The Pamir Mountains are a mountain range in Central Asia, at the junction of the Himalayas with the Tian Shan, Kunlun, Hindu Kush and Hindu Raj ranges. They are among the world's highest mountains; the Pamir Mountains lie in the Gorno-Badakhshan province of Tajikistan. To the north, they join the Tian Shan mountains along the Alay Valley of Kyrgyzstan. To the south, they border the Hindu Kush mountains along Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor. To the east, they extend to the range that includes China's Kongur Tagh, in the "Eastern Pamirs", separated by the Yarkand valley from the Kunlun Mountains. Since Victorian times, they have been known as the "Roof of the World" a translation from Persian. In other languages they are called: Pashto پامیر غرونه ، "Pamir Ghroona"; the name "Pamir" is used more in Modern Chinese and loaned as simplified Chinese: 帕米尔. According to Middleton and Thomas, "pamir" is a geological term. A pamir is a flat plateau or U-shaped valley surrounded by mountains, it forms when a ice field melts leaving a rocky plain.
A pamir lasts until erosion cuts down normal valleys. This type of terrain is found in the east and north of the Wakhan, the east and south of Gorno-Badakhshan, as opposed to the valleys and gorges of the west. Pamirs are used for summer pasture; the Great Pamir is around Lake Zorkul. The Little Pamir is east of this in the far east of Wakhan; the Taghdumbash Pamir is between the Wakhan west of the Karakoram Highway. The Alichur Pamir is around Yashil Kul on the Gunt River; the Sarez Pamir is around the town of Murghab. The Khargush Pamir is south of Lake Karakul. There are several others; the Pamir River is in the south-west of the Pamirs. The three highest mountains in the Pamirs core are 7,495 m. In the Eastern Pamirs, China's Kongur Tagh is the highest at 7,649 m. Among the significant peaks of the Pamir Mountains are the following: Remark: The summits of the Kongur and Muztagata Group are in some sources counted as part of the Kunlun, which would make Pik Ismoil Somoni the highest summit of the Pamir.
There are many glaciers in the Pamir Mountains, including the 77 km long Fedchenko Glacier, the longest in the former USSR and the longest glacier outside the polar regions. 12,500 km² of the Pamirs are glaciated. Glaciers in the Southern Pamirs are retreating rapidly. Ten percent of annual runoff is supposed to originate from retreating glaciers in the Southern Pamirs. In the North-Western Pamirs, glaciers have stable mass balances. Covered in snow throughout the year, the Pamirs have long and bitterly cold winters, short, cool summers. Annual precipitation is about 130 mm; the East-Pamir, in the centre of which the massifs of Mustagh Ata and Kongur Tagh are situated, shows from the western margin of the Tarim Basin an east-west extension of c. 200 km. Its north-south extension from King Ata Tagh up to the northwest Kunlun foothills amounts to c.170 km. Whilst the up to 21 km long current valley glaciers are restricted to mountain massifs exceeding 5600 m in height, during the last glacial period the glacier ice covered the high plateau with its set-up highland relief, continuing west of Mustagh Ata and Kongur.
From this glacier area an outlet glacier has flowed down to the north-east through the Gez valley up to c.1850 m asl and thus as far as to the margin of the Tarim basin. This outlet glacier received inflow from the Kaiayayilak glacier from the Kongur north flank. From the north-adjacent Kara Bak Tor massif, the Oytag valley glacier in the same exposition flowed down up to c. 1850 m asl. At glacial times the glacier snowline as altitude limit between glacier nourishing area and ablation zone, was about 820 to 1250 metres lower than it is today. Under the condition of comparable proportions of precipitation there results from this a glacial depression of temperature of at least 5 to 7.5 °C. Coal is mined in the west, though sheep herding in upper meadowlands is the primary source of income for the region; this section is based on the book by R. Middleton and H. Thomas The lapis lazuli found in Egyptian tombs is thought to come from the Pamir area in Badakhshan province of Afghanistan. About 138 BC Zhang Qian reached the Fergana Valley northwest of the Pamirs.
