Pan Am Flight 103
The remains of the forward section from Clipper Maid of the Seas on Tundergarth Hill, Lockerbie
|Date||21 December 1988|
|Summary||In-flight breakup due to terrorist bombing|
Lockerbie, Scotland |
|Aircraft type||Boeing 747–121|
|Aircraft name||Clipper Maid of the Seas|
|Operator||Pan American World Airways|
|IATA flight No.||PA103|
|ICAO flight No.||PAA103|
|Call sign||CLIPPER 103|
|Flight origin||Frankfurt Airport, Frankfurt, West Germany|
|1st stopover||Heathrow Airport, London, United Kingdom|
|2nd stopover||John F. Kennedy Airport, New York, United States|
|Destination||Detroit Metropolitan Airport, Detroit, United States|
Pan Am Flight 103 was a regularly scheduled Pan Am transatlantic flight from Frankfurt to Detroit via London and New York. On 21 December 1988, N739PA, the aircraft operating the transatlantic leg of the route, was destroyed by a bomb, killing all 243 passengers and 16 crew in what became known as the Lockerbie bombing. Large sections of the aircraft crashed onto residential areas of Lockerbie, Scotland, killing 11 more people on the ground.
Following a three-year joint investigation by Dumfries and Galloway Constabulary and the US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), arrest warrants were issued for two Libyan nationals in November 1991. In 1999, Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi handed over the two men for trial at Camp Zeist, Netherlands, after protracted negotiations and UN sanctions. In 2001, Libyan intelligence officer Abdelbaset al-Megrahi was jailed for life after being found guilty of 270 counts of murder in connection with the bombing. In August 2009, he was released by the Scottish Government on compassionate grounds after being diagnosed with prostate cancer. He died in May 2012, as the only person to be convicted for the attack.
In 2003, Gaddafi accepted responsibility for the Lockerbie bombing and paid compensation to the families of the victims, although he maintained that he had never given the order for the attack. During the Libyan Civil War in 2011, former Minister of Justice Mustafa Abdul Jalil claimed that the Libyan leader had personally ordered the bombing, though this was later denied.
- 1 Aircraft
- 2 Flight
- 3 Explosion and collision timeline
- 4 Victims
- 5 Prior alerts
- 6 Claims of responsibility
- 7 Investigation
- 8 Trial, appeals, and release
- 9 Alleged motives
- 10 Compensation
- 11 Memorials and tributes
- 12 Wreckage of the aircraft
- 13 Maps
- 14 See also
- 15 References
- 16 External links
The aircraft operating Pan Am Flight 103 was a Boeing 747–121, registered N739PA and named Clipper Maid of the Seas, formerly named Clipper Morning Light prior to 1979. It was the 15th 747 built and was delivered in February 1970, one month after the first 747 entered service with Pan Am. In 1978, as Clipper Morning Light, it appeared in the fourth episode entitled "Conquering the Atlantic" of the BBC television documentary series Diamonds in the Sky presented by Julian Pettifer.
At the time of its destruction, Clipper Maid of the Seas was 18 years of age and had accumulated over 75,000 flying hours. In 1987, it underwent a complete overhaul as it belonged to the civil reserve fleet of aircraft and this aircraft was retrofitted so that, in a national emergency, it could be turned into a freight aircraft within two days' work, according to the Los Angeles Times.
The Clipper Maid of the Seas operated the transatlantic leg of Flight 103, which had originated at Frankfurt Airport, West Germany, on a Boeing 727. Both Pan Am and TWA routinely changed the type of aircraft operating different legs of a flight. PA103 was bookable as a single Frankfurt-New York itinerary, though a scheduled change of aircraft took place in London. At London Heathrow Airport, passengers and their luggage on the feeder flight transferred directly onto the Boeing 747, along with unaccompanied interline luggage. The aircraft pushed back from the terminal at 18:04 and took off from runway 27R at 18:25, en route for New York JFK Airport and on to Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport. Contrary to many popular accounts of the disaster (though repeated, with reference, below), the flight, which had a scheduled gate departure time of 18:00, left Heathrow airport on time.
After the bombing, the flight number was changed, in accordance with standard practice among airlines after disasters. Within days, the Frankfurt-London-New York-Detroit route was being served by Pan Am Flight 3.
Explosion and collision timeline
Contact is lost
The Clipper Maid of the Seas approached the corner of the Solway Firth at 19:01 and crossed the coast at 19:02 UTC. On scope, the aircraft showed transponder code, or "squawk," 0357 and flight level 310. At this point, the Clipper Maid of the Seas was flying at 31,000 feet (9,400 m) on a heading of 316 degrees magnetic, and at a speed of 313 kn (580 km/h) calibrated airspeed. Subsequent analysis of the radar returns by RSRE concluded that the aircraft was tracking 321° (grid) and travelling at a ground speed of 803 km/h (499 mph; 434 knots).
At 19:02:44, the clearance delivery officer at Shanwick transmitted its oceanic route clearance. The aircraft did not acknowledge this message. The Clipper Maid of the Seas' "squawk" then flickered off. Air Traffic Control tried to make contact with the flight, with no response. At this time a loud sound was recorded on the cockpit voice recorder (CVR) at 19:02:50. Five radar echoes fanning out appeared, instead of one. Comparison of the cockpit voice recorder to the radar returns showed that, eight seconds after the explosion, the wreckage had a 1-nautical-mile (1.9 km) spread. A British Airways pilot, flying the London–Glasgow shuttle near Carlisle, called Scottish authorities to report that he could see a huge fire on the ground.
Disintegration of aircraft
The explosion punched a 50-cm (20-inch) hole on the left side of the fuselage. Investigators from the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) concluded that no emergency procedures had been started in the cockpit. The cockpit voice recorder, located in the tail section of the aircraft, was found in a field by police searchers within 24 hours. There was no evidence of a distress signal; a 180-millisecond hissing noise could be heard as the explosion destroyed the aircraft's communications centre. Although the explosion was in the aircraft hold, the effect was magnified by the large difference in pressure between the aircraft's interior and exterior, i.e., uncontrolled decompression of the fuselage. The steering cables had been disrupted and the fuselage pitched downwards and to the left.
Investigators from the Air Accidents Investigation Branch (AAIB) of the British Department for Transport concluded that the nose of the aircraft was effectively blown off, and was separated from the main section within three seconds of the explosion. The nose cone was briefly held on by a band of metal but facing aft, like the lid of a can. It then sheared off, up and backwards to starboard, striking off the No. 3 engine and landing some distance from Lockerbie, near Tundergarth church.
The fuselage continued moving forward and down until it reached 19,000 ft (5,800 m), at which point its dive became nearly vertical.:44 The rear fuselage, parts of the baggage hold and three landing gear units landed at Rosebank Terrace.:44 The fuselage consisting of the main wing box structure landed in Sherwood Crescent, creating a large impact crater where three homes previously stood. The 200,000 lb (91,000 kg) of jet fuel ignited by the impact started fires which destroyed several additional houses.:4 Investigators were able to determine that both wings had landed in the Sherwood Crescent crater, saying "the total absence of debris from the wing primary structure found remote from the crater confirmed the initial impression that the complete wing box structure had been present at the main impact.":16 The British Geological Survey 23 kilometres (14 mi) away at Eskdalemuir registered a seismic event at 19:03:36 measuring 1.6 on the moment magnitude scale, which was attributed to the impact. According to the report, the rest of the wreckage composed of "the complete fuselage forward of approximately station 480 to station 380 and incorporating the flight deck and nose landing gear was found as one piece in a field approximately 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) east of Lockerbie.":16 This field, located opposite Tundergarth Church, is where the wreckage most easily identified with images of the accident in the media fell, having fallen "almost flat on its left side but with a slight nose-down attitude.":16
|Trinidad and Tobago||1||-||-||1|
All 243 passengers and 16 crew members were killed, as were 11 residents of Lockerbie on the ground. Of the 270 total fatalities, 190 were American citizens and 43 were British citizens. Nineteen other nationalities were represented, with four or fewer passengers per country.
Flight 103 was under the command of Captain James Bruce MacQuarrie (55), an experienced pilot with almost 11,000 flight hours, of which more than 4,000 had been accrued in 747 aircraft. First Officer Ray Wagner (52) had approximately 5,500 flight hours in the 747 and a total of almost 12,000 hours. Flight Engineer Jerry Don Avritt (46) had more than 8,000 hours of flying experience. He had come to Pan Am through the 1980 merger with National Airlines. The cockpit crew was based at JFK.
Six of the cabin crew members became naturalized US citizens while working for Pan Am. The cabin crew lived in the London area or commuted from around Europe. All were originally hired by Pan Am and ranged from 28 years to nine months in seniority.
The captain, first officer, flight engineer, a flight attendant and several First Class passengers were found still strapped to their seats inside the nose section when it crashed in Tundergarth. The inquest heard that a flight attendant was found alive by a farmer's wife, but died before her discoverer could summon help. Some passengers may have remained alive briefly after impact; a pathologist report concluded that at least two of these passengers might have survived if they had been found soon enough.
Syracuse University students
Thirty-five of the passengers were students from Syracuse University returning home for Christmas following a semester studying in London at Syracuse's London and Florence campuses.
Prominent among the passenger victims was the 50-year-old UN Commissioner for Namibia, Bernt Carlsson, who would have attended the signing ceremony of the New York Accords at the UN headquarters the following day. Also aboard was Volkswagen America CEO James Fuller who was returning from a meeting with Volkswagen executives in West Germany; musician Paul Jeffreys, formerly bass player with Steve Harley & Cockney Rebel.
