Alfonso XI of Castile
Alfonso XI of Castile, called the Avenger, was the king of Castile, León and Galicia. He was the son of his wife Constance of Portugal. Upon his father's death in 1312, several disputes ensued over who would hold regency, which were resolved in 1313. Once Alfonso was declared adult in 1325, he began a reign that would serve to strengthen royal power, his achievements include solving the conquest of Algeciras. Alfonso XI was the son of King Ferdinand IV of Constance of Portugal, his father died. His grandmother, María de Molina, his mother Constance, his granduncle Infante John of Castile, Lord of Valencia de Campos, son of King Alfonso X of Castile and uncle Infante Peter of Castile, Lord of Cameros, son of King Sancho IV assumed the regency. Queen Constance died first on 18 November 1313, followed by Infantes John and Peter during a military campaign against Granada in 1319, which left Dowager Queen María as the only regent until her death on 1 July 1321. After the death of the infantes John and Peter in 1319, Juan Manuel and Juan el Tuerto split the kingdom among themselves according to their aspirations for regency as it was being looted by moors and the rebellious nobility.
As soon as he took the throne, he began working hard to strengthen royal power by dividing his enemies. His early display of rulership skills included the unhesitant execution of possible opponents, including his uncle Juan el Tuerto in 1326, he managed to extend the limits of his kingdom to the Strait of Gibraltar after the important victory at the Battle of Río Salado against the Marinid Dynasty in 1340 and the conquest of the Kingdom of Algeciras in 1344. Once that conflict was resolved, he redirected all his Reconquista efforts to fighting the Moorish king of Granada, he is variously known among Castilian kings as the Avenger or the Implacable, as "He of Río Salado." The first two names he earned by the ferocity with which he repressed the disorders caused by the nobles during his long minority. Alfonso XI never went to the insane lengths of his son Peter of Castile, but he could be bloody in his methods, he killed for reasons of state without any form of trial. He neglected his wife, Maria of Portugal, indulged a scandalous passion for Eleanor of Guzman, who bore him ten children.
This set Peter an example. It may be that his early death, during the Great Plague of 1350, at the Fifth Siege of Gibraltar, only averted a desperate struggle with Peter, though it was a misfortune in that it removed a ruler of eminent capacity, who understood his subjects well enough not to go too far. Alfonso died in the night of 25–26 March 1350. Alfonso XI first had the union annulled two years later, his second marriage, in 1328, was to his double first cousin Maria of Portugal, daughter of Alfonso IV of Portugal. They had: Ferdinand. By his mistress, Eleanor of Guzman, he had ten children: Pedro Alfonso, Lord of Aguilar de Campoo Sancho Alfonso, 1st Lord of Ledesma Henry II of Castile King of Castile; the marriage was annulled and in 1366 she married Felipe de Castro. "... King Alfonso was not tall but well proportioned, he was rather strong and had fair skin and hair." Chapman, Charles Edward and Rafael Altamira, A history of Spain, The MacMillan Company, 1922. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Hannay, D..
"Alphonso". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 1. Cambridge University Press. León-Sotelo, María & González Crespo, Esther. "Notas para el itinerario de Alfonso XI en el periodo de 1344 a 1350". En la España Medieval. Vol. 8 no. 5. Complutense University of Madrid. Pp. 575–589. ISSN 0214-3038. Medieval Iberia: an encyclopedia, Ed. E. Michael Gerli and Samuel G. Armistead, Routledge, 2003
The Canary Islands is a Spanish archipelago and the southernmost autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean, 100 kilometres west of Morocco at the closest point. The Canary Islands, which are known informally as the Canaries, are among the outermost regions of the European Union proper, it is one of the eight regions with special consideration of historical nationality recognized as such by the Spanish Government. The Canary Islands belong to the African Plate like the Spanish cities of Ceuta and Melilla, the two on the African mainland; the seven main islands are Tenerife, Gran Canaria, Lanzarote, La Palma, La Gomera and El Hierro. The archipelago includes much smaller islands and islets: La Graciosa, Isla de Lobos, Montaña Clara, Roque del Oeste and Roque del Este, it includes a series of adjacent roques. In ancient times, the island chain was referred to as "the Fortunate Isles"; the Canary Islands are the most southerly region of Spain and the largest and most populated archipelago of the Macaronesia region.
