Acacia known as the wattles or acacias, is a large genus of shrubs and trees in the subfamily Mimosoideae of the pea family Fabaceae. It comprised a group of plant species native to Africa and Australia, with the first species A. nilotica described by Linnaeus. Controversy erupted in the early 2000s when it became evident that the genus as it stood was not monophyletic, that several divergent lineages needed to be placed in separate genera, it turned out that one lineage comprising over 900 species native to Australia was not related to the African lineage that contained A. nilotica—the first and type species. This meant. Botanist Les Pedley named this group Racosperma, inconsistently adopted. Australian botanists proposed that this would be more disruptive than setting a different type species and allowing this large number of species to remain Acacia, resulting in the two African lineages being renamed Vachellia and Senegalia, the two New World lineages renamed Acaciella and Mariosousa; this was adopted, but many botanists from Africa and elsewhere disagreed that this was necessary.
A number of species have been introduced to various parts of the world, two million hectares of commercial plantations have been established. The heterogeneous group varies in habit, from mat-like subshrubs to canopy trees in forest; the genus was first described from Africa by C. F. P. von Martius in 1829. Several hundred combinations in Acacia were published by Pedley in 2003; the genus of 981 species, Acacia s.l. in the subfamily Mimosoideae of the pea family Fabaceae is monophyletic. All but 10 of its species are native to Australia. Following a controversial decision to choose a new type for Acacia in 2005, the Australian component of Acacia s.l. now retains the name Acacia. At the 2011 International Botanical Congress held in Melbourne, the decision to use the name Acacia, rather than the proposed Racosperma for this genus, was upheld. Other Acacia s.l. taxa continue to be called Acacia by those who choose to consider the entire group as one genus. Australian species of the genus Paraserianthes s.l. are deemed its closest relatives P. lophantha.
The nearest relatives of Acacia and Paraserianthes s.l. in turn include the Australian and South East Asian genera Archidendron, Archidendropsis and Wallaceodendron, all of the tribe Ingeae. The origin of "wattle" may be an Old Teutonic word meaning "to weave". From around 700 A. D. watul was used in Old English to refer to the interwoven branches and sticks which formed fences and roofs. Since about 1810 it refers to the Australian legumes. One species is native to Madagascar, one to Reunion island, 12 to Asia, the remaining species are native to Australasia and the Pacific Islands; these species were all given combinations by Pedley when he erected the genus Racosperma, hence Acacia pulchella, for example, became Racosperma pulchellum. However these were not upheld with the retypification of Acacia. Acacias in Australia evolved their fire resistance about 20 million years ago when fossilised charcoal deposits show a large increase, indicating that fire was a factor then. With no major mountain ranges or rivers to prevent their spread, the wattles began to spread all over the continent as it dried and fires became more common.
They began to form dry, open forests with species of the genera Allocasuarina and Callitris. The southernmost species in the genus are Acacia dealbata, Acacia longifolia, Acacia mearnsii, Acacia melanoxylon, reaching 43°30' S in Tasmania, Australia. An Acacia-like 14 cm long fossil seed pod has been described from the Eocene of the Paris Basin. Acacia like fossil pods under the name Leguminocarpon are known from late Oligocene deposits at different sites in Hungary. Seed pod fossils of †Acacia parschlugiana and †Acacia cyclosperma are known from Tertiary deposits in Switzerland. †Acacia colchica has been described from the Miocene of West Georgia. Pliocene fossil pollen of an Acacia sp. has been described from West Abkhazia. Oldest records of fossil Acacia pollen in Australia are from the late Oligocene epoch, 25 million years ago, they are present in all terrestrial habitats, including alpine settings, woodlands, coastal dunes and deserts. In drier woodlands or forest they are an important component of the understory.
Elsewhere they may be dominant, as in the Brigalow Belt, Myall woodlands and the eremaean Mulga woodlands. In Australia, Acacia forest is the second most common forest type after Eucalypt forest, covering 980,000 square kilometres or 8% of total forest area. Acacia is the nation’s largest genus of flowering plants with 1,000 species found. Several of its species bear vertically oriented phyllodes, which are green, broadened leaf petioles that function like leaf blades, an adaptation to hot climates and droughts; some phyllodinous species have a colourful aril on the seed. A few species have cladodes rather than leaves. Aboriginal Australians have traditionally harvested the seeds of some species, to be ground into flour and eaten as a paste or baked into a cake; the seeds contain as much as 25% more protein than common cereals, they store well for long periods due to the hard seed coats. In addition to utilizing the edible seed and gum, the people employed the timber for implements, weapons and musical instruments.