US government officials
There were at least four US government officials on the passenger list with rumours, never confirmed, of a fifth on board. The presence of these men on the flight later gave rise to conspiracy theories, in which one or more of them were said to have been targeted.
Eleven Lockerbie residents on Sherwood Crescent were killed when the wing section hit the house at 13 Sherwood Crescent at more than 800 km/h (500 mph) and exploded, creating a crater 47 m (154 ft) long and with a volume of 560 m3 (730 cu yd). The property was completely destroyed, and its occupants, Dora and Maurice Henry, were killed. Their bodies were never found. Several other houses and their foundations were destroyed, and 21 others were damaged so badly they had to be demolished.
Four members of one family, Jack and Rosalind Somerville and their children Paul (13), and Lyndsey (10), died when their house at 15 Sherwood Crescent exploded. The bodies of the two children were never found.
Kathleen Flannigan (41), her husband Thomas (44), and their daughter Joanne (10), were killed by the explosion in their house at 16 Sherwood Crescent. The bodies of Mr and Mrs Flannigan were never found. Their son Steven (14) witnessed a fireball engulfing his home from a neighbour's garage, where he had been repairing his sister's bicycle. Their other son, 19-year-old David, was in Blackpool at the time. David later turned to alcohol and drugs, and died from heart failure in Thailand in December 1993, aged 24. Steven died in August 2000, aged 26, after being hit by a train in Wiltshire.
The other Lockerbie residents who died were 81-year-old Mary Lancaster and 82-year-old Jean Murray, who also both lived in Sherwood Crescent. Both widows, they were the two oldest victims of the disaster.
The fireball rose above the houses and moved toward the nearby Glasgow–Carlisle A74 dual carriageway, scorching cars in the southbound lanes and leading motorists and local residents to believe that there had been a meltdown at the nearby Chapelcross nuclear power station.
Father Patrick Keegans, Lockerbie's Roman Catholic priest, was preparing to visit (or had just visited - per second news article) his neighbours Dora and Maurice Henry at approximately 7 pm that evening. Keegans' house at 1 Sherwood Crescent was the only one on the street that was neither destroyed by the impact nor gutted by fire.
Despite being advised by their governments not to travel to Lockerbie, many of the passengers' relatives, most of them from the US, arrived there within days to identify the dead. Volunteers from Lockerbie set up and staffed canteens, which stayed open 24 hours a day and offered relatives, soldiers, police officers, and social workers free sandwiches, hot meals, coffee, and someone to talk to. The people of the town washed, dried, and ironed every piece of clothing that was found once the police had determined they were of no forensic value, so that as many items as possible could be returned to the relatives. The BBC's Scotland correspondent, Andrew Cassell, reported on the 10th anniversary of the bombing that the townspeople had "opened their homes and hearts" to the relatives, bearing their own losses "stoically and with enormous dignity", and that the bonds forged then continue to this day.
Two alerts were released shortly before the bombing.
On 5 December 1988 (16 days prior to the attack), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) issued a security bulletin saying that, on that day, a man with an Arabic accent had telephoned the US Embassy in Helsinki, Finland, and told them that a Pan Am flight from Frankfurt to the United States would be blown up within the next two weeks by someone associated with the Abu Nidal Organization; he said a Finnish woman would carry the bomb on board as an unwitting courier.
The anonymous warning was taken seriously by the US government, and the State Department cabled the bulletin to dozens of embassies. The FAA sent it to all US carriers, including Pan Am, which had charged each of the passengers a $5 security surcharge, promising a "program that will screen passengers, employees, airport facilities, baggage and aircraft with unrelenting thoroughness"; the security team in Frankfurt found the warning under a pile of papers on a desk the day after the bombing.[page needed] One of the Frankfurt security screeners, whose job was to spot explosive devices under X-ray, told ABC News that she had first learned what Semtex (a plastic explosive) was during her ABC interview 11 months after the bombing.
On 13 December, the warning was posted on bulletin boards in the US Embassy in Moscow and eventually distributed to the entire American community there, including journalists and businessmen.
The Swedish-language national Finnish newspaper Hufvudstadsbladet reported on the front page of its 23 December 1988 issue — two days after the bombing — that a State Department spokesperson in Washington, Phyllis Oakley, confirmed the details of the bomb threat to the Helsinki Embassy. The newspaper writes that, "according to the spokesperson, the anonymous telephone voice also stated that the bomb would be transported from Helsinki to Frankfurt and onwards to New York on Pan-Am's flight to the US. The person transporting the bomb would not themselves be aware of it, with the explosives hidden in that person's luggage." The same news article reports that the US Embassy in Moscow also received the same threat on 5 December, adding that Finland's foreign ministry has found no evidence in its investigations of any link to the Lockerbie crash. "The foreign ministry assumes that an Arab living in Finland is behind the phone threat to the US Embassy in Helsinki. According to the foreign ministry's sources, the Arab has phoned throughout the year with threatening calls to the Israeli and US embassies [in Helsinki]," wrote the paper. "The man who rang the embassies claimed to belong to Abu Nidal's radical Palestinian faction that has been responsible for many terrorist actions. The man said that a bomb would be placed on board a Pan-Am plane by a woman." The article continues, "This has led to speculation that a Finnish woman placed the bomb aboard the downed aircraft. One of Abu Nidal's highest operative leaders, Samir Muhammed Khadir, who died last summer in a terrorist attack against the ship City of Poros, had lived outside Stockholm. He was married to a Finnish-born woman."
Just days before the sabotage of the aircraft, security forces in European countries, including the UK, were put on alert after a warning from the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) that extremists might launch terrorist attacks to undermine the then ongoing dialogue between the United States and the PLO.
Claims of responsibility
According to a CIA analysis dated 22 December 1988, several groups were quick to claim responsibility in telephone calls in the United States and Europe:
- A male caller claimed that a group called the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution had destroyed the plane in retaliation for Iran Air Flight 655 being shot down by US forces in the Persian Gulf the previous July.
- A caller claiming to represent the Islamic Jihad Organization told ABC News in New York that the group had planted the bomb to commemorate Christmas.
- Another caller claimed responsibility for the "Ulster Defence League".
- Another caller claimed the plane had been downed by Mossad, the Israeli intelligence service.
The list's author noted, "We consider the claims from the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution as the most credible one received so far," but the analysis concluded, "We cannot assign responsibility for this tragedy to any terrorist group at this time. We anticipate that, as often happens, many groups will seek to claim credit."
Muammar Gaddafi took responsibility for the Lockerbie bombing and paid compensation to the victims' families in 2003, though he maintained that he had not ordered the attack. On 22 February 2011, during the Libyan Civil War, former Minister of Justice Mustafa Abdul Jalil stated in an interview with the Swedish newspaper Expressen that Muammar Gaddafi had personally ordered the bombing. Jalil claimed to possess "documents that prove [his allegations] and [that he is] ready to hand them over to the international criminal court." Jalil later denied making this claim, saying he was misquoted.
In December 2013, it was revealed that the original prime suspects in the bombing had been the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine – General Command (PFLP-GC), a Syria-based group led by Ahmed Jibril. A flood of warnings immediately preceding the disaster had included one that read: ‘team of Palestinians not associated with PLO intends to attack US targets in Europe. Time frame is present. Targets specified are Pan Am Airlines and US military bases.’ Five weeks before this warning, Jibril's right-hand man, Haffez Dalkamoni, had been arrested in Frankfurt with a known bomb-maker, Marwen Khreesat. "Later US intelligence officials confirmed that members of the group had been monitoring Pan Am's facilities at Frankfurt airport. On Dalkamoni's account bombs made by Khreesat were at large somewhere."  A deep cover CIA agent was told by up to 15 high-level Syrian officials that the PFLP-GC was involved, and officials interacted with Jibril "on a constant basis". In 2014, an Iranian ex-spy asserted that Iran ordered the attack. The Iranian foreign ministry swiftly denied any involvement.
This section is too long to read comfortably, and needs subsections. (August 2018)
The initial investigation into the crash site by Dumfries and Galloway Constabulary involved many helicopter surveys, satellite imaging, and a search of the area by police and soldiers. The wreckage of the crash was scattered over 2,000 square kilometres and AAIB investigators were confronted by a massive jigsaw puzzle in trying to piece the plane back together. In total, 4 million pieces of wreckage were collected and registered on computer files. More than 10,000 pieces of debris were retrieved, tagged and entered into a computer tracking system. The perpetrators had apparently intended the plane to crash into the sea, destroying any traceable evidence, but the late departure time (contrary to statement, with reference, above), of the aircraft meant that its explosion over land left a trail of evidence.
The fuselage of the aircraft was reconstructed by air accident investigators, revealing a 20-inch (510 mm) hole consistent with an explosion in the forward cargo hold. Examination of the baggage containers revealed that the container nearest the hole had blackening, pitting, and severe damage, indicating a "high-energy event" had taken place inside it. A series of test explosions were carried out to confirm the precise location and quantity of explosive used.
Fragments of a Samsonite suitcase believed to have contained the bomb were recovered, together with parts and pieces of circuit board identified as components of a Toshiba 'Bombeat' RT-SF16, radio cassette player, similar to that used to conceal a Semtex bomb seized by West German police from the Palestinian militant group Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine – General Command two months earlier. Items of baby clothing, which were subsequently proven to have been made in Malta, were thought to have come from the same suitcase.
