Panama City

Panama City simply known as Panama, is the capital and largest city of Panama. It has an urban population of 880,691, with over 1.5 million in its metropolitan area. The city is located in the province of Panama; the city is the political and administrative center of the country, as well as a hub for banking and commerce. The city of Panama was founded on August 1519, by Spanish conquistador Pedro Arias Dávila; the city was the starting point for expeditions. It was a stopover point on one of the most important trade routes in the American continent, leading to the fairs of Nombre de Dios and Portobelo, through which passed most of the gold and silver that Spain took from the Americas. On January 28, 1671, the original city was destroyed by a fire when privateer Henry Morgan sacked and set fire to it; the city was formally reestablished two years on January 21, 1673, on a peninsula located 8 km from the original settlement. The site of the devastated city is still in ruins, is now a popular tourist attraction, is visited by school trips.

The city was founded on August 15, 1519, by Pedro Arias de Ávila known as Pedrarias Dávila. Within a few years of its founding, the city became a launching point for the exploration and conquest of Peru and a transit point for gold and silver headed back to Spain through the Isthmus. In 1671 Henry Morgan with a band of 1400 men attacked and looted the city, subsequently destroyed by fire; the ruins of the old city still are a popular tourist attraction known as Panamá Viejo. The city was rebuilt in 1673 in a new location 5 miles southwest of the original city; this location is now known as the Casco Viejo of the city. One year before the start of the California Gold Rush, the Panama Railroad Company was formed, but the railroad did not begin full operation until 1855. Between 1848 and 1869, the year the first transcontinental railroad was completed in the United States, about 375,000 persons crossed the isthmus from the Atlantic to the Pacific, 225,000 in the opposite direction; this traffic increased the prosperity of the city during that period.

The construction of the Panama Canal was of great benefit to the economy. Of particular note are the improvements in health and sanitation brought about by the American presence in the Canal Zone. Dr. William Gorgas, the chief sanitary officer for the canal construction, had a large impact, he hypothesized that diseases were spread by the abundance of mosquitos native to the area, ordered the fumigation of homes and the cleansing of water. This led to yellow fever being eradicated by November 1905, as well malaria rates falling dramatically. However, most of the laborers for the construction of the canal were brought in from the Caribbean, which created unprecedented racial and social tensions in the city. During World War II, construction of military bases and the presence of larger numbers of U. S. military and civilian personnel brought about unprecedented levels of prosperity to the city. Panamanians had limited access, or no access at all, to many areas in the Canal Zone neighboring the Panama city metropolitan area.

Some of these areas were military bases accessible only to United States personnel. Some tensions arose between the people of Panama and the U. S. citizens living in the Panama Canal Zone. This erupted in 1964 events, known as Martyrs' Day. In the late 1970s through the 1980s the city of Panama became an international banking center, bringing a lot of undesirable attention as an international money-laundering locale. In 1989 after nearly a year of tension between the United States and Panama, President George H. W. Bush ordered the invasion of Panama to depose General Manuel Noriega, the country's de facto dictator; as a result, a portion of the El Chorrillo neighborhood, which consisted of old wood-framed buildings dating back to the 1900s, was destroyed by fire. In 1999, the United States transferred control of the Panama Canal Zone to Panama, which remains in control today; the city of Panama is still a banking center, although with visible controls in the flow of cash. Shipping is handled through port facilities in the area of Balboa operated by the Hutchison Whampoa Company of Hong Kong and through several ports on the Caribbean side of the isthmus.

Balboa, located within the greater Panama metropolitan area, was part of the Panama Canal Zone, the administration of the former Panama Canal Zone was headquartered there. Panamá is located between tropical rain forest in the northern part of Panama; the Parque Natural Metropolitano, stretching from Panama City along the Panama Canal, has unique bird species and other animals, such as tapir and caimans. At the Pacific entrance of the canal is the Centro de Exhibiciones Marinas, a research center for those interested in tropical marine life and ecology, managed by the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. Tropical forests around Panama are vital for the functioning of the Panama Canal, providing it with the water required for its operation. Due to the canal's importance to the Panamanian economy, tropical forests around the canal have been kept in an pristine state. Along the western side of the canal is the Parque Nacional Soberanía, which includes the Summit botanical gardens and a zoo. The

Lou Barnes

Louis Joseph "Lou" Barnes was a member of the Queensland Legislative Assembly. Barnes was born at Gympie, the son of George Daniel Barnes and his wife Bridget Maria, he was educated at the Christian Brothers' College in Gympie and after leaving school was a tea merchant in 1932, a traveler for the Castlemaine Perkins and from 1947 until 1975 a men's Mercer at Beaudesert. On 24 April 1934 he married Muriel Eileen Burke and together had two sons. Changing his middle name to Gabriel, Barnes died at Southport in June 1983 and was buried in the Southport Lawn Cemetery. Barnes, a member of the King O'Malley Labor Party, won the 1942 by-election for the seat of Cairns in the Queensland Legislative Assembly; the by-election was caused by the death of John O'Keefe in January of that year. He went on to represent the electorate until 1947 when he was defeated by Thomas Crowley at that year's state elections. After his defeat, Barnes was an alderman on the Gold Coast City Council from 1949 until 1952, his brother, Frank Barnes, was the member for Bundaberg from 1941 to 1950

List of Bosniak musicians

This is a list of Bosniak composers, musical groups and singers: Alexander von Zemlinsky, Austrian composer and conductor who had a Bosniak maternal grandmother Damir Handanović Dino Zonić, composer and conductor Ismet Alajbegović Šerbo, composer and accordionist Aida Čorbadžić Bahrija Nuri Hadžić Buba Corelli Edo Maajka Frenkie Jala Brat Denis Azabagić, classical guitarist Avdo Međedović Edin Karamazov Asim Bajramović Edo Mulahalilović Fahrudin Pecikoza Faruk Buljubašić Izudin Čavrković List of Bosniaks List of Bosniak writers