake Henshaw before terminating at the intersection with SR79 at Morettis Junction, SR76 is legally eligible for the State Scenic Highway System, but it is not officially designated as a scenic highway by the California Department of Transportation. The part of the highway from the terminus to Douglas Drive is named for Tony Zeppetella. The road through the San Luis Rey Valley was planned as early as 1889 and it was added to the state highway system in 1933, while the condition of the highway continued to improve
The band-tailed pigeon is a medium-sized bird of the Americas. Its closest relatives are the Chilean pigeon, passenger pigeon and the ring-tailed pigeon, some authorities split this species into the northern band-tailed pigeon and the southern band-tailed pigeon. It ranges from British Columbia, Oregon, California, in autumn it migrates out of its permanent resident range into northern California, New Mexico, and parts of Utah and Colorado. Populations from Costa Rica south are considered a separate species. It is found at altitudes from 900 to 3,600 m, generally in oak, pine-oak and it feeds on seeds, notably acorns. It is the biggest pigeon in North America, measuring 33 to 40 cm long and weighing 225–515 g, the coastal subspecies P. f. monilis is larger than the inland subspecies. The plumage is gray, somewhat darker above, the head and underparts have a faint pink cast, especially in the adult male, the belly is nearly white. The distal half of the tail is pale, whence the English name. The bill and feet are yellow, good marks at sufficiently close range.
Adults have green iridescence on the back of the neck, adjacent to a white collar on the nape. Juvenile birds have white feather edges above, giving a scaly appearance and this species is relatively quiet for a pigeon. Its voice is low-pitched and owl-like, often in two-syllable calls that rise and it builds a rudimentary platform nest out of twigs, in which it lays one or two eggs. Outside the breeding season it forms flocks, sometimes over 50 birds, toyon berries are a food consumed by the band-tailed pigeon. This species often visits bird feeders, the parasitic louse Columbicola extinctus, believed to have become extinct with the extinction of the passenger pigeon, was recently rediscovered on the band-tailed pigeon. The band-tailed pigeon is the closest genetic relative of the pigeon and has been investigated for being used in efforts to bring back that extinct species. BirdLife species factsheet for Patagioenas fasciata Patagioenas fasciata, Band-tailed pigeon photo gallery at VIREO Interactive range map of Patagioenas fasciata at IUCN Red List maps Audio recordings of Band-tailed pigeon on Xeno-canto
Traditional definitions require a topographic map to show both natural and man-made features. A topographic map is published as a map series, made up of two or more map sheets that combine to form the whole map. A contour line is a line connecting places of equal elevation, however, in the vernacular and day to day world, the representation of relief is popularly held to define the genre, such that even small-scale maps showing relief are commonly called topographic. The study or discipline of topography is a broader field of study. Topographic maps are based on topographical surveys, performed at large scales, these surveys are called topographical in the old sense of topography, showing a variety of elevations and landforms. This is in contrast to older cadastral surveys, which primarily show property, the first multi-sheet topographic map series of an entire country, the Carte géométrique de la France, was completed in 1789. Topographic surveys were prepared by the military to assist in planning for battle, as such, elevation information was of vital importance.
As they evolved, topographic map series became a resource in modern nations in planning infrastructure. Excluding borders, each sheet was 44 cm high and up to 66 cm wide, although the project eventually foundered, it left an indexing system that remains in use. TIGER was developed in the 1980s and used in the 1990, digital elevation models were compiled, initially from topographic maps and stereographic interpretation of aerial photographs and from satellite photography and radar data. Since all these were government projects funded with taxes and not classified for security reasons. Initial applications were mostly professionalized forms such as innovative surveying instruments, by the mid-1990s, increasingly user-friendly resources such as online mapping in two and three dimensions, integration of GPS with mobile phones and automotive navigation systems appeared. As of 2011, the future of standardized, centrally printed topographical maps is left somewhat in doubt, the various features shown on the map are represented by conventional signs or symbols.
