Pamplona is the capital city of the Autonomous Community of Navarre, in Spain, also of the former Kingdom of Navarre. Pamplona is the second-largest city in the greater Basque cultural region, composed of two Spanish autonomous communities and Basque Country, the French Basque Country. Pamplona has a moderate climate being at 446 m in elevation. In addition to its elevation, Pamplona being inland results in cool nights by Spanish standards; the city is famous worldwide for the running of the bulls during the San Fermín festival, held annually from 6 to 14 July. This festival was brought to literary renown with the 1926 publication of Ernest Hemingway's novel The Sun Also Rises, it is home to Osasuna, the only Navarrese football club to have played in the Spanish top division. Pamplona is located in the middle of Navarre in a rounded valley, known as the Basin of Pamplona, that links the mountainous north with the Ebro valley, it is 92 km from the city of San Sebastián, 117 km from Bilbao, 735 km from Paris, 407 km from Madrid.
The climate and landscape of the basin is a transition between those two main Navarrese geographical regions. Its central position at crossroads has served as a commercial link between those different natural parts of Navarre; the historical centre of the city is on the left bank of a tributary of the Ebro. The city has developed on both sides of the river; the climate of Pamplona is classified as an oceanic climate with influences of a semicontinental Mediterranean climate. Precipitation patterns do not vary much over the course of the year, as is typical of marine climates, but both classifications are possible due to the Mediterranean patterns of somewhat drier summer months. Sunshine hours are more similar to the oceanic coastal climate in nearby Basque locations than typical Spanish Mediterranean areas are, but rainfall is lower than in Bilbao and San Sebastián. In the winter of 75–74 BC, the area served as a camp for the Roman general Pompey in the war against Sertorius, he is considered to be the founder of Pompaelo, "as if Pompeiopolis" in Strabo's words, which became Pamplona, in modern Spanish.
However, in times, it has been discovered to be the chief town of the Vascones. They called it Iruña, translating to'the city'. Roman Pompaelo was located in the province of Hispania Tarraconensis, on the Ab Asturica Burdigalam, the road from Burdigala to Asturica. During the Germanic invasions of 409 and as a result of Rechiar´s ravaging, Pamplona went through much disruption and destruction, starting a cycle of general decline along with other towns across the Basque territory, but managing to keep some sort of urban life. During the Visigothic period, Pamplona alternated between self-rule, Visigoth domination or Frankish suzerainty in the Duchy of Vasconia. In 466 to 472, Pamplona was conquered by the Visigoth count Gauteric, but they seemed to abandon the restless position soon, struggling as the Visigoth kingdom was to survive and rearrange its lands after their defeats in Gaul. During the beginning of the sixth century, Pamplona stuck to an unstable self-rule, but in 541, along with other northern Iberian cities, was raided by the Franks.
Around 581, the Visigoth king Liuvigild overcame the Basques, seized Pamplona, founded in the town of Victoriacum. Despite the legend citing Saint Fermin as the first bishop of Pamplona and his baptising of 40,000 pagan inhabitants in just three days, the first reliable accounts of a bishop date from 589, when bishop Liliolus attended the Third Council of Toledo. After 684 and 693, a bishop called Opilano is mentioned again in 829, followed by Wiliesind and a certain Jimenez from 880 to 890. In the 10th century, important gaps are found in bishop succession, recorded unbroken only after 1005. At the time of the Umayyad invasion in 711, the Visigothic king Roderic was fighting the Basques in Pamplona and had to turn his attention to the new enemy coming from the south. By 714-16, the Umayyad troops had reached the Basque-held Pamplona, with the town submitting after a treaty was brokered between the inhabitants and the Arab military commanders; the position was garrisoned by Berbers, who were stationed on the outside of the actual fortress, established the cemetery unearthed not long ago at the Castle Square.