In ancient Egypt, an ointment made from the ground leaves of the plant was used to t
Vasco da Gama, Goa
Vasco da Gama, Konkani: वास्को shortened to Vasco, is a city in the state of Goa on the west coast of India. It is named after the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama, it is the headquarters of the Mormugão taluka region. The city lies on the western tip of the Mormugao peninsula, at the mouth of the Zuari River, about 30 kilometres from Panaji, Goa's capital, about 5 kilometres from Dabolim Airport; the city was founded in 1543 and remained in Portuguese hands until 1961, when Goa ceased to be a Portuguese territory. The 1888 constructed Mormugao Port remains a busy shipping route in Asia, it is one of the major ports of independent India. The ship-building area of Goa Shipyard Limited that builds Navy and Coast Guard vessels was built here in 1957. Built around the city's harbour as the barge-repair yard Estaleiros Navais de Goa, the area has now expanded to include more related activities; the Indian Navy has a presence in Mormugao, with its vast campuses, which include the naval base INS Hansa that shares control over the Dabolim Airport enclave.
This city, in the former Portuguese territory of Goa, is named after the famous Portuguese explorer and navigator Vasco da Gama, who held the title of Governor of Portuguese India. This city serves as the headquarters of the Mormugao sub-district, it was founded in 1543 and remained in Portuguese hands until 1961, when the territory was lost to India. Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira was the first European to reach India by sea, his initial voyage to India was the first to link Europe and Asia by an ocean route, connecting the Atlantic and the Indian oceans and, in this way, the West and the East. He died at Kochi three months later, his remains were returned to Portugal and interred at St Jeronimos monastery. The city is sometimes referred to as Sambhaji Nagar. Sambhaji Bhosale was the eldest son of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, the founder of the Maratha Empire. An attempt was made to change the city's name to Sambhaji Nagar, this is reflected in a few government records. However, no official records have been found as to.
It is thus regarded as just as a move by some politicians. In 2015, after a campaign by the Goa Heritage Action Group and the History Lovers Group, the Mormugao Municipal Council decided to renovate the clock tower of the municipal market in the heart of the city. Built in 1938, the complex is an example of Art Deco style of architecture; the renovation work was completed in 2017 with funding provided by the Rajaram and Tarabai Bandekar Charitable Trust, the clock was brought in from Nashik. Vasco is connected by road by the National Highway 17A & National Highway 17B, by rail by the Vasco da Gama railway station, by the sea through the Mormugao Port and by air through Dabolim Airport, thus serving as the main hub for most tourists visiting the state of Goa. Vasco is reliant on the port for most of its economic activity. Manganese ore mined in interior regions is brought to Mormugao by barges navigating the rivers Mandovi and Zuari, either collected in the Mormugao Port to be loaded onto bulk carrier ships or directly loaded onto the ships using trans-shippers.
Ore, collected on the port is handled by machinery called MOHP. This includes miles of conveyor belts; the port has berthing facilities for large cruise liners as well as a floating dry dock. There are shipping and freight forwarding agents as well as offices of major mining companies based in the city; the Mormugao Port Trust which operates the port is the largest employer in the Vasco region and has a complete mini-township in Headland Sada which includes schools, residential complexes and amenities for employees of the Port. Bogmalo Beach is 8 kilometres from Vasco; this beach is quite risky. Hollant and Baina are two smaller beaches around Vasco. Apart from the nearby beaches, the city of Vasco is bereft of any major tourist attractions, the salient monument being the 400-year-old Igreja de Santo André, located at the entrance of the city; however the Naval Aviation Museum near the airport is a popular tourist spot and is one of three such museums in India. It profiles the evolution and history of Indian naval aviation through aircraft exhibits and rare photographs.