For example, colors can be used to indicate a classification of roads and these signs are usually explained in the margin of the map, or on a separately published characteristic sheet. Topographic maps are commonly called contour maps or topo maps. In the United States, where the national series is organized by a strict 7. 5-minute grid. Topographic maps conventionally show topography, or land contours, by means of contour lines, contour lines are curves that connect contiguous points of the same altitude. In other words, every point on the line of 100 m elevation is 100 m above mean sea level
Palomar Mountain is a mountain ridge in the Peninsular Ranges in northern San Diego County. It is famous as the location of the Palomar Observatory and Hale Telescope, the Luiseno Indian name for Palomar Mountain was Paauw and High Point was called Wikyo. The Spanish name Palomar, in English meaning pigeon roost, comes from the Spanish colonial era in Alta California when Palomar Mountain was known as the home of band-tailed pigeons, Palomar Mountain is most famous as the home of the Palomar Observatory and the Hale Telescope. The 200-inch telescope was the worlds largest and most important telescope from 1949 until 1992, the observatory currently consists of three large telescopes. Palomar Mountain is the location of Palomar Mountain State Park, a California State Park, there are campgrounds for vacationers, and a campground for local school children until the San Diego Unified School District was forced to close it due to state budget cuts. The park averages 70,000 visitors annually, the campgrounds in the park were temporarily closed on October 2,2011, due to state budget cuts.
The park was among 70 California State Parks threatened by cuts in fiscal years 2011-2012 and 2012-2013, but the park. Palomar Mountain, especially in the park area, is densely wooded with abundant oak. Ferns are abundant everywhere in the shady forest, the forest is supported by annual precipitation totals in excess of 30 inches. Beginning in the 1920s a lookout tower has been present on Boucher Hill on Palomar Mountain, the tower had been active until it was abandoned in 1983 and was reactivated when the FFLA began manning it in 2012. Boucher Hill sees more than 11,000 visitors a season, the tower opens around May 1st in conjunction with the fire season and closes in early December. During this period the tower is typically staffed 7 days a week from 9am -5pm, doane Valley, located within the State Park, is home to the Camp Palomar Outdoor School for 6th grade students in the San Diego Unified School District. At the base of Palomar Mountain on S6 is Oak Knoll Campground, Palomar Gardens was made somewhat famous by an earlier resident, George Adamski.
Adamski had an observatory at Palomar Gardens and photographed objects in the sky that he claimed were UFOs. Adamski co-authored Flying Saucers Have Landed in 1953, about his alien encounter experiences, the 1977 film The Crater Lake Monster had many scenes filmed on Palomar Mountain, including scenes shot at the summit restaurant, but not the scenes of the monster in a lake. High Point, is in the Cleveland National Forest, in the Palomar Mountain range is one of the highest peaks in San Diego County, at 6,140 feet, surpassed by Cuyamaca Peak, High Point is located approximately two miles east of the observatory. It may be reached via Palomar Divide Truck Trail, a road that starts off highway 79 near Warner Springs. The trip is 13 miles one way with 3000 ft of elevation gain via Palomar Divide Truck Trail, there is an operational USFS fire lookout on High Point, built in 1964
The Hale Telescope is a 200-inch, f/3.3 reflecting telescope at the Palomar Observatory in California, US, named after astronomer George Ellery Hale. With funding from the Rockefeller Foundation, he orchestrated the planning and construction of the observatory and it is still in active use. It was the largest optical telescope in the world from its completion in 1948 until the BTA-6 was built in 1976, the chief optical designer for Hales previous 100-inch telescope was George Willis Ritchey, who intended the new telescope to be of Ritchey–Chrétien design. Compared to the parabolic primary, this design would have provided sharper images over a larger usable field of view. However and Hale had a falling out, with the project already late and over budget, Hale refused to adopt the new design, with its complex curvatures, and Ritchey left the project. The Mount Palomar Hale telescope turned out to be the last world-leading telescope to have a primary mirror. The Corning Glass Works was assigned the task of making a 200-inch primary mirror, construction of the observatory facilities and dome started in 1936, but because of interruptions caused by World War II, the telescope was not completed until 1948 when it was dedicated.