The Canary Islands have been considered a bridge between four continents: Africa, North America, South America and Europe. The archipelago's beaches and important natural attractions Maspalomas in Gran Canaria and Teide National Park and Mount Teide in Tenerife, make it a major tourist destination with over 12 million visitors per year Tenerife, Gran Canaria and Lanzarote; the islands have a subtropical climate, with moderately warm winters. The precipitation levels and the level of maritime moderation vary depending on location and elevation. Green areas as well as desert exist on the archipelago. Due to their location above the temperature inversion layer, the high mountains of these islands are ideal for astronomical observation. For this reason, two professional observatories, Teide Observatory on the island of Tenerife and Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma, have been built on the islands. In 1927, the Province of Canary Islands was split into two provinces; the autonomous community of the Canary Islands was established in 1982.
Its capital is shared by the cities of Santa Cruz de Tenerife and Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, which in turn are the capitals of the provinces of Santa Cruz de Tenerife and Las Palmas. Las Palmas de Gran Canaria has been the largest city in the Canaries since 1768, except for a brief period in the 1910s. Between the 1833 territorial division of Spain and 1927 Santa Cruz de Tenerife was the sole capital of the Canary Islands. In 1927 a decree ordered; the third largest city of the Canary Islands is San Cristóbal de La Laguna on Tenerife. This city is home to the Consejo Consultivo de Canarias, the supreme consultative body of the Canary Islands. During the time of the Spanish Empire, the Canaries were the main stopover for Spanish galleons on their way to the Americas, which came south to catch the prevailing northeasterly trade winds; the name Islas Canarias is derived from the Latin name Canariae Insulae, meaning "Islands of the Dogs", a name, applied only to Gran Canaria. According to the historian Pliny the Elder, the Mauretanian king Juba II named the island Canaria because it contained "vast multitudes of dogs of large size".
Alternatively, it is said that the original inhabitants of the island, used to worship dogs, mummified them and treated dogs as holy animals. The ancient Greeks knew about a people, living far to the west, who are the "dog-headed ones", who worshipped dogs on an island; some hypothesize that the Canary Islands dog-worship and the ancient Egyptian cult of the dog-headed god, Anubis are connected but there is no explanation given as to which one was first. Other theories speculate that the name comes from the Nukkari Berber tribe living in the Moroccan Atlas, named in Roman sources as Canarii, though Pliny again mentions the relation of this term with dogs; the connection to dogs is retained in their depiction on the islands' coat-of-arms. It is considered that the aborigines of Gran Canaria called themselves "Canarios", it is possible that after being conquered, this name was used in plural in Spanish, i.e. as to refer to all of the islands as the Canarii-as. What is certain is that the name of the islands does not derive from the canary bird.