The clothes were traced to a Maltese merchant, Tony Gauci, who became a key prosecution witness, testifying that he sold the clothes to a man of Libyan appearance. Gauci was interviewed 23 times, giving contradictory evidence about who had bought the clothes, that person's age and appearance, and the date of purchase, but later identified Abdelbaset al-Megrahi. As Megrahi had only been in Malta on 7 December, that date was assumed to be the purchase date. This date is in doubt as Gauci had testified that Malta's Christmas lights had not been on when the clothes had been purchased; it was subsequently determined that the lights had been switched on on 6 December. Scottish police had also failed to inform the defence that another witness had testified seeing Libyan men making a similar purchase on a different day. An official report, providing information not made available to the defence during the original trial, stated that, on 19 April 1999, four days before identifying al-Megrahi for the first time, Gauci had seen a picture of al-Megrahi in a magazine which connected him to the bombing, a fact which could have distorted his judgment. Gauci was shown the same magazine during his testimony at al-Megrahi's trial and asked if he had identified the photograph in April 1999 as being the person who purchased the clothing; he was then asked if that person was in the court. Gauci then identified al-Megrahi for the court stating – "He is the man on this side. He resembles him a lot".
A circuit board fragment, allegedly found embedded in a piece of charred material, was identified as part of an electronic timer similar to one found on a Libyan intelligence agent who had been arrested 10 months previously for carrying materials for a Semtex bomb. The timer was allegedly traced through its Swiss manufacturer, Mebo, to the Libyan military, and Mebo employee Ulrich Lumpert identified the fragment at al-Megrahi's trial. Mebo's owner, Edwin Bollier, testified at the trial that the Scottish police had originally shown him a fragment of a brown 8-ply circuit board from a prototype timer which had never been supplied to Libya. Yet the sample he was asked to identify at the trial was a green 9-ply circuit board that Mebo had indeed supplied to Libya. Bollier wanted to pursue this discrepancy, but was told by trial judge Lord Sutherland that he could not do so. Bollier later claimed that in 1991 he had declined an offer of $4 million from the FBI in exchange for his support of the main line of inquiry, though this claim has never been verified.
On 18 July 2007, Ulrich Lumpert admitted he had lied at the trial. In an affidavit before a Zurich notary public, Lumpert stated that he had stolen a prototype MST-13 printed circuit board from Mebo and gave it without permission on 22 June 1989, to "an official person investigating the Lockerbie case". Dr Hans Köchler, a UN observer at the Lockerbie trial who received a copy of Lumpert's affidavit, said: "The Scottish authorities are now obliged to investigate this situation. Not only has Mr Lumpert admitted to stealing a sample of the timer, but to the fact he gave it to an official and then lied in court." Traces of high explosives RDX and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) were found in proximity to the explosion.
A documentary titled Lockerbie Revisited aired on 27 April 2009, in which the film's director and narrator, Gideon Levy, interviewed officials involved with the case. Former FBI Laboratory scientist Fred Whitehurst described the FBI laboratory itself as a "crime scene," where an unqualified colleague Thomas Thurman would routinely alter his scientific reports. The interviews also revealed that the timer fragment had never been tested for explosives residue due to "budgetary reasons." Thurman, who led the forensic investigation and identified the fragment's Libyan connection, confirmed that it was the "only real piece of evidence against Libya". When asked about the importance of the timer in the conviction of al-Megrahi, FBI Task Force Chief Richard Marquise stated, "It would be a very difficult case to prove ... I don't think we would ever (have) had an indictment".
Investigators discovered that a bag had been routed onto PA103 via the interline baggage system at Frankfurt, from the station and approximate time at which bags were unloaded from flight KM180 from Malta. Although documentation for flight KM180 indicated that all bags on that flight were accounted for, the court inferred that the bag came from that flight and that it contained the bomb. In 2009, it was revealed that security guard Ray Manley had reported that Heathrow's Pan Am baggage area had been broken into 17 hours before flight 103 took off. Police lost the report and it was never investigated or brought up at trial.
Known as the Lockerbie bombing and the Lockerbie air disaster in the UK, it was described by Scotland's Lord Advocate as the UK's largest criminal inquiry led by the smallest police force in Britain, Dumfries and Galloway Constabulary.
After a three-year joint investigation by Dumfries and Galloway Constabulary and the US Federal Bureau of Investigation, during which 15,000 witness statements were taken, indictments for murder were issued on 13 November 1991 against Abdelbaset al-Megrahi, a Libyan intelligence officer and the head of security for Libyan Arab Airlines (LAA), and Lamin Khalifah Fhimah, the LAA station manager in Luqa Airport, Malta. UN sanctions against Libya and protracted negotiations with Libyan leader Colonel Muammar Gaddafi secured the handover of the accused on 5 April 1999 to Scottish police at Camp Zeist, Netherlands, which was selected as a neutral venue for their trial.
Both the accused chose not to give evidence in court. On 31 January 2001, Megrahi was convicted of murder by a panel of three Scottish judges and sentenced to life imprisonment, but Fhimah was acquitted. Megrahi's appeal against his conviction was refused on 14 March 2002, and his application to the European Court of Human Rights was declared inadmissible in July 2003. On 23 September 2003, Megrahi applied to the Scottish Criminal Cases Review Commission (SCCRC) for his conviction to be reviewed, and on 28 June 2007 the SCCRC announced its decision to refer the case to the Court of Criminal Appeal in Edinburgh after it found he "may have suffered a miscarriage of justice".
Megrahi served just over 10 years of his sentence (beginning 5 April 1999), first in Barlinnie prison, Glasgow, and latterly in Greenock prison, Renfrewshire, throughout which time he maintained that he was innocent of the charges against him. He was released from prison on compassionate grounds on 20 August 2009.
In October 2015, Scottish prosecutors announced that they wanted to interview two Libyan nationals, whom they had identified as new suspects, over the bombing.
Trial, appeals, and release
On 3 May 2000, the trial of Abdelbaset al-Megrahi and Lamin Khalifah Fhimah began. Megrahi was found guilty of 270 counts of murder on 31 January 2001, and was sentenced to life imprisonment in Scotland; his co-defendant, Fhimah, was found not guilty.
The Lockerbie judgment stated: "From the evidence which we have discussed so far, we are satisfied that it has been proved that the primary suitcase containing the explosive device was dispatched from Malta, passed through Frankfurt and was loaded onto PA103 at Heathrow. It is, as we have said, clear that, with one exception the clothing in the primary suitcase was the clothing purchased in Mr Gauci's shop on 7 December 1988. The purchaser was, on Mr Gauci's evidence, a Libyan. The trigger for the explosion was an MST-13 timer of the single solder mask variety. A substantial quantity of such timers had been supplied to Libya. We cannot say that it is impossible that the clothing might have been taken from Malta, united somewhere with a timer from some source other than Libya and introduced into the airline baggage system at Frankfurt or Heathrow. When, however, the evidence regarding the clothing, the purchaser and the timer is taken with the evidence that an unaccompanied bag was taken from KM180 to PA103A, the inference that that was the primary suitcase becomes, in our view, irresistible. As we have also said, the absence of an explanation as to how the suitcase was taken into the system at Luqa is a major difficulty for the Crown case, but after taking full account of that difficulty, we remain of the view that the primary suitcase began its journey at Luqa. The clear inference which we draw from this evidence is that the conception, planning and execution of the plot which led to the planting of the explosive device was of Libyan origin. While no doubt organisations such as the PFLP-GC and the PPSF were also engaged in terrorist activities during the same period, we are satisfied that there was no evidence from which we could infer that they were involved in this particular act of terrorism, and the evidence relating to their activities does not create a reasonable doubt in our minds about the Libyan origin of this crime."
The defence team had 14 days in which to appeal against Megrahi's conviction, and an additional six weeks to submit the full grounds of the appeal. These were considered by a judge sitting in private who decided to grant Megrahi leave to appeal. The only basis for an appeal under Scots law is that there has been a "miscarriage of justice", which is not defined in statute and so it is for the appeal court to determine the meaning of these words in each case. Because three judges and one alternate judge had presided over the trial, five judges were required to preside over the Court of Criminal Appeal:
In what was described as a milestone in Scottish legal history, Lord Cullen granted the BBC permission in January 2002 to televise the appeal, and to broadcast it on the Internet in English with a simultaneous Arabic translation.
William Taylor QC, leading the defence, said at the appeal's opening on 23 January 2002 that the three trial judges sitting without a jury had failed to see the relevance of "significant" evidence and had accepted unreliable facts. He argued that the verdict was not one that a reasonable jury in an ordinary trial could have reached if it were given proper directions by the judge. The grounds of the appeal rested on two areas of evidence where the defence claimed the original court was mistaken: the evidence of Maltese shopkeeper, Tony Gauci, which the judges accepted as sufficient to prove that the "primary suitcase" started its journey in Malta; and, disputing the prosecution's case, fresh evidence would be adduced to show that the bomb's journey actually started at Heathrow. That evidence, which was not heard at the trial, showed that at some time in the two hours before 00:35 on 21 December 1988 a padlock had been forced on a secure door giving access air side in Terminal 3 of Heathrow airport, near to the area referred to at the trial as the "baggage build-up area". Taylor claimed that the PA 103 bomb could have been planted then.
On 14 March 2002, it took Lord Cullen less than three minutes to deliver the decision of the High Court of Judiciary. The five judges rejected the appeal, ruling unanimously that "none of the grounds of appeal was well-founded", adding "this brings proceedings to an end". The following day, a helicopter took Megrahi from Camp Zeist to continue his life sentence in Barlinnie Prison, Glasgow.
