Panama Canal Zone
The Panama Canal Zone was an unincorporated territory of the United States from 1903 to 1979, centered on the Panama Canal and surrounded by the Republic of Panama. The zone consisted of the canal and an area extending five miles on each side of the centerline, excluding Panama City and Colón, which otherwise would have been within the limits of the Zone, its border spanned three of Panama's provinces. When reservoirs were created to assure a steady supply of water for the locks, those lakes were included within the Zone. In 1904, the Isthmian Canal Convention was proclaimed. In it, the Republic of Panama granted to the United States in perpetuity the use and control of a zone of land and land under water for the construction, operation and protection of the canal. From 1903 to 1979, the territory was controlled by the United States, which had purchased the land from the private and public owners, built the canal and financed its construction; the Canal Zone was abolished as a term of the Torrijos -- Carter Treaties two years earlier.
S.–Panamanian control until it was turned over to Panama in 1999. Proposals for a canal across the Isthmus of Panama date back to 1529, soon after the Spanish conquest. Álvaro de Saavedra Cerón, a lieutenant of conquistador Vasco Núñez de Balboa, suggested four possible routes, one of which tracks the present-day canal. Saavedra believed. Although King Charles I was enthusiastic and ordered preliminary works started, his officials in Panama soon realized that such an undertaking was beyond the capabilities of 16th-century technology. One official wrote to Charles, "I pledge to Your Majesty that there is not a prince in the world with the power to accomplish this"; the Spanish instead built a road across the isthmus. The road came to be crucial to Spain's economy, as treasure obtained along the Pacific coast of South America was offloaded at Panama City and hauled through the jungle to the Atlantic port of Nombre de Dios, close to present day Colón. Although additional canal building proposals were made throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, they came to naught.
The late 18th and early 19th centuries saw a number of canals built. The success of the Erie Canal in the United States and the collapse of the Spanish Empire in Latin America led to a surge of American interest in building an interoceanic canal. Beginning in 1826, US officials began negotiations with Gran Colombia, hoping to gain a concession for the building of a canal. Jealous of their newly obtained independence and fearing that they would be dominated by an American presence, the president Simón Bolívar and New Granadan officials declined American offers; the new nation was politically unstable, Panama rebelled several times during the 19th century. In 1836 U. S. statesman Charles Biddle reached an agreement with the New Granadan government to replace the old road with an improved one or a railroad, running from Panama City on the Pacific coast to the Chagres River, where a steamship service would allow passengers and freight to continue to Colón. His agreement was repudiated by the Jackson administration.
In 1841, with Panama in rebellion again, British interests secured a right of way over the isthmus from the insurgent regime and occupied Nicaraguan ports that might have served as the Atlantic terminus of a canal. In 1846 the new US envoy to Bogotá, Benjamin Bidlack, was surprised when, soon after his arrival, the New Granadans proposed that the United States be the guarantor of the neutrality of the isthmus; the resulting Mallarino–Bidlack Treaty allowed the United States to intervene militarily to ensure that the interoceanic road would not be disrupted. New Granada hoped that other nations would sign similar treaties, but the one with the United States, ratified by the US Senate in June 1848 after considerable lobbying by New Granada, was the only one; the treaty led the U. S. government to contract for steamship service to Panama from ports on both coasts. When the California Gold Rush began in 1848, traffic through Panama increased, New Granada agreed to allow the Panama Railroad to be constructed by American interests.
This first "transcontinental railroad" opened in 1850. There were riots in Panama City in 1856. US warships landed Marines, who occupied the railroad station and kept the railroad service from being interrupted by the unrest; the United States demanded compensation from New Granada, including a zone 20 miles wide, to be governed by US officials and in which the United States might build any "railway or passageway" it desired. The demand was dropped in the face of resistance by New Granadan officials, who accused the United States of seeking a colony. Through the remainder of the 19th century, the United States landed troops several times to preserve the railway connection. At the same time, it pursued a canal treaty with Colombia. One treaty, signed in 1868, was rejected by the Colombian Senate, which hoped for better terms from the incoming Grant administration. Under this treaty, the canal would have been in the middle of a 20-mile zone, under American management but Colombian sovereignty, the canal would revert to Colombia in 99 years.
The Grant administration did little to pursue a treaty and, in 1878, the concession to build the canal fell to a French firm. The French efforts failed, but with Panama unavailable, the United States considered possible canal sites in Mexico and Nic
Omar Efraín Torrijos Herrera, more known as Omar Torrijos, was the Commander of the Panamanian National Guard and the de facto dictator of Panama from 1968 to 1981. Torrijos was never the president of Panama, but instead held titles including "Maximum Leader of the Panamanian Revolution" and "Supreme Chief of Government." Torrijos took power in a coup d'état and instituted a number of social reforms and his regime was considered socialist. Torrijos is best known for negotiating the 1977 Torrijos–Carter Treaties that gave Panama full sovereignty over the Panama Canal; the two treaties guaranteed that Panama would gain control of the Panama Canal after 1999, ending the control of the canal that the U. S. had exercised since 1903. On December 31, 1999, the final phase of the treaty, the US relinquished control of the Panama Canal and all areas in what had been the Panama Canal Zone, his son Martín Torrijos was elected president and served from 2004 to 2009. Torrijos was born in Santiago in the province of the sixth of eleven children.