Tenerife is the largest and most populous island of the archipelago. Gran Canaria, with 865,070 inhabitants, is both the Canary Islands' second most populous island, the third most populous one in Spain after Majorca; the island of Fuerteventura is the second largest in the archipelago and located 100 km from the African coast. The islands form the Macaronesia ecoregion with the Azores, Cape Verde and the Savage Isles; the Canary Islands is the largest and most populated archipelago of the Macaronesia region. The archipelago consists of seven large and several smaller islands, all of which are volcanic in origin. According to the position of the islands with respect to the north-east trade winds, the climate can be mild and wet or dry. Several native species form laurisilva forests; as a consequence, the individual islands in the Canary archipelago tend to have distinct microclimates. Those islands such as El Hierro, La Palma and La Gomera lying to the west of the archipelago have a climate, influenced by the m
Duke of Medinaceli
Duke of Medinaceli is a title of the Spanish nobility. The Catholic Monarchs, Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, created the title and awarded it to Luis de la Cerda y de la Vega on 31 October 1479. Luis held the title of 5th Count of Medinaceli, which title was first awarded in 1368 to his ancestor, Bernal de Foix. In 1368, the King of the Crown of Castile bestowed the title of Count of Medinaceli on Bernal de Foix, the second husband of Isabel de la Cerda, their grandson Luis, 3rd Count of Medinaceli inherited the title and changed his family name to "de la Cerda". On, Queen Isabella I of Castile raised the title from Count to Duke in 1479 for Luis de la Cerda y de la Vega, 5th Count of Medinaceli. Bernal de Foix, 1st Count of Medinaceli, he took the side of the royal bastard Henry of Trastámara in 1368 against Henry's legitimate half-brother, King Peter of Castile. A bastard of Gaston III, Count of Foix, Bernal de Foix chose to stay in Castile when Henry had King Peter executed in March 1369 at the Castle of Montiel.
He was the second husband of the wealthy Isabel de la Cerda, of legitimate royal descent from King Alfonso X of Castile through her grandfather. Gastón de Béarn y de la Cerda, 2nd Count of Medinaceli, he was a courtier under Henry III of Castile. Luis de la Cerda y Mendoza, 3rd Count of Medinaceli, he was a courtier under King John II of Castile. Gastón I de la Cerda, 4th Count of Medinaceli, he was a courtier of King John II of Castile. Luis de la Cerda y de la Vega, 5th Count of Medinaceli. On 31 October 1479, he became the 1st Duke of Medinaceli. Luis de la Cerda y de la Vega, 1st Duke of Medinaceli, Count in 1454 and Duke in 1479, was the first person awarded the title of "Duke of Medinaceli", he fought in the Moorish Kingdom of Granada. Duke Juan I de la Cerda y Vique, the 2nd Duke of Medinaceli, was a bastard, legitimated with Grandee by the Spanish Crown in 1520, he was a courtier under Queen Isabella I of Castile, her daughter Queen Joanna of Castile, her son King Charles I of Spain. He took part in the battles for the "incorporation" of the Kingdom of Navarre on behalf of Ferdinand II of Aragon, the grandfather of King Charles I of Spain.
Duke Gastón de la Cerda y Portugal, died without issue. He married daughter of the 3rd Count of Salinas and Count of Ribadeo. Duke Juan II de la Cerda y Silva, 4th Duke of Medinaceli, was appointed Viceroy of Sicily, Captain General of Sicily, he was appointed Viceroy of Navarra, in the years 1567–1572. He married Juana Manuel de Portugal, daughter of Sancho I de Noronha Portugal, 2nd Count of Faro on 7 April 1541, at Ocaña. Duke Juan III Luis de la Cerda y Manuel de Portugal, 5th Duke of Medinaceli, was an Ambassador in Portugal and a Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece, he was married four times. His first wife, Isabella d'Aragona was the daughter of Antonio d'Aragona, his second wife was Duca di Montalto and after 1578, he married Juana de la Lama. His 4th wife was daughter of Gonzalo Fernández de la Lama. Duke Juan Luis de la Cerda y Aragón, 6th Duke of Medinaceli was a Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece, he was an Ambassador to Germanic countries. He married twice, the first time in 1564, to Ana de la Cueva, daughter of the 5th Duque de Albuquerque, Gabriel de la Cueva, Governor of the Duchy of Milano.