During the following years, the Basques south of the Pyrenees do not seem to have shown much resistance to the Moorish thrust, Pamplona may have flourished as a launching point and centre of assembly for their expeditions into Gascony. In 740, the Wali Uqba ibn al-Hayyay imposed direct central Cordovan discipline on the city. In 755, the last governor of Al-Andalus, Yusuf al Fihri, sent an expedition north to quash Basque unrest near Pamplona, resulting in the defeat of the Arab army. From 755 until 781, Pamplona remained autonomous relying on regional alliances. Although sources are not clear, it seems apparent that in 778, the town was in hands of a Basque local or a Muslim rebel faction loyal to the Franks at the moment of Charlemagne's crossing of the Pyrenees to the south. However, on his way back from the failed expedition to Saragossa in August, the walls and the town were destroyed by Charlemagne
The 1961–62 Cincinnati Bearcats men's basketball team represented University of Cincinnati. Cincinnati defended its national championship with a 71–59 defeat of top-ranked Ohio State before 18,469 at Freedom Hall in Louisville, Kentucky; the head coach was Ed Jucker. Cincinnati played its way out from under the shadow of in-state rival Ohio State by winning two straight National Championships in 1961 and 1962, each time beating the Buckeyes in the title game. In 1962, the Bearcats were a deep, balanced team led by leading scorer and rebounded Paul Hogue, a 6-foot-9 center. Five other player averaged between 8.2 and 14.3 points per game, the Bearcats played stifling defense. In the Crosstown Shootout, Cincinnati beat Xavier by a score of 61–58; the match was held at the Cincinnati Gardens. Mideast Cincinnati 66, Creighton 46 Cincinnati 73, Colorado 46 Final Four Cincinnati 72, UCLA 70 Cincinnati 71, Ohio State 59 Cincinnati led 37–29 at half-time. Twice in the final period, the Bearcats were ahead by 18 points.
In the spring of 1962, Cleveland Pipers owner George Steinbrenner signed Jerry Lucas to a player-management contract worth forty thousand dollars. With the Lucas signing, Steinbrenner had a secret deal with NBA commissioner Maurice Podoloff; the Pipers would merge with the Kansas City Steers and join the NBA. A schedule was printed for the 1963–64 NBA season with the Pipers playing the New York Knicks in the first game. Steinbrenner and partner George McKean fell behind in payments to the NBA and the deal was cancelled
Musashino is a triptych print by the Japanese ukiyo-e artist Kitagawa Utamaro. It is a mitate-e parody picture. Ukiyo-e art flourished in Japan during the Edo period from the 17th to 19th centuries, took as its primary subjects courtesans, kabuki actors, others associated with the "floating world" lifestyle of the pleasure districts. Alongside paintings, mass-produced woodblock prints were a major form of the genre. In the mid-18th century full-colour nishiki-e prints became common, printed using a large number of woodblocks, one for each colour. A prominent genre was bijin-ga, which depicted most courtesans and geisha at leisure, promoted the entertainments of the pleasure districts. Kitagawa Utamaro made his name in the 1790s with his bijin ōkubi-e portraits, focusing on the head and upper torso, a style others had employed in portraits of kabuki actors. Utamaro experimented with line and printing techniques to bring out subtle differences in the features and backdrops of subjects from a wide variety of class and background.
Utamaro's individuated beauties were in sharp contrast to the stereotyped, idealized images, the norm. The three sheets are multicolour nishiki-e prints in about 37 by 24 centimetres each; the set forms a triptych and was published in c. 1794–95 by Tsutaya Jūzaburō. The picture is a mitate-e parody alluding to a scene from the 12th section of The Tales of Ise, a Heian-period collection of poems and associated narratives. In the story, a man kidnaps a woman and hides her in Musashino Plain, where their pursuers discover them just as they are about to set fire to the grasses with their torches. Though she had been kidnapped, many paintings of the scene depict the woman sheltering the man with the large sleeve of her kimono. In Utamaro's picture, the search party has become fashionably-dressed, pleasure-seeking women who carry chōchin paper lamps rather than torches. To the left, a young samurai crouches and covers his head in a cloth while a young woman dressed like a geisha blocks the view of him.