One of Goa's premier musical groups, Diamond Orchestra, hails from Vasco. The town is home to several English bands from Goa, notably Lynx and Kollectiv Soul. Vasco is known for the annual Shri Damodar Bhajani Saptah fair held in Shravan month of Hindu lunar calendar preceding the festival of Nag panchami. Vasco da Gama hosted the relics of Saint John Bosco, albeit temporarily, on 21 August 2011, at the St. Andrew's Church, while the relics were on their world tour. Like all towns and cities in Goa, Vasco celebrates the Shigmo/ xigmo and Carnival annually with a street parade where floats from all over Goa participate. Like the rest of Goa, football is the most popular sport in Vasco. Two teams from the town have participated in the I-League - Vasco Sports Club and Salgaocar Sports Club. Salgaocar SC were Champions of the 1998-99 season of the erstwhile NFL. Tilak Maidan is a 15,000 capacity football ground based in the city; the stadium sporting a magnificent turf hosted I-league matches during April 2013, as the home ground for the four teams from Goa in the league, when Fatorda Stadium was closed down for renovation.
Although cricket is not as popular as football, a Vasco resident Shadab Jakati plays for Goa in the Ranji Trophy first-class competition and has been selected to play for the Chennai Super Kings IPL franchise. Railway Stadium is a cric
Old Goa or Velha Goa is a historical city in North Goa district in the Indian state of Goa. The city was constructed by the Bijapur Sultanate in the 15th century and served as capital of Portuguese India from the 16th century until its abandonment in the 18th century due to a plague. Under the Portuguese, it is said to have once been a city of nearly 200,000 wherefrom, before the plague, the Portuguese traded across continents; the remains of the city are a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Old Goa is 10 kilometres east of the state capital Panaji; the name Old Goa was first used in the 1960s in the address of the Konkani monthly magazine, dedicated to spread the devotion of the Sacred Heart, Dor Mhoineachi Rotti, shifted to the Basilica of Bom Jesus in 1964. Postal letters were returned to the sender, as the name "Old Goa" was unknown according to then- and long-time editor of the monthly, the great Goan historian late Padre Moreno de Souza, SJ; the village panchayat uses the name Sé-Old Goa, while the post office and the Archaeological Survey of India use the name Velha Goa.
The place is known as Pornnem Goem, Adlem Goem or just Goem in Konkani. Velha Goa should not be confused with another former Goan capital, Goa Velha, lying some villages away in the south; the names Vhoddlem Goem and Thorlem Goem refer to Goa Velha, while Goem, besides referring to Velha Goa—i.e. Old Goa—also refers to the whole state of Goa in some contexts; the city was founded in the 15th century as a port on the banks of the Mandovi river by the rulers of the Bijapur Sultanate. It was built to replace Govapuri, which lay a few kilometres to the south and had been used as a port by the Kadamba and Vijayanagar kings. Old Goa was the second capital after Bijapur of the rule of Adil Shahi Dynasty, it was surrounded by a moat and contained the shah's palace and temples. The city was captured by the Portuguese and was under Portuguese rule from 1510 as the administrative seat of Portuguese India; the viceroy's residence was transferred in 1759 to Panjim. Few remnants, if any, of the pre-Portuguese period remain at Old Goa.
During the mid-16th century, the Portuguese colony of Goa Velha Goa, was the center of Christianisation in the East. The city was evangelized by all religious orders; the population was 200,000 by 1543. Malaria and cholera epidemics ravaged the city in the 17th century and it was abandoned, only having a remaining population of 1,500 in 1775, it was that the viceroy moved to Panjim. It continued to be the de jure capital of Goa until 1843; the abandoned city came to be known as "Velha Goa", to distinguish it from the new capital Nova Goa and also Goa Velha, the Portuguese name for the town on the old site of Govapuri. Velha Goa was incorporated into the Republic of India after its annexation in 1961, with the rest of Goa, it retains its religious significance in modern-day Goa, notably in its relations with Roman Catholicism. The Archbishop of Goa and Daman holds title as the Patriarch of the East Indies. Unlike the patriarchs and the major archbishops of the Eastern Catholic Churches, the Patriarch of the East Indies only enjoys honorary title and is subject to the Pope.