He got married for a second time in 1606, to Antonia Dávila y Colonna, daughter of Gómez Dávila y de Toledo, the 2nd Marqués de Velada, tutor of King Philip III of Spain. Duke Antonio Juan de la Cerda y Toledo, 7th Duque de Medinaceli, Grandee of Spain, Captain General of Valencia in 1641, he was married at the age of seventeen to Ana Francisca Luisa Enriquez de Ribera y Portocarrero, thirteen years of age. The marriage took place on November 1625, in Dos Hermanas, province of Sevilla. Ana Francisca Luisa Enríquez de Ribera y Portocarrero was granted the title of hereditary 5th Duquesa de Alcalá de los Gazules, as daughter of Pedro Enríquez Girón de Ribera, a Knight of the Military Order of Santiago. Juan Francisco de la Cerda y Portocarrero, 8th Duke of Medinaceli, was a Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece, he was the Prime Minister of King Charles II of Spain. After the death of King Charles II, he was Prime Minister to the bastard brother, Juan José de Austria, he was married at the age of sixteen to eighteen-year-old Catalina Antonia de Aragón y Folch de Cardona, 9th Duchess of Cardona, 5th Duchess of Lerma, 8th Duchess of Segorbe, on 1 May 1653 in Lucena, Province of Córdoba.
Duke Luis Francisco Tomás de la Cerda y de Aragón - Folch de Cardona, was the 9th Duque de Medinaceli, 10th Duque de Cardona, 6th Duque de Lerma, 7th Duque de Alcalá de los Gazules, 9th Duque de Segorbe
Tartessos or Tartessus, was a semi-mythical harbor city and the surrounding culture on the south coast of the Iberian Peninsula, at the mouth of the Guadalquivir River. Greeks believed, it appears in sources from Greece and the Near East starting during the first millennium BC. Herodotus, for example, describes it as beyond the Pillars of Heracles. Roman authors tend to echo the earlier Greek sources but from around the end of the millennium there are indications that the name Tartessos had fallen out of use and the city may have been lost to flooding, though several authors attempt to identify it with cities of other names in the area. Archaeological discoveries in the region have built up a picture of a more widespread culture, identified as Tartessian, that includes some 97 inscriptions in a Tartessian language; the Tartessians were rich in metal. In the 4th century BC the historian Ephorus describes "a prosperous market called Tartessos, with much tin carried by river, as well as gold and copper from Celtic lands".
Trade in tin was lucrative in the Bronze Age, since it is an essential component of true bronze and is comparatively rare. Herodotus refers to a king of Tartessos, Arganthonios named for his wealth in silver; the people from Tartessos became important trading partners of the Phoenicians, whose presence in Iberia dates from the 8th century BC and who nearby built a harbor of their own, Gadir. Several early sources, such as Aristotle, refer to Tartessos as a river. Aristotle claims that it rises from the Pyrene Mountain and flows out to sea outside the Pillars of Hercules, the modern Strait of Gibraltar. No such river traverses the Iberian peninsula. According to the 4th century BC Greek geographer and explorer Pytheas, quoted by Strabo in the 1st century AD, the ancestral homeland of the Turduli was located north of Turdetania, the region where the kingdom of Tartessos was located in the Baetis River valley in southern Spain. Pausanias, writing in the 2nd century AD, identified the river and gave details of the location of the city: They say that Tartessus is a river in the land of the Iberians, running down into the sea by two mouths and that between these two mouths lies a city of the same name.
The river, the largest in Iberia and tidal, those of a day called Baetis and there are some who think that Tartessus was the ancient name of Carpia, a city of the Iberians. The river known in his day as the Baetis is now the Guadalquivir. Thus, Tartessos may be buried, Schulten thought, under the shifting wetlands; the river delta has been blocked by a sandbar that stretches from the mouth of the Rio Tinto, near Palos de la Frontera, to the riverbank, opposite Sanlúcar de Barrameda. The area is now protected as the Parque Nacional de Doñana. In the 1st century AD, Pliny incorrectly identified the city of Carteia as the Tartessos mentioned in Greek sources while Strabo just commented. Carteia is identified as El Rocadillo, near S. Roque, Province of Cádiz, some distance away from the Guadalquivir. In the 2nd century AD Appian thought that Karpessos was known as Tartessos; the discoveries published by Adolf Schulten in 1922 first drew attention to Tartessos and shifted its study from classical philologists and antiquarians to investigations based on archaeology, though attempts at localizing a capital for what was conceived as a complicated culture in the nature of a centrally controlled kingdom ancestral to Spain were inconclusively debated.