Megrahi's lawyers applied to the Scottish Criminal Cases Review Commission (SCCRC) on 23 September 2003 to have his case referred back to the Court of Criminal Appeal for a fresh appeal against conviction. The application to the SCCRC followed the publication of two reports in February 2001 and March 2002 by Hans Köchler, who had been an international observer at Camp Zeist, Netherlands appointed by the Secretary-General of the United Nations. Köchler described the decisions of the trial and appeal courts as a "spectacular miscarriage of justice". Köchler also issued a series of statements in 2003, 2005, and 2007 calling for an independent international inquiry into the case and accusing the West of "double standards in criminal justice" in relation to the Lockerbie trial on the one hand and the HIV trial in Libya on the other.
On 28 June 2007, the SCCRC announced its decision to refer Megrahi's case to the High Court for a second appeal against conviction. The SCCRC's decision was based on facts set out in an 800-page report that determined that "a miscarriage of justice may have occurred". Köchler criticised the SCCRC for exonerating police, prosecutors and forensic staff from blame in respect of Megrahi's alleged wrongful conviction. He told The Herald of 29 June 2007: "No officials to be blamed, simply a Maltese shopkeeper." Köchler also highlighted the role of intelligence services in the trial and stated that proper judicial proceedings could not be conducted under conditions in which extrajudicial forces are allowed to intervene.
A procedural hearing at the Appeal Court took place on 11 October 2007 when prosecution lawyers and Megrahi's defence counsel, Maggie Scott QC, discussed a number of legal issues with a panel of three judges. One of the issues concerned a number of documents that were shown before the trial to the prosecution, but were not disclosed to the defence. The documents are understood to relate to the Mebo MST-13 timer that allegedly detonated the PA103 bomb. Maggie Scott also asked for documents relating to an alleged payment of $2 million made to Maltese merchant, Tony Gauci, for his testimony at the trial, which led to the conviction of Megrahi.
On 15 October 2008, five Scottish judges decided unanimously to reject a submission by the Crown Office which sought to limit the scope of Megrahi's second appeal to the specific grounds of appeal that were identified by the SCCRC in June 2007. In January 2009, it was reported that, although Megrahi's second appeal against conviction was scheduled to begin in April 2009, the hearing could last as long as 12 months because of the complexity of the case and volume of material to be examined. The second appeal began on 28 April 2009, lasted for one month and was adjourned in May 2009. On 7 July 2009, the court reassembled for a procedural hearing and was told that because of the illness of one of the judges, Lord Wheatley, who was recovering from heart surgery, the final two substantive appeal sessions would run from 2 November to 11 December 2009, and 12 January to 26 February 2010. Megrahi's lawyer Maggie Scott expressed dismay at the delays: "There is a very serious danger that my client will die before the case is determined."
Compassionate release and controversy
On 25 July 2009, Megrahi applied to be released from jail on compassionate grounds. Three weeks later, on 12 August 2009, Megrahi applied to have his second appeal dropped and was granted compassionate release for his terminal prostate cancer. On 20 August 2009, Megrahi was released from prison and travelled by chartered jet to Libya. His survival beyond the approximate "three month" prognosis generated some controversy. It is believed that, following his release, Al-Megrahi was prescribed abiraterone and prednisone, a combination that extends median survival by an average of 14.8 months. After hospital treatment ended, he returned to his family home. Following his release, Megrahi published evidence on the Internet that was gathered for the abandoned second appeal which he claimed would clear his name.
Allegations have been made that the UK government and BP sought Al-Megrahi's release as part of a trade deal with Libya. In 2008, the UK government "decided to ‘do all it could’ to help the Libyans get Al-Megrahi home … and explained the legal procedure for compassionate release to the Libyans."
Megrahi was released on licence and was therefore obliged to remain in regular contact with East Renfrewshire Council. On 26 August 2011, it was announced that the whereabouts of Al-Megrahi were unknown due to the social upheaval in Libya and that he had not been in contact for some time. It was reported on 29 August that he had been located and both the Scottish government and council issued a statement confirming that they had been in contact with his family and that his licence had not been breached. MP Andrew Mitchell said Al-Megrahi was comatose and near death. CNN reporter Nic Robertson said he was "just a shell of the man he once was" and was surviving on oxygen and an intravenous drip. In an interview on BBC Radio 5 Live, former US ambassador to the United Nations John Bolton called for Al-Megrahi to be extradited.
To me it will be a signal of how serious the rebel government is for good relations with the United States and the West if they hand over Megrahi for trial.
Mohammed al-Alagi, justice minister for the new leadership in Tripoli, said "the council would not allow any Libyan to be deported to face trial in another country ... Abdelbaset al-Megrahi has already been judged once, and will not be judged again."
Until 2003, Libya had never formally admitted carrying out the 1988 Lockerbie bombing. On 16 August 2003, Libya formally admitted responsibility for Pan Am Flight 103 in a letter presented to the president of the United Nations Security Council. Felicity Barringer of The New York Times said that the letter had "general language that lacked any expression of remorse" for the people killed in the bombing. The letter stated that it "accepted responsibility for the actions of its officials".
The motive that is generally attributed to Libya can be traced back to a series of military confrontations with the US Navy that took place in the 1980s in the Gulf of Sidra, the whole of which Libya claimed as its territorial waters. First, there was the Gulf of Sidra incident (1981) when two Libyan fighter aircraft were shot down by two US Navy F-14 Tomcat fighters. Then, two Libyan radio ships were sunk in the Gulf of Sidra. Later, on 23 March 1986, a Libyan Navy patrol boat was sunk in the Gulf of Sidra, followed by the sinking of another Libyan vessel on 25 March 1986. The Libyan leader, Muammar Gaddafi, was accused of retaliating for these sinkings by ordering the April 1986 bombing of La Belle, a West Berlin nightclub frequented by US military personnel, killing three people and injuring 230.
The US National Security Agency's (NSA) alleged interception of an incriminatory message from Libya to its embassy in East Berlin provided US President Ronald Reagan with the justification for Operation El Dorado Canyon on 15 April 1986, with US Navy and US Marine Corps warplanes launching from three aircraft carriers in the Gulf of Sidra and US Air Force warplanes launching from two British bases—the first US military strikes from Britain since World War II—against Tripoli and Benghazi in Libya. The Libyan government claimed the air strikes killed Hana Gaddafi, a daughter Gaddafi claimed he adopted (her reported age has varied between 15 months and seven years). To avenge his daughter's supposed death (Hana or Hanna's actual fate remains disputed), Gaddafi is said to have sponsored the September 1986 hijacking of Pan Am Flight 73 in Karachi, Pakistan.
The US in turn encouraged and aided the Chadian National Armed Forces (FANT) by supplying satellite intelligence during the Battle of Maaten al-Sarra. The attack resulted in a devastating defeat for Gaddafi's forces, following which he had to accede to a ceasefire ending the Chadian-Libyan conflict and his dreams of African dominance. Gaddafi blamed the defeat on French and US "aggression against Libya". The result was Gaddafi's lingering animosity against the two countries which led to Libyan support for the bombings of Pan Am Flight 103 and UTA Flight 772.
Demands for independent inquiry
Prior to the abandonment of Megrahi's second appeal against conviction and while new evidence could be still tested in court, there had been few calls for an independent inquiry into the Lockerbie bombing. Demands for such an inquiry emerged later, and became more insistent. On 2 September 2009, former MEP Michael McGowan demanded that the UK government call for an urgent, independent inquiry led by the UN to find out the truth about Pan Am flight 103. "We owe it to the families of the victims of Lockerbie and the international community to identify those responsible," McGowan said. Two online petitions were started: one calling for a UK public inquiry into the Lockerbie bombing; the other a UN inquiry into the murder of UN Commissioner for Namibia, Bernt Carlsson, in the 1988 Lockerbie bombing. In September 2009, a third petition which was addressed to the President of the United Nations General Assembly demanded that the UN should "institute a full public inquiry" into the Lockerbie disaster. On 3 October 2009, Malta was asked to table a UN resolution supporting the petition, which was signed by 20 people including the families of the Lockerbie victims, authors, journalists, professors, politicians and parliamentarians, as well as Archbishop Desmond Tutu. The signatories considered that a UN inquiry could help remove "many of the deep misgivings which persist in lingering over this tragedy" and could also eliminate Malta from this terrorist act. Malta was brought into the case because the prosecution argued that the two accused Libyans, Abdelbaset al-Megrahi and Lamin Khalifah Fhimah, had placed the bomb on an Air Malta aircraft before it was transferred at Frankfurt airport to a feeder flight destined for London's Heathrow airport, from which Pan Am Flight 103 departed. The Maltese government responded saying that the demand for a UN inquiry was "an interesting development that would be deeply considered, although there were complex issues surrounding the event."
On 24 August 2009, Lockerbie campaigner Dr Jim Swire wrote to Prime Minister, Gordon Brown, calling for a full inquiry, including the question of suppression of the Heathrow evidence. This was backed up by a delegation of Lockerbie relatives, led by Pamela Dix, who went to 10 Downing Street on 24 October 2009 and handed over a letter addressed to Gordon Brown calling for a meeting with the Prime Minister to discuss the need for a public inquiry and the main issues that it should address. An op-ed article by Pamela Dix, subtitled "The families of those killed in the bombing have not given up hope of an inquiry to help us learn the lessons of this tragedy", was published in The Guardian on 26 October 2009. On 1 November 2009, it was reported that Gordon Brown had ruled out a public inquiry into Lockerbie, saying in response to Dr Swire's letter: "I understand your desire to understand the events surrounding the bombing of Pan Am flight 103 but I do not think it would be appropriate for the UK government to open an inquiry of this sort." UK ministers explained that it was for the Scottish Government to decide if it wants to hold its own, more limited, inquiry into the worst terrorist attack on British soil. The Scottish Government had already rejected an independent inquiry, saying it lacks the constitutional power to examine the international dimensions of the case.