Ptolemy vaguely describes a trade route through the area. From about 600 AD, Buddhist pilgrims travelled on both sides of the Pamirs to reach India from China. In 747 a Tang army was on the Wakhan River. There are various Chinese reports. Marco Polo may have travelled along the Panj River. In 1602 Bento de Goes left a meager report on the Pamirs. In 1838 Lieutenant John Wood reached the headwaters of the Pamir River. From about 1868 to 1880, a number of Indians in the British service secretly explored the Panj area. I
Alexander Kinvi-Boh is a Togolese footballer. He plays for US Masséda, he started football at his early ages Dallas FC and Guepards FC. He started at the age of 13 at the position of defensive midfielder before playing as central defender and right full back in the late 2 years. 2004-2005 was voted the best young defender National division 2 league with Guepards FC. He was a member of the 2005-2006 Champions of National division 2 league with USM. Kinvi-Boh started in summer 2007 with the first team of US Masséda his professional career and played alongtime with Backer Aloenouvo; this victory earned the club a Promotion from division/league 2 to league 1. Played African Confederation Cup with USM after being 2nd in Togo Division 1 league, they were kicked out of the CAF confederation at the 1/8 stage of the champiohship in 2008. A member of the Winning team of the Togolese National U-17 Inter-league Cup. After the CAF Orange Confederations Cup, he has been in top shape at the peak of football and uis the current captain of his team USM.
Kinvi-Boh played with the U-17 from Togo at 2007 FIFA U-17 World Cup in South Korea. Since 2008 Alex is member of the Togolese first national team. In 2006-2007 he earned his first National medal for placing second in the African U-17 Caf Tournament 2007 - Winners of Togo Independence Cup with USM. Played U-17 World Cup in SOUTH KOREA. Award the best Togolese player at U-17 World Cup in Korea as a defender, he is a member of the 2010 African Cup of Nations team for Togo, in Angola 2010. Alex Kinvi-Boh at National-Football-Teams.com
The Book Rights Registry is an entity to be founded as part of a settlement of the lawsuit between the Authors Guild and Google over the Google Books scanning project. The Registry will be funded by $34.5 million from Google but it will be an independent, not-for-profit organization that collects and disburses revenue from third party users of content to authors and other rightsholders. According to the Settlement Agreement, the Registry will own and maintain a rights information database for all books covered by the Agreement and their authors and publishers, it will resolve disputes between rightsholders. Michael Healy, the current head of the Book Industry Study Group, is slated to become the new head of the Registry. Authors Guild president Roy Blount, Jr. described it as "the writers' equivalent of ASCAP." The Open Book Alliance – whose members include American Society of Journalists and Authors, Internet Archive, Yahoo, National Writers Union and New York Library Association among others – maintain the deal would create a de facto exclusive license for Google because the deal grants no rights to the BRR to license books to competitors – copyright owners will have to license Google’s competitors voluntarily, while Google gets an involuntary, virtual compulsory license through class action process.
As a result, only Google receives a license to “orphan books”, whose owners won’t show up to license competitors and which comprise an estimated 70% of books. In short, the settlement all but guarantees that Google would have permanent competitive advantages around comprehensiveness and cost; this is one reason why the Department of Justice is investigating the proposed deal and numerous non-profit organizations and other stakeholders have condemned it. Pam Samuelson, UC Berkeley Professor of Law says "Libraries everywhere are terrified that Google will engage in price-gouging when setting prices for institutional subscriptions to "the works" Google Book Search Settlement Agreement Books in the United States Gleick, James. "How to Publish Without Perishing". Opinion; the New York Times. "Google Book Search Copyright Settlement". Google. 2008. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008; this is the settlement administration website for the Google Book Search Copyright Class Action Settlement Blount Jr. Roy.
"$125 Million Settlement in Authors Guild v. Google". Press release. Authors Guild. Archived from the original on 31 October 2008. "Authors and Google Reach Landmark Settlement". Press Release. Google. 27 October 2008. "Open Book Alliance". Archived from the original on 26 August 2009. "Google Faces Antitrust Investigation for Agreement to Digitize Millions of Books Online". Democracy Now. 30 April 2009