Subsequent discoveries were reported: in September 1923 archaeologists discovered a Phoenician necropolis in which human remains were unearthed and stones found with illegible characters. It may have been colonized by the Phoenicians for trade because of its richness in metals. A generation turned instead to identifying and localizing "orientalizing" features of the Tartessian material culture within the broader Mediterranean horizon of an "Orientalizing period" recognizable in the Aegean and Etruria. J. M. Luzón was the first to identify Tartessos with modern Huelva, based on discoveries made in the preceding decades. Since the discovery in September 1958 of the rich gold treasure of El Carambolo in Camas, three km west of Seville, of hundreds of artifacts in the necropolis at La Joya, archaeological surveys have been integrated with philological and literary surveys and the broader picture of the Iron Age in the Mediterranean basin to provide a more informed view of the supposed Tartessian culture on the ground, concentrated in western Andalusia, Extremadura and in southern Portugal from the Algarve to the Vinalopó River in Alicante.
Alluvial tin was panned in Tartessian streams from an early date. The spread of a silver standard in Assyria increased its attractiveness; the invention of coinage in the 7th century BC spurred the search for silver as well. Henceforth trade connections largely in elite goods, assumed an broad economic role. By the Late Bronze Age, silver extraction in Huelva Province reached industrial proportions. Pre-Roman silver slag is found in the Tartessian cities of Huelva Province. Cypriot and Phoenician metalworkers produced 15 million tons of pyrometallurgical residues at the vast dumps of Riotinto. Mining and smelting preceded the arrival, from the 8th century BC onwards, of Phoenicians and Greeks, who provided a stimulating wider market and whose influence sparked an "orientalizing" phase in Tartessian material culture before Tartessian culture was
Al-Andalus known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain that in its early period occupied most of Iberia, today's Portugal and Spain. At its greatest geographical extent, it occupied the northwest of the Iberian peninsula and a part of present day southern France Septimania and for nearly a century extended its control from Fraxinet over the Alpine passes which connect Italy with the remainder of Western Europe; the name more describes the parts of the peninsula governed by Muslims at various times between 711 and 1492, though the boundaries changed as the Christian Reconquista progressed shrinking to the south around modern-day Andalusia and to the Emirate of Granada. Following the Umayyad conquest of Hispania, al-Andalus at its greatest extent, was divided into five administrative units, corresponding to modern Andalusia and Galicia, Castile and León, Aragon, the County of Barcelona, Septimania; as a political domain, it successively constituted a province of the Umayyad Caliphate, initiated by the Caliph Al-Walid I.
Rule under these kingdoms led to a rise in cultural exchange and cooperation between Muslims and Christians. Christians and Jews were subject to a special tax called Jizya, to the state, which in return provided internal autonomy in practicing their religion and offered the same level of protections by the Muslim rulers. Under the Caliphate of Córdoba, al-Andalus was a beacon of learning, the city of Córdoba, the largest in Europe, became one of the leading cultural and economic centres throughout the Mediterranean Basin and the Islamic world. Achievements that advanced Islamic and Western science came from al-Andalus, including major advances in trigonometry, surgery, pharmacology and other fields. Al-Andalus became a major educational center for Europe and the lands around the Mediterranean Sea as well as a conduit for cultural and scientific exchange between the Islamic and Christian worlds. For much of its history, al-Andalus existed in conflict with Christian kingdoms to the north. After the fall of the Umayyad caliphate, al-Andalus was fragmented into minor states and principalities.