Concluding his extensive reply dated 27 October 2009 to the Prime Minister, Dr Swire said: "You have now received a much more comprehensive letter requesting a full inquiry from our group 'UK Families-Flight 103'. I am one of the signatories. I hope that the contents of this letter underline some of the reasons as to why I cannot possibly accept that any inquiry should be limited to Scotland, and I apologise if my previous personal letter of 24 August misled you over the main focus that the inquiry will need to address. That focus lies in London and at the door of the then inhabitant of Number 10 Downing Street. I look forward to hearing your comments both to our group's letter and to the contents of this one."
Claims of Gaddafi involvement
On 23 February 2011, amidst the Libyan Civil War, Mustafa Abdul Jalil, former Libyan Justice Minister (and later member and Chairman of the anti-Gaddafi National Transitional Council), alleged that he had evidence that Libyan leader, Muammar Gaddafi, had personally ordered Abdelbaset al-Megrahi to bomb Pan Am Flight 103.
Based on a 1995 investigation by journalists Paul Foot and John Ashton, alternative explanations of the plot to commit the Lockerbie bombing were listed by The Guardian's Patrick Barkham in 1999. Following the Lockerbie verdict in 2001 and the appeal in 2002, attempts have been made to re-open the case amid allegations that Libya was framed. One theory suggests the bomb on the plane was detonated by radio. Another theory suggests the CIA prevented the suitcase containing the bomb from being searched. Iran's involvement is alleged, either in association with a Palestine militant group, or in loading the bomb while the plane was at Heathrow. The US Defense Intelligence Agency alleges that Ali Akbar Mohtashamipur (Ayatollah Mohtashemi), a member of the Iranian government, paid US$10 million for the bombing:
Other theories implicate Libya and Abu Nidal, and apartheid South Africa.
On 29 September 1989, President Bush appointed Ann McLaughlin Korologos, former Secretary of Labor, to chair the President's Commission on Aviation Security and Terrorism (PCAST) to review and report on aviation security policy in the light of the sabotage of flight PA103. Oliver "Buck" Revell, the FBI's Executive Assistant Director, was assigned to advise and assist PCAST in their task.
Before submitting their report, the PCAST members met a group of British PA103 relatives at the US embassy in London on 12 February 1990. One of the British relatives, Martin Cadman, alleges that a member of President Bush's staff told him: "Your government and ours know exactly what happened but they are never going to tell." The statement first came to public attention in the 1994 documentary film The Maltese Double Cross – Lockerbie and was published in both The Guardian of 12 November 1994, and a special report from Private Eye magazine entitled Lockerbie, the flight from justice May/June 2001.
On 29 May 2002, Libya offered up to US$2.7 billion to settle claims by the families of the 270 killed in the Lockerbie bombing, representing US$10 million per family. The Libyan offer was that 40% of the money would be released when United Nations sanctions, suspended in 1999, were cancelled; another 40% when US trade sanctions were lifted; and the final 20% when the US State Department removed Libya from its list of states sponsoring terrorism.
Jim Kreindler of the New York law firm Kreindler & Kreindler, which orchestrated the settlement, said: "These are uncharted waters. It is the first time that any of the states designated as sponsors of terrorism have offered compensation to families of terror victims." The US State Department maintained that it was not directly involved. "Some families want cash, others say it is blood money", said a State Department official.
Compensation for the families of the PA103 victims was among the steps set by the UN for lifting its sanctions against Libya. Other requirements included a formal denunciation of terrorism—which Libya said it had already made—and "accepting responsibility for the actions of its officials".
On 15 August 2003, Libya's UN ambassador, Ahmed Own, submitted a letter to the UN Security Council formally accepting "responsibility for the actions of its officials" in relation to the Lockerbie bombing. The Libyan government then proceeded to pay compensation to each family of US$8 million (from which legal fees of about US$2.5 million were deducted) and, as a result, the UN cancelled the sanctions that had been suspended four years earlier, and US trade sanctions were lifted. A further US$2 million would have gone to each family had the US State Department removed Libya from its list of states regarded as supporting international terrorism, but as this did not happen by the deadline set by Libya, the Libyan Central Bank withdrew the remaining US$540 million in April 2005 from the escrow account in Switzerland through which the earlier US$2.16 billion compensation for the victims' families had been paid. The United States announced resumption of full diplomatic relations with Libya after deciding to remove it from its list of countries that support terrorism on 15 May 2006.
On 24 February 2004, Libyan Prime Minister Shukri Ghanem stated in a BBC Radio 4 interview that his country had paid the compensation as the "price for peace" and to secure the lifting of sanctions. Asked if Libya did not accept guilt, he said, "I agree with that." He also said there was no evidence to link Libya with the April 1984 shooting of police officer Yvonne Fletcher outside the Libyan Embassy in London. Gaddafi later retracted Ghanem's comments, under pressure from Washington and London.
A civil action against Libya continued until 18 February 2005 on behalf of Pan Am and its insurers, which went bankrupt partly as a result of the attack. The airline was seeking $4.5 billion for the loss of the aircraft and the effect on the airline's business.
In the wake of the SCCRC's June 2007 decision, there have been suggestions that, if Megrahi's second appeal had been successful and his conviction had been overturned, Libya could have sought to recover the $2.16 billion compensation paid to the relatives. Interviewed by French newspaper Le Figaro on 7 December 2007, Saif al-Islam Gaddafi said that the seven Libyans convicted for the Pan Am Flight 103 and the UTA Flight 772 bombings "are innocent". When asked if Libya would therefore seek reimbursement of the compensation paid to the families of the victims (US$33 billion in total), Saif Gaddafi replied: "I don't know".
Following discussions in London in May 2008, US and Libyan officials agreed to start negotiations to resolve all outstanding bilateral compensation claims, including those relating to UTA Flight 772, the 1986 Berlin discotheque bombing and Pan Am Flight 103. On 14 August 2008, a US-Libya compensation deal was signed in Tripoli by US Assistant Secretary of State David Welch and Libya's Foreign Ministry head of America affairs, Ahmed al-Fatroui. The agreement covers 26 lawsuits filed by American citizens against Libya, and three by Libyan citizens in respect of the US bombing of Tripoli and Benghazi in April 1986 which killed at least 40 people and injured 220. In October 2008 Libya paid $1.5 billion into a fund which will be used to compensate relatives of the
- Lockerbie bombing victims with the remaining 20% of the sum agreed in 2003;
- American victims of the 1986 Berlin discotheque bombing;
- American victims of the 1989 UTA Flight 772 bombing; and,
- Libyan victims of the 1986 US bombing of Tripoli and Benghazi.
As a result, President Bush signed Executive Order 13477 restoring the Libyan government's immunity from terror-related lawsuits and dismissing all of the pending compensation cases in the US, the White House said. US State Department spokesman, Sean McCormack, called the move a "laudable milestone ... clearing the way for a continued and expanding US-Libyan partnership."
In an interview shown in BBC Two's The Conspiracy Files: Lockerbie on 31 August 2008, Saif Gaddafi said that Libya had admitted responsibility for the Lockerbie bombing simply to get trade sanctions removed. He went on to describe the families of the Lockerbie victims as very greedy: "They were asking for more money and more money and more money". Several of the victims families refused to accept compensation due to their belief that Libya was not responsible.
In an interview with Swedish newspaper Expressen on 23 February 2011, Mustafa Abdul Jalil, former Justice Secretary of Libya, claimed to have evidence that Gaddafi personally ordered Al-Megrahi to carry out the bombing.
Quotes: "[Jalil] told Expressen Khadafy [sic] gave the order to Abdel Baset al-Megrahi, the only man convicted in the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland, which killed all 259 people on board and 11 on the ground on 21 December 1988. 'To hide it, he (Khadafy) did everything in his power to get al-Megrahi back from Scotland,' Abdel-Jalil was quoted as saying."
Al Jalil's commentary to the Expressen came during widespread political unrest and protests in Libya calling for the removal of Ghaddafi from power. The protests were part of a massive wave of unprecedented uprisings across the Arab world in: Tunisia, Morocco, Bahrain and Egypt, where Egyptian protesters effectively forced the removal of long-term ruler, Hosni Mubarak, from office. Jalil's comments came on a day when Ghaddafi's defiance and refusal to leave his command prompted his brutal attacks on Libyan protesters.
Abdel-Jalil stepped down as minister of justice in protest over the violence against anti-government demonstrations.
Contingency fees for lawyers
On 5 December 2003, Jim Kreindler revealed that his Park Avenue law firm would receive an initial contingency fee of around US$1 million from each of the 128 American families Kreindler represents. The firm's fees could exceed US$300 million eventually. Kreindler argued that the fees were justified, since "Over the past seven years we have had a dedicated team working tirelessly on this and we deserve the contingency fee we have worked so hard for, and I think we have provided the relatives with value for money."
Another top legal firm in the US, Speiser Krause, which represented 60 relatives, of whom half were UK families, concluded contingency deals securing them fees of between 28 and 35% of individual settlements. Frank Granito of Speiser Krause noted that "the rewards in the US are more substantial than anywhere else in the world but nobody has questioned the fee whilst the work has been going on, it is only now as we approach a resolution when the criticism comes your way."
In March 2009, it was announced that US lobbying firm, Quinn Gillespie & Associates, received fees of $2 million for the work it did from 2006 through 2008 helping the PA103 relatives obtain payment by Libya of the final $2 million compensation (out of a total of $10 million) that was due to each family.