Due to slight distortions of images, corrections were made to the telescope throughout 1949 and it became available for research in 1950. The 200-inch Hale saw first light on January 26,1949 under the direction of American astronomer Edwin Powell Hubble, targeting NGC2261, the photographs made were published in the astronomical literature and in the May 7,1949 issue of Colliers Magazine. It is equipped with optical and infrared array imagers, spectrographs. It has used lucky cam imaging, which in combination with adaptive optics pushed the mirror close to its resolution for certain types of viewing. One of the Corning Labs glass test blanks for the Hale was used for the C. Donald Shane telescopes 120-inch primary mirror, the collecting area of the Hale is about 31,000 square inches. The optical tube assembly uses a Serrurier truss, newly invented by Mark U, Serrurier of Caltech in Pasadena in 1935, designed to flex in such a way as to keep all of the optics in alignment. Theodore von Karman designed the system to avoid potential issues with turbulence during tracking.
Pyrex was chosen for its low expansion qualities so the mirror would not distort the images produced when it changed shape due to temperature variations. The mirror was cast in a mold with 36 raised mold blocks, the shape of a central hole was part of the mold so light could pass through the finished mirror when it was used in a Cassegrain configuration. The defective mirror was used to test the annealing process, after the mold was re-engineered, a second mirror was successfully cast. After cooling several months, the mirror blank was transported by rail to Pasadena
Alta California, founded in 1769 by Gaspar de Portolà, was a polity of New Spain and after the Mexican War of Independence in 1822, a territory of Mexico. The region included all of the states of California and Utah. Large areas east of the Sierra Nevada and San Gabriel Mountains were claimed to be part of Alta California, to the southeast, beyond the deserts and the Colorado River, lay the Spanish settlements in Arizona. The areas formerly comprising Alta California were ceded to the United States in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo that ended the Mexican–American War in 1848, two years later, California joined the union as the 31st state. Other parts of Alta California became all or part of the U. S. states of Arizona, Utah and Wyoming. The Spanish explored the area of Alta California by sea beginning in the 16th century. During the following two centuries there were plans to settle the area, none of which were effectively carried out. Ultimately, New Spain did not have the resources nor population to settle such a far northern outpost.
To ascertain the Russian threat a number of Spanish expeditions to the Pacific Northwest were launched, the Spanish Crown funded the construction and subsidized the operation of the missions, with the goal that the relocation and enforced labor of Native people would bolster Spanish rule. The first Alta California mission and presidio were established by the Franciscan friar Junípero Serra, the following year,1770, the second mission and presidio were founded in Monterey. In 1773 a boundary between the Baja California missions and the Franciscan missions of Alta California was set by Francisco Palóu, the missionary effort coincided with the construction of presidios and pueblos, which were to be manned and populated by Hispanic people. The first pueblo founded was San José in 1777, followed by Los Ángeles in 1781, by law, mission land and property were to pass to the indigenous population after a period of about ten years, when the natives would become Spanish subjects. In the interim period, the Franciscans were to act as mission administrators who held the land in trust for the Native residents, the transfer of property never occurred under the Franciscans.
As the number of Spanish settlers grew in Alta California, the boundaries, conflicts between the Crown and the Church and between Natives and settlers arose. State and ecclesiastical bureaucrats debated over authority of the missions and they advocated that the Natives owned property and had the right to defend it. Governor Diego de Borica is credited with defining Alta and Baja Californias official borders, Mexico won independence in 1822, and Alta California became a territory of Mexico. The Spanish and Mexican governments rewarded retired soldados de cuera with large grants, known as ranchos, for the raising of cattle. Hides and tallow from the livestock were the primary exports of California until the mid-19th century, the construction and domestic work on these vast estates was primarily done by Native Americans, who had learned to speak Spanish and ride horses
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its resources. The organization has four science disciplines, concerning biology, geology. The USGS is a research organization with no regulatory responsibility. The USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior, the USGS employs approximately 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia. The USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, the current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is science for a changing world. The agencys previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its anniversary, was Earth Science in the Public Service. Prompted by a report from the National Academy of Sciences, the USGS was created, by a last-minute amendment and it was charged with the classification of the public lands, and examination of the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain.