Attacks from the Christians intensified, led by the Castilians under Alfonso VI. The Almoravid empire intervened and repelled the Christian attacks on the region, deposing the weak Andalusi Muslim princes and included al-Andalus under direct Berber rule. In the next century and a half, al-Andalus became a province of the Berber Muslim empires of the Almoravids and Almohads, both based in Marrakesh; the Christian kingdoms in the north of the Iberian Peninsula overpowered the Muslim states to the south. In 1085, Alfonso VI captured Toledo. With the fall of Córdoba in 1236, most of the south fell under Christian rule and the Emirate of Granada became a tributary state of the Kingdom of Castile two years later. In 1249, the Portuguese Reconquista culminated with the conquest of the Algarve by Afonso III, leaving Granada as the last Muslim state on the Iberian Peninsula. On January 2, 1492, Emir Muhammad XII surrendered the Emirate of Granada to Queen Isabella I of Castile, completing the Christian Reconquista of the peninsula.
Although al-Andalus ended as a political entity, the nearly eight centuries of Islamic rule which preceded and accompanied the early formation of the Spanish nation-state and identity has left a profound effect on the country's culture and language in Andalusia. The toponym al-Andalus is first attested by inscriptions on coins minted in 716 by the new Muslim government of Iberia; these coins, called dinars, were inscribed in both Arabic. The etymology of the name "al-Andalus" has traditionally been derived from the name of the Vandals. In 1986, Joaquín Vallvé proposed that "al-Andalus" was a corruption of the name Atlantis, Halm in 1989 derived the name from a Gothic term, *landahlauts, in 2002, Georg Bossong suggested its derivation from a pre-Roman substrate. During the caliphate of the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I, the commander Tariq ibn-Ziyad led a small force that landed at Gibraltar on April 30, 711, ostensibly to intervene in a Visigothic civil war. After a decisive victory over King Roderic at the Battle of Guadalete on July 19, 711, Tariq ibn-Ziyad, joined by Arab governor Musa ibn Nusayr of Ifriqiya, brought most of the Visigothic Kingdom under Muslim occupation in a seven-year campaign.
They occupied Visigothic Septimania in southern France. Most of the Iberian peninsula became part of the expanding Umayyad Empire, under the name of al-Andalus, it was organized as a province subordinate to Ifriqiya, so, for the first few decades, the governors of al-Andalus were appointed by the emir of Kairouan, rather than the Caliph in Damascus. The regional capital was set at Córdoba, the first influx of Muslim settlers was distributed; the small army Tariq led in the initial conquest consisted of Berbers, while Musa's Arab force of over 12,000 soldiers was accompanied by a group of mawālī, that is, non-Arab Muslims, who were clients of the
Santa María (ship)
La Santa María de la Inmaculada Concepción, or La Santa María La Gallega, was the largest of the three ships used by Christopher Columbus in his first voyage across the Atlantic Ocean in 1492. Her master and owner was Juan de la Cosa. Santa María was built in Galicia, in Spain's North-West region. Santa María was a medium-sized nau, about 58 ft long on deck, according to Juan Escalante de Mendoza in 1575, Santa Maria was "very little larger than 100 toneladas" burthen, or burden, was used as the flagship for the expedition. Santa María had three small masts; the other ships of the Columbus expedition were the smaller caravel-type ships Santa Clara. All these ships were not intended for exploration. Niña, the Santa María were modest-sized merchant vessels comparable in size to a modern cruising yacht; the exact measurements of length and width of the three ships have not survived, but good estimates of their burden capacity can be judged from contemporary anecdotes written down by one or more of Columbus's crew members, contemporary Spanish and Portuguese shipwrecks from the late 15th and early 16th centuries which are comparable in size to that of Santa María.