He has a place in the Latin Church similar to the Patriarchs of Lisbon. This title was conferred upon the Archbishop of Goa as part of a settlement between the Holy See and the Portuguese government concerning the link between religious and political aspects of its territories. Old Goa contains churches including the Se Cathedral, the Church of St. Francis of Assisi, the Church of St. Caetano and, the Basilica of Bom Jesus which contains the relics of Saint Francis Xavier, celebrated every year on 3 December with novenas beginning on 24 November. History of Old Goa Old Goa
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Delonix regia is a species of flowering plant in the bean family Fabaceae, subfamily Caesalpinioideae. It is noted for flamboyant display of flowers. In many tropical parts of the world it is grown as an ornamental tree and in English it is given the name royal poinciana, flame of the forest, or "flame tree"; this species was placed in the genus Poinciana, named for Phillippe de Longvilliers de Poincy, the 17th century governor of Saint Christopher. It is a non-nodulating legume; the flowers of Delonix regia are large, with four spreading scarlet or orange-red petals up to 8 cm long, a fifth upright petal called the standard, larger and spotted with yellow and white. They appear in corymbs at the ends of branches; the occurring variety flavida has yellow flowers. The pods are green and flaccid when young and turn woody, they can be 5 cm wide. The seeds are small; the compound leaves are a characteristic light, bright green. Each leaf is 30–50 cm long with 20 to 40 pairs of primary leaflets or pinnae, each divided into 10–20 pairs of secondary leaflets or pinnules.
Delonix regia is endemic to the Madagascar's dry deciduous forests but has been introduced into tropical and sub-tropical regions worldwide. In the wild it is endangered, but it is cultivated elsewhere; the royal poinciana requires a tropical or near-tropical climate, but can tolerate drought and salty conditions. It prefers an free-draining sandy or loamy soil enriched with organic matter; the tree does not like heavy or clay soils and flowers more profusely when kept dry. In addition to its ornamental value, it is a useful shade tree in tropical conditions, because it grows to a modest height but spreads and its dense foliage provides full shade. In areas with a marked dry season, it sheds its leaves during the drought, but in other areas it is evergreen. In the continental United States, it grows in South Florida, Central Florida, in the Rio Grande Valley of South Texas, it is featured in many Dominican & Puerto Rican paintings. It can be found in Belize, The Bahamas, Haiti, Mexico, Nicaragua, U.
S. Virgin Islands, Canary Islands, Curaçao, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, where it is the official tree of the islands, Israel, it is the national flower of St. Nevis. In Mauritius and La Réunion it announces the coming of the new year. In the Philippines, its full bloom signals the imminent arrival of the monsoon rains, it is widely grown in the Northern Australia, Hong Kong, Peru, Spain the Valencian coast and on all Canary Islands, Philippines, Sri Lanka and southern China. It is the official tree in Vietnam, Taiwan. National Cheng Kung University, a university located in Tainan, put royal poinciana on its emblem, it grows throughout southern Brazil, with ornamental trees in Rio Grande do Sul. The royal poinciana is regarded as naturalised in many of the locations, it is a popular street tree in the suburbs of Australia. The tree is found in India, where it is referred to as the May-flower tree, Gulmohar or Gul Mohr. In West Bengal and Bangladesh it is called Krishnachura; the town of Peñuelas, Puerto Rico, located about 12 miles or 19 kilometers west of Ponce, is nicknamed "El Valle de los Flamboyanes", as many flamboyant trees are found along the surrounding Río Guayanes, Río Macana, Río Tallaboa Rivers.
In Vietnam, this tree is called "Phượng vỹ", or phoenix's tail, is a popular urban tree in much of Vietnam. Its flowering season is May -- July; because of this timing, the flower of poinciana is sometimes called the "pupil's flower". Hai Phong city is nicknamed "Thành phố hoa phượng đỏ" The royal poinciana is most propagated by seeds. Seeds are collected, soaked in warm water for at least 24 hours, planted in warm, moist soil in a semi-shaded, sheltered position. In lieu of soaking, the seeds can be'nicked' or'pinched' and planted immediately; these two methods allow moisture to penetrate the tough outer casing. The seedlings grow and can reach 30 cm in a few weeks under ideal conditions. Less common, but just as effective, is propagation by semi-hardwood cuttings. Branches consisting of the current or last season's growth can be cut into 30 cm sections and planted in a moist potting mixture; this method is slower than seed propagation but is the preferred method for ensuring new trees are true to form.