This task was driven by the need to inventory the vast lands added to the United States by the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, the legislation provided that the Hayden and Wheeler surveys be discontinued as of June 30,1879. Clarence King, the first director of USGS, assembled the new organization from disparate regional survey agencies, after a short tenure, King was succeeded in the directors chair by John Wesley Powell. Administratively, it is divided into a Headquarters unit and six Regional Units, Other specific programs include, Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide. The National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location, the USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System. The USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, and it maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research.
It conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards, USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time, the USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online, since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. USGS operates a number of related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program. USGS Water data is available from their National Water Information System database
Southern California, often abbreviated as SoCal, is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises Californias 10 southernmost counties. The region is described as eight counties, based on demographics and economic ties, Los Angeles, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, Santa Barbara. The more extensive 10-county definition, which includes Kern and San Luis Obispo counties, is used and is based on historical political divisions. Southern California is an economic center for the state of California. The 8-county and 10-county definitions are not used for the greater Southern California Megaregion, the megaregions area is more expansive, extending east into Las Vegas and south across the Mexican border into Tijuana.5 million people. With over 22 million people, Southern California contains roughly 60 percent of Californias population, located east of Southern California is the Colorado Desert and the Colorado River at the border with Arizona. The Mojave Desert is located at the border with the state of Nevada while towards the south is the Mexico–United States border, within Southern California are two major cities, Los Angeles and San Diego, as well as three of the countrys largest metropolitan areas.
With a population of 3,792,621, Los Angeles is the most populous city in California and the second most populous in the United States. South of Los Angeles and with a population of 1,307,402 is San Diego, the second most populous city in the state and the eighth most populous in the nation. The counties of Los Angeles, San Diego, San Bernardino, and Riverside are the five most populous in the state, the motion picture and music industry are centered in the Los Angeles area in Southern California. Hollywood, a district within Los Angeles, gives its name to the American motion picture industry, headquartered in Southern California are The Walt Disney Company, Sony Pictures, Universal, MGM, Paramount Pictures, 20th Century Fox, and Warner Brothers. Universal, Warner Brothers, and Sony run major record companies, Southern California is home to a large homegrown surf and skateboard culture. Companies such as Vans, Quiksilver, No Fear, RVCA, some of the worlds biggest action sports events, including the X Games, Boost Mobile Pro, and the U. S.
Open of Surfing, are all held in Southern California. Southern California is important to the world of yachting, the annual Transpacific Yacht Race, or Transpac, from Los Angeles to Hawaii, is one of yachtings premier events. The San Diego Yacht Club held the Americas Cup, the most prestigious prize in yachting, from 1988 to 1995, Southern California is home to many sports franchises and sports networks such as Fox Sports Net. Many locals and tourists frequent the Southern California coast for its popular beaches, the desert city of Palm Springs is popular for its resort feel and nearby open spaces. Southern California is not a geographic designation and definitions of what constitutes Southern California vary. Geographically, Californias North-South midway point lies at exactly 37°958.23 latitude, around 11 miles south of San Jose, when the state is divided into two areas, the term Southern California usually refers to the 10 southernmost counties of the state
A Mediterranean climate /ˌmɛdɪtəˈreɪniən/ or dry summer climate, is the climate typical of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin. The Mediterranean climate is characterised by dry summers and mild, moist winters, Mediterranean climate zones are associated with the four large subtropical high pressure cells of the oceans, the Azores High, South Atlantic High, North Pacific High, and South Pacific High. These climatological high pressure cells migrate by latitude according to the angle of the Sun, shifting north-eastward in the summer. These semi-permanent high pressure systems play a role in the formation of the worlds subtropical and tropical deserts as well as the Mediterranean Basins climate. The Azores High is associated with the Mediterranean climate found in the Mediterranean Basin, the Sahara Desert, the South Atlantic High is similarly associated with the Namib Desert and Kalahari Desert, and the Mediterranean climate of the western part of South Africa. Under the Köppen climate classification, hot climates and cool dry-summer climates are often referred to as mediterranean.