These include the ballast piles and keel lengths of the Molasses Reef Wreck and Highborn Cay Wreck in the Bahamas. Both were caravel vessels 19 m in length overall, 12.6 m keel length and 5 to 5.7 m in width, rated between 100 and 150 tons burden. Santa María, being Columbus' largest ship, was only about this size, Niña and Pinta were smaller, at only 50 to 75 tons burden and 15 to 18 metres on deck. With three masts, Santa María was the slowest of Columbus' vessels but performed well in the Atlantic Ocean crossing. On the return trip, on 24 December, not having slept for two days, Columbus decided at 11:00 p.m. to lie down to sleep. The night being calm, the steersman decided to sleep, leaving only a cabin boy to steer the ship, a practice which the admiral had always forbidden. With the boy at the helm, the currents carried the ship onto a sandbank, running her aground off the present-day site of Cap-Haïtien, Haiti, it sank the next day. Realizing that the ship was beyond repair, Columbus ordered his men to strip the timbers from the ship.
The timbers were used to build a fort which Columbus called La Navidad because the wreck occurred on Christmas Day, north from the modern town of Limonade. Santa María carried several anchors six. One of the anchors now rests in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. On 13 May 2014, underwater archaeological explorer Barry Clifford claimed that his team had found the wreck of Santa María. In the following October, UNESCO's expert team published their final report, concluding that the wreck could not be Columbus's vessel. Fastenings used in the possible copper sheathing dated it to the 17th or 18th century. Columbus' crew was not composed of criminals as is believed. Many were experienced seamen from the port of Palos in Andalusia and its surrounding countryside, as well as from the region of Galicia in northwest Spain, it is true, that the Spanish sovereigns offered an amnesty to convicts who signed up for the voyage. Despite the romantic legend that the Queen of Spain had used a necklace that she had received from her husband the king as collateral for a loan, the voyage was principally financed by a syndicate of seven noble Genovese bankers resident in Seville.
Hence, all the accounting and recording of the voyage was kept in Seville. This applies to the second voyage though the syndicate had by disbanded; the crew of Santa María is well-known, albeit in many cases, there are no surnames and the crewman's place of origin was used to differentiate him from others with the same given name. Cristoforo Colon, captain-general Juan de la Cosa and master Pedro Alonso Niño, pilot Diego de Arana, master-at-arms Pedro de Gutierrez, royal steward Rodrigo de Escobedo, secretary of the fleet Rodrigo Sanchez, comptroller Luis de Torres, interpreter Bartolome Garcia, boatswain Chachu, boatswain Cristobal Caro, goldsmith Juan Sanchez, physician Antonio de Cuéllar, carpenter Diego Perez, painter Lope, joiner Rodrigo de Triana Maestre Juan Rodrigo de Jerez Alonso Chocero Alonso Clavijo Andres de Yruenes Bartolome Biues Bartolome de Torres James Wardropper Diego Bermudez Domingo de Lequeitio Gonzalo Franco Jacomel Rico Juan Juan de Jerez Juan de la Placa Juan Martines de Acoque Juan de Medina Juan de Moguer Juan Ruiz de la Pena Marin de Urtubia Pedro Yzquierdo Pedro de Lepe Pedro de Salcedo, servant of Columbus and ship's boy Rodrigo de Gallego Pedro de Terreros, cabin boy Diego García Replicas of the Santa María Little is definitively known about the actual dimensions of Santa María, since no documentation or illustration has survived from that era.
Since the 19th century, various notable replicas have been publicly commissioned or constructed. Interest in reconstructing Santa María started in Spain at around 1890 for the 400th anniver
The Catholic Monarchs is the joint title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon. They were both from the House of Trastámara and were second cousins, being both descended from John I of Castile, they married on October 1469, in the city of Valladolid. It is accepted by most scholars that the unification of Spain can be traced back to the marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella; some newer historical opinions propose that under their rule, what became Spain was still a union of two crowns rather than a unitary state, as to a large degree Castile and Aragon remained separate kingdoms, with most of their own separate institutions, for decades to come. The court of Ferdinand and Isabella was on the move, in order to bolster local support for the crown from local feudal lords; the title of "Catholic King and Queen" was bestowed on Ferdinand and Isabella by Pope Alexander VI in 1494, in recognition of their defense of the Catholic faith within their realms. "Catholic monarchs" or "kings" can be used in a generic sense.