As such, cuttings are a common method of propagation for the rarer yellow-flowering variety of the tree. Australia: November–February Bangladesh: April–May Bermuda: May - August Brazil: November–February Canary Isles/Tenerife: May-September Caribbean: May–September Congo DR: November - December Dominican Republic: July-September Egypt: May–June Sou
Margao or Margão or Madagav is the second largest city by population, the commercial and cultural capital of the Indian state of Goa. It is the administrative headquarters of Salcete sub-district and South Goa district. Margão is the Portuguese spelling with Madgao being used in Konkani, it was called Madgaon in Marathi. It is derived from the Sanskrit Maṭhagrām. In Ravanphond, now a suburb of Margao, there are shrines of Gorakhnath; the abode of Nath medicants was called a Matha. Madagao was called Mathagrama on account of Vaishnavite Math belonging to Dvaita sect, founded in the latter 15th century and shifted to Partagali after the establishment of the Portuguese power. Margão in pre-Portuguese times was one of the important settlements in Salcete and known as Matha Grama as it was a temple town with nine Mathas in temple schools, its replacement in 1579 was destroyed by raiders along with the seminary, built alongside it. The present church was built in 1675; the initial settlement of Margão grew from the site of the ancient Damodar Temple.
The original temple was demolished and the temple tank was filled up to be replaced by the Holy Spirit church and church grounds. The deity Damodar was carried across the Zuari Agranashini river to the Novas Conquistas in which the Sonde rulers resided. While the western side of the Holy Spirit Church developed as a market place, the settlement grew on the eastern side, that is, the Borda region, with the Holy Spirit Church, Margao at its core and extended outwards; the Municipality during the erstwhile Portuguese regime was known as "Camara Municipal de Salcete" catering to all the villages in Salcete Taluka for over 300 years until the Goa Municipalities Act 1968, came into force. The "Camara Municipal de Salcete" is now reconstituted into Margao Municipal Council; the Members of the "Camara Municipal de Salcete" were nominated by the Government, but after the reconstitution of the Municipal Council, the Members to all the 20 wards are elected by the Members of the council. The main square is defined on one side by the church with its baroque architecture and the parochial house, on the other side by the palatial mansions of affluent elite Catholics, positioned in a row.
The Associação das Communidades building and the school being the odd exceptions which add to its character and sense of scale. They have a maximum height of two stories, balcões balconies and varandas facing the square. Parallel to the church square is the commercial street. There is a landscaped area next to the church called Praça da Alegria; the church feast is celebrated before the monsoons, it is a time when many residents make pre-monsoon purchases to stock up for a prolonged rainy season. Margão's importance as an administrative and commercial area grew with the increasing dependence of the surrounding towns and villages. In 1961, Goa was invaded by India and incorporated into the Indian Union, Margão was declared as the administrative center of the district of South Goa. Margao is located at 15°16′25″N 73°57′29″E, it has an average elevation of 10 m. By road, Margao is located 33 km from the capital Panjim, 27 km from Vasco da Gama. Nestled on the banks of the Sal River, Portuguese style mansions dot its landscape.
One of the fastest growing cities in Goa, its fast growing suburbs include Aquem, Gogol, Comba and Davorlim. Margao features a tropical monsoon climate. Summers are warm. Summers last from March–May when the temperature reaches up to 32 °C and winters from December–February when it is between 20–28 °C. Monsoons occur from June -- September with gusty winds; the annual average rainfall is 2,881 mm. As of the 2011 census of India, Margao had a population of 87,650. Males constituted 51% of the population and females 49%, it had an average literacy rate of 90%. In Margao, 9.8% of the population was under 7 years of age. With a population of 106,484 in the metropolitan area, Margao is second largest Urban agglomeration in Goa. Margão is home to many schools and colleges, the alumni of which have made significant contributions to Goa's cultural and scientific landscape. Most schools function in accordance with the curriculum prescribed by the Directorate of Education and the Goa Board of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education.
The oldest, the Loyola High School near the Old Bus Stand, is a Jesuit-run school. Other prominent schools include Bhatikar Model English High School named after its founder Late Pandurang Raya Bhatikar and Mahila & Nutan High School, established as Samaj Seva Sangh’s Mahila Vidyalay for girls in 1933 and started co-ed intake in June 1972. Schools affiliated to central boards include Vidya Vikas Academy, affiliated to the CBSE board and Manovikas High School affiliated to the ICSE board; the other educational institutes in Margão include St. Joseph High School at Govt. High School Vidyanagar, Holy Spirit Institute, Presentation Convent High School, Fatima Convent High School, Perpetual Convent High School located in Navelim; the colleges in Margão include The Parvatibai Chowgule College, housed in Portuguese Military Barracks opposite Multipurpose High School in Vidyanagar. The college moved to its present location in 1972 under the direction of principal Prof. P. S. Rege. Shree Damodar