From Pan Am
In 1992, a US federal court found Pan Am guilty of willful misconduct due to lax security screening. Alert Management Inc. and Pan American World Services, two subsidiaries of Pan Am, were also found guilty; Alert handled Pan Am's security at foreign airports.
Memorials and tributes
There are several private and public memorials to the PA103 victims. Dark Elegy is the work of sculptor Susan Lowenstein of Long Island, whose son Alexander, then 21, was a passenger on the flight. The work consists of 43 nude statues of the wives and mothers who lost a husband or a child. Inside each sculpture there is a personal memento of the victim.
On 3 November 1995, then-US President Bill Clinton dedicated a Memorial Cairn to the victims at Arlington National Cemetery, and there are similar memorials at Syracuse University; Dryfesdale Cemetery, near Lockerbie; and in Sherwood Crescent, Lockerbie.
Syracuse University holds a memorial week every year called "Remembrance Week" to commemorate its 35 lost students. Every 21 December, a service is held in the university's chapel at 14:03 (19:03 UTC), marking the moment the bomb on board the aircraft was detonated. The university also awards university tuition fees to two students from Lockerbie Academy each year, in the form of its Lockerbie scholarship. In addition, the university annually awards 35 scholarships to seniors to honour each of the 35 students killed. The "Remembrance Scholarships" are among the highest honors a Syracuse undergraduate can receive. SUNY Oswego also gives out scholarships in memorial of Colleen Brunner to a student who is studying abroad.
The Women of Lockerbie
The Women of Lockerbie (2003) is a play written by Deborah Brevoort which depicts a woman from New Jersey roaming the hills of Lockerbie, Scotland. This mother tragically lost her son in the bombing of the Pan Am Flight 103. While in Lockerbie, 7 years after the flight, she meets the women who witnessed and were affected by the crash itself while she attempts to find closure. This play has received the Silver Medal from the Onassis International Playwriting Competition and the Kennedy Center Fund for New American Plays award. 
The main UK memorial is at Dryfesdale Cemetery about a mile west of Lockerbie. There is a semicircular stone wall in the garden of remembrance with the names and nationalities of all the victims along with individual funeral stones and memorials. Inside the chapel at Dryfesdale there is a book of remembrance. There are memorials in Lockerbie and Moffat Roman Catholic churches, where plaques list the names of all 270 victims. In Lockerbie Town Hall Council Chambers, there is a stained-glass window depicting flags of the 21 different countries whose citizens lost their lives in the disaster. There is also a book of remembrance at Lockerbie public library and another at Tundergarth Church. In Sherwood Crescent there is a garden of remembrance to the seven Lockerbie residents killed when the aircraft's main wreckage fell there, destroying their homes.
A charity football match was arranged for the benefit of the disaster appeal fund. The game took place at Palmerston Park, the ground of Queen of the South, the nearest senior football club to Lockerbie. Opposition was provided by Manchester United and managed by Alex Ferguson. The game took place on 1 March 1989. QoS had several guest players in their side as reflected in their scorers, including goals by Roy Aitken and Fraser Wishart. The final score was 6–3 to Manchester United.
Wreckage of the aircraft
The Air Accidents Investigation Branch reassembled a large part of the fuselage from the Boeing jumbo jet to aid with the investigation; this has been retained as evidence and stored in a hangar at Farnborough Airport since the bombing. It was announced in April 2013 that this part of the aircraft was transferred to a secure location in Dumfries, and that it remains evidence in the ongoing criminal investigation.
The remaining wreckage of the Boeing jumbo jet is stored about a mile from Tattershall, Lincolnshire, at Roger Windley's scrapyard, pending the conclusion of the American victims' civil case and further legal proceedings. ( ) The remains include the nose section of the Boeing 747, which was cut into several pieces to assist in removal from Tundergarth Hill.
- The Boy Who Fell Out of the Sky, Ken Dornstein's book about his brother who died in the crash.
- Libyan Arab Airlines Flight 1103, allegedly shot down by Muammar Gaddafi to show the negative effects of sanctions imposed on Libya after the bombing of flight 103
- List of accidents and incidents involving commercial aircraft
- Lockerbie Revisited a Dutch documentary
- The Maltese Double Cross – Lockerbie a documentary film
- Timeline of airliner bombing attacks
- "Clipper Maid of the Seas: Remembering those on flight 103". panamair.org. 2007. Archived from the original on 26 March 2008. Retrieved 8 June 2008.
- "Colonel Gaddafi 'ordered Lockerbie bombing". BBC NEWS. 23 February 2011.
- "FAA Registry (N739PA)". Federal Aviation Administration.
- "Pan Am 103." Mayday.
- "Photo: N739PA (CN: 19646) Boeing 747-121 by Jon Proctor Photoid:5894156 - JetPhotos.Net". Archived from the original on 30 April 2014.
- "Jet That Crashed Was an Early 747". San Francisco Chronicle. Associated Press. 22 December 1988. p. A6.
The jumbo jet that crashed...in Scotland was the 15th 747 built...The Pan Am 747–100...was delivered to Pan American in February 1970. The first 747 ever delivered to an airline–also Pan Am–entered the fleet the previous month, said David Jimenez, spokesman for Boeing Commercial Airplanes, which builds 747s in Everett.
- Cody, Edward (22 December 1988). "Pan Am Jet Crashes in Scotland, Killing at Least 273". The Washington Post. p. A1. Retrieved 21 May 2010.
- Cross, David; De Ionno, Peter (22 December 1988). "Doomed plane 'well inside its service limit'". Times of London.
- "Diamonds in the Sky EP04 - Aviation travel industry history series - Conquering the Atlantic". YouTube. 2012-05-18. Retrieved 2017-09-24.
- Johnson, David (1989). Lockerbie, the real story. Bloomsbury Publishing Ltd. p. 232.
- Transcript of the trial of the Scottish court at Camp Zeist 2000, page 59
- Pan Am Flight Guide, Winter 1989.
- "Lockerbie Accident Investigation". Dnausers.d-n-a.net. Archived from the original on 14 May 2010. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
- Cox, Matthew, and Foster, Tom. (1992) Their Darkest Day: The Tragedy of Pan Am 103, ISBN 0-8021-1382-6.page 67.
- "AAIB report on the accident to Boeing 747–121, N739PA at Lockerbie, Dumfriesshire, Scotland on 21 December 1988" (PDF).
- Black, Ian (4 May 2000). "Court told how jet's radar blip broke up at 7.02 pm". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 8 September 2008.
- Cox & Foster 1992, p. 110
- Cox & Foster 1992, p. 69
- Cox & Foster 1992, p. 71
- Air Accidents Investigation Branch, UK Department of Transport (1990). Aircraft Accident Report 2/90: Report on the Accident to Boeing 747-121, N739PA at Lockerbie, Dumfriesshire, Scotland on 21 December 1988 (PDF). London, UK: Crown Publishing.
- "Victims of Pan Am Flight 103". Retrieved 16 March 2011.
- Busuttil, Anthony (25 June 2016). doi:10.1177/002581729806600403. . Medico-Legal Journal. 66 (4): 126–140.
- "UK | Lockerbie pair 'could have survived'". BBC News. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
- "UN Officer on Flight 103". New York Times. 22 December 1988. Retrieved 5 April 2009.
- "EverythingPanAm.com The Virtual Pan Am Museum". Retrieved 21 August 2009.
- Ashton, John; Ferguson, Ian (27 June 2001). "Flight from the truth". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 8 September 2008.
- "Aircraft Accident Report No 2/90 (EW/C1094)" (PDF). Air Accidents Investigation Branch.
- "Destroyed by the curse of Lockerbie". The Guardian. 27 August 2000. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
- "Pan Am Flight 103's Victims: A list of Those Killed 25 Years Ago". Syracuse.com. 21 December 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2017.
- "Lockerbie and the worst Christmas imaginable". The Scotsman. 6 June 2006. Retrieved 26 June 2011.
- Ross, Peter (21 December 21, 2008). Remembering Lockerbie 20 years on. The Scotsman.
- Cassel, Andrew (21 December 1998). Reporter's Reflections. BBC News.
- President's Commission on Aviation Safety and Terrorism (15 May 1990). "Report of the President's Commission on Aviation Safety and Terrorism" (PDF). Executive Order 12686. US Government Printing Office. p. 8. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
- The Independent, 29 March 1990
- Prime Time Live, November 1989
- Elliott, Harvey; Sapsted, David (22 December 1988). "Bomb fear in UK's worst air disaster". The Times. London. Retrieved 31 October 2009.
- "CIA document". Archived from the original on 1 February 2006.
- "CIA document". Archived from the original on 15 October 2012.
- "Muammar Gaddafi ordered Lockerbie bombing, says Libyan minister". news.com.au. 24 February 2011. Retrieved 23 February 2011. citing an original interview with Expressen in Sweden: "Khadaffi gav order om Lockerbie-attentatet [Gaddafi ordered the Lockerbie bombing]". 23 February 2011. Retrieved 23 February 2011. English translation
- "Libya rebel leader: I have evidence Gaddafi ordered Lockerbie". telegraph.co.uk. London. 14 March 2011. Retrieved 10 June 2012.
- "Lockerbie: The truth at last". express.co.uk. 15 July 2012. Retrieved 2 February 2015.
- Gareth Pierce,24 September 2009, London Review of Books
- "Secret CIA testimony identifies real Lockerbie mastermind". Channel 4 News.
- J Post, 11 March 2014 , Daily Telegraph, 10 March 2014 
- "Iran denies new Lockerbie bombing claims | SBS News". Sbs.com.au. 12 March 2014. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
- Katz, Samuel M. "Relentless Pursuit: The DSS and the manhunt for the al-Qaeda terrorists", 2002.