Under the Köppen climate system, the first letter indicates the climate group, temperate climates or C zones have an average temperature above 0 °C, but below 18 °C, in their coolest months. The second letter indicates the precipitation pattern, Köppen has defined a dry summer month as a month with less than 30 mm of precipitation and with less than one-third that of the wettest winter month. Some, use a 40 mm level, the third letter indicates the degree of summer heat, a represents an average temperature in the warmest month above 22 °C, while b indicates the average temperature in the warmest month below 22 °C. Under the Köppen classification, dry-summer climates usually occur on the sides of continents. Under Trewarthas system, at least eight months must have average temperatures of 10 °C or higher, during summer, regions of mediterranean climate are dominated by subtropical high pressure cells, with dry sinking air capping a surface marine layer of varying humidity and making rainfall unlikely.
In many Mediterranean climates there is a strong character to daily temperatures in the warm months. The majority of the regions with mediterranean climates have relatively mild winters, however winter and summer temperatures can vary greatly between different regions with a mediterranean climate. Or to consider summer, Athens experiences rather high temperatures in that season, in contrast, San Francisco has cool summers with daily highs around. In North America, areas with Csc climate can be found in the Olympic, Cascade and these locations are found at high altitude nearby lower altitude regions characterized by a warm-summer mediterranean climate or hot-summer mediterranean climate. A rare instance of this occurs in the tropics, on Haleakalā Summit in Hawaii. In South America, Csc regions can be found along the Andes in Chile, the town of Balmaceda is one of the few towns confirmed to have this climate. Small areas with a Csc climate can be found at elevations in Corsica
Cuyamaca Peak is a mountain peak of the Cuyamaca Mountains range, in San Diego County, southern California. At 6,512 feet, its summit is the second highest point in San Diego County Cuyamaca Peak is located roughly 40 miles from the Pacific Ocean and it is east of the city of San Diego and southwest of Julian. A popular 3. 5-mile year round hike to the summit of Cuyamaca leads from the Paso Picacho Campground, snows in winter are common above 5,000 feet and surrounding regions in Cuyamaca Rancho State Park. During summer, Bracken Ferns, a variety of wildflowers and native bunchgrasses dominate mountain meadows and Winter storms account for 70%, summer thunderstorms largely accounting for the balance. During the winter snow may fall and hoar frost is common upon the highest elevations, on clear days visibility from the summit of Cuyamaca Peak can range from 60–100 miles in nearly every direction. To the west, the Pacific Ocean, the Coronado Islands of Mexico, the coast line of San Diego County, Viejas Mountain, looking north, one can see 6, 140-foot Palomar Mountain among the ridge of Palomar Mountains.
On very clear days 8, 716-foot Toro Peak in the Santa Rosas, closer yet is Volcan Mountain slightly to the northeast, the former gold rush town of Julian lying in front. Directly north are the closest summits and North Peaks, directly east is the Anza Borrego Desert and the Laguna Mountains, including Whale Peak. Far beyond is the Salton Sea, to the south are Lyons Peak and Lawson Peak, further yet and to the southeast are Mexican border mountains such as Table Top Mountain and the Sierra de Juárez. Cuyamaca Rancho State Park Cuyamaca Mountains Cleveland National Forest Cuyamaca Rancho State Park