At the time of their marriage on October 19, 1469, Isabella was eighteen years old and the heiress presumptive to the Crown of Castile, while Ferdinand was seventeen and heir apparent to the Crown of Aragon. They married within a week. From the start, they worked well together. Both knew that the crown of Castile was "the prize, that they were both jointly gambling for it." However, it was a step toward the unification of the lands on the Iberian peninsula, which would become Spain. They were second cousins, so in order to marry they needed a papal dispensation that Pope Paul II, an Italian pope opposed to Aragon's influence on the Mediterranean and to the rise of monarchies strong enough to challenge the Pope, refused to grant, so they falsified a papal bull of their own. Though the bull is known to be false it isn't certain, the material author of the falsification; some experts point at Carrillo de Acuña, Archbishop of Toledo, others point at Antonio Veneris. Pope Paul II would remain a bitter enemy of Spain and the monarch for all his life, is attributed the quote, "May all Spaniards be cursed by God and heretics, the seed of Jews and Moors."Isabella's claims to it were not secure, since her marriage to Ferdinand enraged her half-brother Henry IV of Castile and he withdrew his support for her being his heiress presumptive, codified in the Treaty of the Bulls of Guisando.
Henry instead recognized Joanna of Castile, born during his marriage to Joanna of Portugal, but whose paternity was in doubt, since Henry was rumored to be impotent. When Henry died in 1474, Isabella asserted her claim to the throne, contested by thirteen-year-old Joanna. Joanna sought aid of Afonso V of Portugal, to claim the throne; this dispute between rival claimants led to the War of 1475–1479. Isabella called on the aid of Aragon, with her husband, the heir apparent, his father, Juan II of Aragon providing it. Although Aragon provided support for Isabella's cause, Isabella's supporters had extracted concessions, Isabella was acknowledged as the sole heir to the crown of Castile. Juan II died in 1479, Ferdinand succeeded to the throne in January 1479. In September 1479, Portugal and the Catholic Monarchs of Aragon and Castile resolved major issues between them through the Treaty of Alcáçovas, including the issue of Isabella's rights to the crown of Castile. Through close cooperation, the royal couple were successful in securing political power in the Iberian peninsula.
Ferdinand's father had advised the couple that "neither was powerful without the other." Though their marriage united the two kingdoms, leading to the beginnings of modern Spain, they ruled independently and their kingdoms retained part of their own regional laws and governments for the next centuries. The coat of arms of the Catholic Monarchs is designed with elements to show their cooperation and working in tandem, their joint motto was "Tanto monta, monta tanto". The motto was created by Antonio de Nebrija and was either an allusion to the Gordian knot: Tanto monta, monta tanto, cortar como desatar, or an explanation of the equality of the monarchs: Tanto monta, monta tanto, Isabel como Fernando. "The royal motto they shared'tanto monta', "as much one as the other," came to signify their cooperation."Their emblems or heraldic devices, seen at the bottom of the coat of arms, were el yugo y las flechas, a yoke, a sheaf of arrows. Y and F are the initials of Fernando. A double yoke is worn by a team of oxen.
Isabella's emblem of arrows showed the armed power of the crown, "a warning to Castilians not acknowledging the reach of royal authority or that greatest of royal functions, the right to mete out justice" by force of violence. The iconography is found on various works of art; these badges were used gathered by the fascist, from fasces, Spanish political party Falange, which claimed to represent the inherited glory and the ideals of the Catholic Monarchs. The establishment of System of Royal Councils to oversee discrete regions or areas was Isabella succeeded to the throne of Castile in 1474 when Ferdinand was still heir-apparent to Aragon, with Aragon