- US paid reward to Lockerbie witness, Abdelbaset al-Megrahi papers claim The Guardian, 2 October 2009
- Official report discredits Tony Gauci's testimony.
- Report on Identification Procedures: Abdelbaset Ali Mohmed al-Megrahi v. H.M. Advocate Report of Steven E. Clark, Professor of Psychology at the University of California. (retained by counsel for al-Megrahi to investigate procedures used to identify al-Megrahi)
- "Mebo website". Mebocom-defilee.ch. Archived from the original on 23 September 2009. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
- "FBI offered me $4m: Lockerbie bomb witness". The Scotsman. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
- Vital Lockerbie evidence 'was tampered with' Archived 16 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
- Probe into Lockerbie timer claims. Archived 24 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
- The Counterterrorism Handbook. CRC Press. 23 June 2005. Retrieved 4 June 2011.
- Introduction to Organic and Biochemistry. Cengage Learning. 29 December 2008. Retrieved 4 June 2011.
- Popular Science. Bonnier Corporation. Retrieved 4 June 2011.
- "Lockerbie revisited". Archived from the original on 28 August 2009. Retrieved 5 June 2009.
- "Pan Am 103 -Lockerbie Appeal Judgement". Terrorismcentral.com. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
- Williams, David (15 August 2009). "Families at war over Lockerbie". The Advertiser. pp. 52 & 61.
- The Rt Hon Colin Boyd QC. "The Lockerbie Trial" (PDF). Retrieved 10 November 2008.
- SCCRC Referral of Megrahi case for 2nd appeal Archived 3 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine.. Scottish Criminal Cases Review Commission. 28 June 2007.
- Transcript of the proceedings of the Scottish court in the Netherlands 2001, day 86
- "Megrahi release 'right decision'". BBC News. 23 August 2009. Retrieved 15 September 2009.
- "Two new Lockerbie bombing suspects identified – BBC News". Bbc.co.uk. 15 October 2015. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
- Fhimah was found "not guilty".
- "Lockerbie Verdict (paragraph 82)". Retrieved 1 November 2009.
- "14 days to launch appeal". BBC News. 14 March 2002. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
- "Grounds of appeal". BBC News. 14 March 2002. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
- "UN monitor decries Lockerbie judgement". BBC News. 14 March 2002. Retrieved 3 January 2010.
- "Dr Hans Köchler's statement, August 2003". Archived from the original on 3 March 2015.
- "Dr Hans Köchler's statement, October 2005".
- "Double standards in criminal justice: Pan Am Flight 103 v. HIV trial in Libya" (PDF).
- "SCCRC refers Megrahi's case for second appeal". Archived from the original on 3 May 2011.
- Cowell, Alan (29 June 2007). "SCCRC decides "a miscarriage of justice may have occurred"". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 May 2010.
- "Statement by Dr Hans Köchler on SCCRC decision, 29 June 2007".
- Lockerbie trial: an intelligence operation? BBC interview of Dr. Hans Köchler. 5 October 2007.
- Lockerbie bomber in fresh appeal. Archived 7 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Secret Lockerbie report claim". BBC News. 2 October 2007. Retrieved 3 January 2010.
- Carrell, Severin (3 October 2007). Fresh doubts on Lockerbie conviction. The Guardian.
- "Judgement on the scope of Megrahi's second appeal". Scotcourts.gov.uk. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
- Lucy Adams (15 January 2009). "Secret talks on deal to return Megrahi to Libya". Glasgow Herald. Archived from the original on 29 January 2009. Retrieved 15 January 2009.
- "Lockerbie: Megrahi appeal will not be heard until next year". Glasgow Herald. 8 July 2009. Retrieved 1 November 2009.
- Steve Bird (13 August 2009). "Timeline: Abdul Baset Ali al-Megrahi and the Lockerbie bombing". The Times. London. Retrieved 1 November 2009.
- Summary of the opinion of the court in appeal by Abdelbaset al-Megrahi against Her Majesty's Advocate. Scottish Courts.
- What are the grounds for compassionate leave from prison?. BBC News. 14 August 2009.
- "Lockerbie bomber freed from jail". BBC News. 20 August 2009. Retrieved 23 August 2009.
- "Anger at Lockerbie bomber welcome". BBC News. 21 August 2009. Retrieved 23 August 2009.
- Megrahi 'hero's welcome' triggers a diplomatic row. Kuwait Times. 22 August 2009. Archived 28 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Abdelbaset Ali Al-Megrahi – My Story". Retrieved 1 November 2009.
- "Brown, BP Cleared of Lobbying Scots to Free Bomber". BusinessWeek. 7 February 2011. Retrieved 8 February 2011.
- "Libya-Scottish-officials". Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 25 August 2011.
- Lockerbie bomber Abdelbaset Ali al-Megrahi is 'in coma' BBC News 29 August 2011
- "Lockerbie bomber Abdelbaset al-Megrahi dies in Tripoli". BBC News. 20 May 2012. Retrieved 20 May 2012.
- https://www.nytimes.com/2003/08/16/international/middleeast/16NATI.html Libya Admits Culpability in Crash of Pan Am Plane
- https://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2003/sc7868.doc.htm Security Council lifts sanctions imposed on Libya after terrorist bombings of Pan Am 103 and UTA 772
- Speakes, Larry M. (24 March 1986). Statement by Principal Deputy Press Secretary Speakes on the Gulf of Sidra Incident. White House.
- Reagen, Ronald (1986). Gulf of Sidra incident. US Department of State Bulletin.
- Malinarich, Nathalie (13 November 2001). Flashback: The Berlin disco bombing. BBC News.
- USAF bombing of Libya, 1986. GlobalSecurity.org.
- US launches air strikes on Libya. BBC News. 15 April 1986.
- "NBC's Mitchell Regurgitates Gaddafi Lies". Aim.org. Retrieved 4 June 2011.
- Swain, Jon (28 March 2004). Revealed: Gaddafi's air massacre plot. The Times.
- Greenwald, John (21 September 1987). "Disputes Raiders of the Armed Toyotas". TIME.
- "ASN Aircraft accident McDonnell Douglas DC-10-30 N54629 Ténéré desert". Aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 4 June 2011.
- Michael McGowan (2 September 2009). "The best tribute to the 270 victims of Lockerbie is to find out the truth". Yorkshire Post. Retrieved 1 November 2009.
- "Petition to set up public inquiry into Lockerbie". Retrieved 2 November 2009.
- "Petition to UN General Assembly to open Pan Am 103 inquiry". The Firm magazine. 14 September 2009. Archived from the original on 24 October 2009. Retrieved 2 November 2009.
- Caroline Muscat (4 October 2009). "Malta asked to support demands for UN inquiry on Lockerbie". Times of Malta. Retrieved 2 November 2009.
- "Lockerbie families lobby Gordon Brown for public inquiry". Daily Telegraph. UK. 25 October 2009. Retrieved 1 November 2009.
- Dix, Pamela (26 October 2009). "We still need a Lockerbie inquiry". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 1 November 2009.
- Jason Allardyce, Mark Macaskill (1 November 2009). "Lockerbie inquiry ruled out by Gordon Brown". The Times. London.
- "Dr Swire's reply to Gordon Brown". Retrieved 1 November 2009.
- "Khadaffi gav order om Lockerbie-attentatet". Expressen. 23 February 2011. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
- Anne Barker (23 February 2011). "Gaddafi accused of ordering Lockerbie bombing". ABC.
- Barkham, Patrick (7 April 1999). "Lockerbie conspiracies: A to Z". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 10 November 2008.
- "PAN AM Flight 103" (PDF). Defense Intelligence Agency, DOI 910200, page 49/50 (Pages 7 and 8 in PDF document, see also p. 111ff). Retrieved 12 January 2010.
- FBI's Oliver "Buck" Revell served as Advisor to PCAST. Archived 13 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
- The Guardian, 12 November 1994, page 6, "Cover-up claim as Lockerbie film screening is cancelled". archived copy
- Koppel, Andrea; Labott, Elise (29 May 2002). "Libya offers $2.7 billion Pan Am 103 settlement". CNN. Archived from the original on 7 July 2012. Retrieved 16 September 2009.
- "Security Council lifts sanctions imposed on Libya after terrorist bombings of Pan Am Flight 103 and UTA Flight 772".
- "Libyan government website". Archived from the original on 10 April 2005.
- McDougall, Dan (6 December 2003). "Lockerbie lawyer says £200m fee is 'good value'". The Scotsman. Edinburgh.
- "US to renew full ties with Libya". BBC News. 15 May 2006. Retrieved 3 January 2010.
- "BBC Radio 4, 24 February 2004". Archived from the original on 8 March 2007.
- "Case Studies of Domestic Terrorism". Archived from the original on 27 January 2007.
- Howe, Michael (28 June 2007). "Libyans want their £1.4bn payout back". The Scotsman. UK.
- (in French) Saif al-Gaddafi says "Libyans are innocent" of the Pan Am Flight 103 and UTA Flight 772 bombings Le Figaro 7 December 2007.
- "Libya to resolve claims with US". BBC News. 31 May 2008. Retrieved 3 January 2010.
- "US-Libya compensation deal sealed". BBC News. 14 August 2008. Retrieved 14 August 2008.
- "Libya compensates terror victims". BBC News. 31 October 2008. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
- "Libya pays US victims of attacks". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 3 November 2008.
- "Gaddafi's son attacks "greedy" Lockerbie relatives in BBC Two documentary". BBC News. 29 August 2008.
- "Lockerbie evidence not disclosed". BBC. 28 August 2008. Retrieved 29 August 2008.
- "The Conspiracy Files:Lockerbie". BBC News. 1 September 2008. Retrieved 19 October 2009.
- "Khadafy ordered Lockerbie bombing, says Libyan minister". New York Post. 23 February 2011.
- McDougall, Dan (9 November 2002). "US Lockerbie lawyers to net £500m". The Scotsman. UK. Archived from the original on 30 August 2009.
- Fram, Alan. "The Influence Game: Lobbyists who aided families of Pan Am bombing victims earn $2 million fee". Associated Press. Retrieved 7 March 2014.
- Treadwell, Daniel (11 July 1992). "Pan Am Guilty of 'Willful Misconduct'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 9 August 2009.
- "Dark Elergy". Victims of Pan Am Flight 103. Archived from the original on 14 October 2007. Retrieved 21 December 2008.
- Nguyen, Lan (November 4, 1995). "Remembering Flight 103; 2,000 Attend Unveiling of Monument in Arlington". The Washington Post. p. B3.
- The night fire and victims rained on Lockerbie. ABC News. 20 August 2009.
- "University remembers Flight 103. 25 of 35 students were from Syracuse." The Philadelphia Inquirer. 18 December 1998.
- "35 scholarships honor Lockerbie crash victims." Orlando Sentinel. 5 December 1990.
- Colleen Brunner Memorial Scholarship Archived 28 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine.. Adventures in Education.
- "Dramatists Play Service, Inc". www.dramatists.com. Retrieved 2018-03-17.
- "The Women of Lockerbie - Deborah Brevoort". www.deborahbrevoort.com. Retrieved 2018-03-17.
- Cohen, Susan; Cohen, Daniel (2000). Pan AM 103: the bombing, the betrayals, and a bereaved family's search for justice. New American Library. p. 152.
- Britton, Daryl (June 2008). Elegies of Darkness: Commemorations of the Bombing of Pan Am 103 (Ph.D. thesis). Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University. ISBN 9780549861195. Document No. 3333563 – via ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.
- "Google Streetview Sherwood Crescent Memorial". Retrieved 31 May 2016.
- "Queen of the South F.C. archive". Qosarchive.co.uk. Retrieved 25 July 2010.
- "Lockerbie wreckage parts returned to Scotland". BBC News. BBC. 25 April 2013. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
- "Authentic Pan Am 103 cockpit wreck photo". Archived from the original on 17 April 2003. Retrieved 8 January 2009.
- Emerson, Steven; Duffy, Brian (1990). The Fall of Pan Am 103: Inside the Lockerbie Investigation. ISBN 0-399-13521-9.
- Cox, Matthew; Foster, Tom (1992). Their Darkest Day: The Tragedy of Pan Am 103. ISBN 0-8021-1382-6.
- Johnstone, David (1989). Lockerbie: The True Story.
- Goddard, Donald; Coleman, Lester (1993). Trail of the Octopus. ISBN 0-451-18184-0.
- Ashton, John; Ferguson, Ian (2001). Cover-up of Convenience: The Hidden Scandal of Lockerbie. ISBN 1-84018-389-6.
- Ashton, John (2012). Megrahi: You Are My Jury. ISBN 9781780270159.
- Kerr, Morag (2013). Adequately Explained by Stupidity?. ISBN 9781783062508.
- Brown, David A. (9 January 1989). "Investigators Expand Search for Debris From Bombed 747". Aviation Week and Space Technology. 130 (25): 26–27.
- Shifrin, Carole A. (7 September 1990). "British Issue Report on Flight 103, Urge Study on Reducing Effects of Explosions". Aviation Week and Space Technology. 133 (12): 128–129.
- Cowell, Alan (29 June 2007). "Scottish Panel Challenges Lockerbie Conviction". New York Times. Retrieved 16 September 2009.
- The Scottish indictment against Megrahi and Fhimah, 13 November 1991. Retrieved 27 February 2005
- The U.S. indictment against Megrahi and Fhimah, 13 November 1991. Retrieved 26 February 2005
- The Scottish judges. Retrieved 26 February 2005
- The verdict against Megrahi and Fhimah, issued 31 January 2001. Retrieved 26 February 2005
- "No:2/9—Boeing 747–121, N739PA, at Lockerbie, Dumfriesshire, Scotland", Air Accident Investigation Branch (AAIB) report. Retrieved 27 February 2005
- The position of the bomb, AAIB report, Appendix F (pdf). Retrieved 27 February 2005
- "Mach stem shock wave effects", AAIB report, Appendix G (pdf). Retrieved 27 February 2005
- Aviation Safety Network summary report. Retrieved 27 February 2005
- Graphic of how the aircraft was destroyed, Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 27 February 2005
- The cost of the trial. Retrieved 26 February 2005
- The judgment in Megrahi's appeal, 14 March 2002. Retrieved 26 February 2005
- United Nations Security Council Resolution 731 (1992), 21 January 1992. Retrieved 26 February 2005
- United Nations Security Council Resolution 748 (1992), 21 January 1992. Retrieved 26 February 2005
- United Nations Security Council Resolution 883 (1993), 11 November 1993. Retrieved 26 February 2005
- In-depth pages on the trial, BBC News. Retrieved 26 February 2005
- "Lessons from Lockerbie, ten years later", BBC News. Retrieved 26 February 2005
- The Lockerbie Trial. Retrieved 29 December 2008
- Rowan, Roy (27 April 1992). "Pan Am 103: Why Did They Die?". Time. Archived from the original on 13 February 2006. Retrieved 25 February 2005.
- "Time Trail: Lockerbie", a collection of stories about the bombing from Time Magazine. Retrieved 25 February 2005
- "Lockerbie appeal hears key witness", BBC News, 13 February 2002. Retrieved 26 February 2005
- "Lockerbie bomber loses appeal", BBC News, 14 March 2002. Retrieved 26 February 2005
- "Lockerbie bomber to fight jail move", by Lucy Adams, The Herald, 25 February 2005. Retrieved 26 February 2005
- Website set up by supporters of Megrahi, not recently updated. Retrieved 27 February 2005
- Abu Nidal behind Lockerbie, says aide, CNN, 23 August 2002. Retrieved 27 February 2005
- "Court told how jet's radar blip broke up at 7.02 pm" by Ian Black and Gerard Seenan, 4 May 2000, The Guardian. Retrieved 28 February 2005
- Cassell, Andrew (21 December 1998). "Lockerbie, 10 years on: Reporter's reflections". BBC News. Retrieved 3 January 2010.
- Rizzo, Patrick (29 May 2002). "Libya offers $2.7 billion Lockerbie settlement". The Namibian. Archived from the original on 4 January 2006.
- Kirkup, James (11 April 2005). "The Scotsman". Edinburgh. Archived from the original on 6 July 2009.
- Duffy, Brian (18 November 1989). "On the trail of terror". U.S. News & World Report.
- "Flight 103," ABC News Prime Time Live, 30 November 1989
- Doyle, Leonard (19 December 1990). "Lockerbie bomb bore 'Libyan signature". The Independent. UK.
- "Unwitting Accomplices?". Barron's. 17 December 1989.
- "Timer admission in Lockerbie trial" by Gerard Seenan, 21 June 2000
- Mr. Waldegrave, "House of Commons Hansard Debates" in The United Kingdom Parliament, 19 April 1990. Retrieved 16 June 2005
- Thatcher, Margaret (1993). The Downing Street Years.
- Koechler, H., and Jason Subler (eds.), The Lockerbie Trial. Documents Related to the I.P.O. Observer Mission. Studies in International Relations, Vol. XXVII. Vienna: International Progress Organization, 2002, ISBN 3-900704-21-X.
- "Scottish Court in the Netherlands 2000–2002", Web site documenting the observer mission of Dr. Hans Koechler, appointed by UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan as international observer at the Lockerbie trial, regularly updated, International Progress Organization. Retrieved 2005
- Cohen, Dan and Susan (2000). Pan Am 103: the Bombing, the Betrayals, and a Bereaved Family's Search for Justice. ISBN 0-451-20270-8.
- Dornstein, Ken (2006). The Boy Who Fell Out of the Sky. ISBN 0-375-50359-5.
- Leppard, David (1992). On the Trail of Terror.
- Marquise, Richard A. (2006). Scotbom: Evidence and the Lockerbie Investigation. ISBN 978-0-87586-449-5.
- Report of the President's Commission on Aviation Security and Terrorism (PDF). U.S. Government Printing Office. 15 May 1990.
- Kreindler, James P., The Lockerbie Case and its Implications for State-Sponsored Terrorism, in: Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs, Vol. 1, No. 2 (2007)
- Haldane, Jill S., An' then the world came tae oor doorstep: Lockerbie Lives and Stories (The Grimsay Press, 2008). 
- News.bbc.co.uk. “Lockerbie pair ‘could have survived’
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pan Am Flight 103.|
|Wikinews has news related to:|
|airliners.net's Photo gallery|
- Pan Am 103 Lockerbie Air Disaster Archives
- Air Accident Investigation Branch:
- BBC-online interview with Jaswant Basuta
- Byte Out Of History: Solving a complex case of international terrorism Federal Bureau of Investigation
- Defense Intelligence Agency Redacted Pan Am Report (response to a FOIA, 11 MB PDF) (Archive)
- Interactive timeline of events relating to Pan Am 103 air disaster, 1988–2014
- International observer mission of the president of the International Progress Organization, Dr. Hans Koechler, at the Scottish Court in the Netherlands ("Lockerbie Court")
- Remembrance Scholarships at Syracuse University
- Victims of Pan Am Flight 103, Inc.