His father, José Maria Torrijos, was from Colombia, was employed as a teacher. He was educated at the local Juan Demóstenes Arosemena School and, at eighteen, won a scholarship to the military academy in San Salvador, he graduated with a commission as a second lieutenant. He joined the Panamanian army, the National Guard, in 1952, he was promoted to captain in 1956 to major in 1960. He took a cadet course at the School of the Americas in 1965, he became the Executive Secretary of the National Guard in 1966. He had reached the rank of lieutenant colonel by 1966. Due to accusations of his involvement in election frauds, Torrijos was ordered to El Salvador in 1968 as a military attaché, it was during this year however that his close friend in the Guardia, Major Boris Martínez and Coronel Jose Humberto Ramos initiated a meditated and successful coup d'état against the elected president of Panama, Arnulfo Arias, after eleven days in office. Having received news of the coup while in the Canal Zone, Torrijos and a few officers including Demetrio Lakas sought to re-establish some form of civilian rule attempting to install Arnulfo's vice-president, Raul Arango as the new president, much to Martínez's dismay.
Although a two-man junta was appointed and Torrijos were the true leaders from the beginning. Soon after the coup, Torrijos was promoted to full colonel and named commandant of the National Guard, they shut down the legislature. They seized control of three newspapers owned by Arias' brother and blackmailed the owners of the country's oldest newspaper, La Estrella de Panama, into becoming a government mouthpiece. With enough opposition against Martinez including from the United States, Torrijos ousted and exiled Martinez and Jose H. Ramos to Miami on February 23, 1969, nearly four months after the initial coup. In 1972, the regime held a controlled election of an Assembly of Community Representatives, with a single opposition member; the new assembly elected Demetrio Lakas as president. However, the new document made Torrijos the actual head of government, with near-absolute powers for six years. Torrijos was regarded by his supporters as the first Panamanian leader to represent the majority population of Panama, poor, Spanish-speaking, of mixed heritage– as opposed to the light-skinned social elite referred to as rabiblancos, who had long dominated the commerce and political life of Panama.
He created new job opportunities for those less fortunate. Some say he spent his weekends giving a thousand dollars to random people and causes. Torrijos instituted a range of social and economic reforms to improve the lot of the poor, redistributed agricultural land and persecuted the richest and most powerful families in the country, as well as independent student and labor leaders; the reforms were accompanied by an ambitious public works program, financed by foreign banks. In 1978, he stepped down as head of the government, but remained de facto ruler of the country while another one of his followers, Aristides Royo was a figurehead president, he restored some civil liberties. S. President Jimmy Carter had told him that the Senate would never approve the Canal treaties unless Torrijos made some effort to liberalize his rule. Torrijos negotiated the Torrijos-Carter Treaties over the Panama Canal, signed on September 7, 1977; these treaties passed United States sovereignty over the canal zone to Panama, with a gradual increase in their control over it, leading to complete control on Dec 31, 1999.
The United States however, retained the permanent right to protect what they called the'neutrality' of the canal, allowing U. S. administration of the canal as well as military intervention through the now-legalized U. S. bases in Panama. These aspects of the treaty fell short from nationalistic goals and the ratification ceremony at Fort Clayton was somewhat of an embarrassment for Torrijos, he was noticeably drunk during the ceremony. With pressure from the Carter administration as well as from economic depression, Torrijos sought to appease public distress and defuse opposition from labor unions as well as influential oligarchs, he reintroduced the traditional parties by modifying the 1972 constitution and set elections for 1984. During this time, in 1979, Torrijos organized the Democratic Revolutionary Party which loosely linked to Socialist International ideals and represented a melange of social classes, namely the internationally affiliated
The Bell 407 is a four-blade, single-engine, civil utility helicopter. The 407 uses the four-blade, soft-in-plane design rotor with composite hub developed for the United States Army's OH-58D Kiowa Warrior instead of the two-blade, semi-rigid, teetering rotor of the 206L-4. In 1993, Bell began the development of the New Light Aircraft as a replacement for its Model 206 series; the program resulted in a development of Bell's LongRanger. A 206L-3 LongRanger was modified to serve as the 407 demonstrator; the demonstrator used hardware for the 407 and added molded fairings to represent the 407's wider fuselage under development. The demonstrator was first flown on April 21, 1994, the 407 program was publicly announced at the Heli-Expo in Las Vegas, Nevada, in January 1995; the first 407 prototype accomplished its maiden flight on June 29, 1995, the second prototype followed on July 13, 1995. After a short development program, the first production 407 flew on November 10, 1995; the Bell 407 features the four-blade main rotor developed for the OH-58D.
The blades and hub use composite construction without life limits, provide better performance and a more comfortable ride. The 407's fuselage is 8 inches wider, increasing internal cabin space, includes 35% larger main cabin windows; the more powerful Rolls-Royce/Allison 250-C47 turboshaft allows an increase in Maximum Takeoff Weight and improves performance at hotter temperatures and/or higher altitudes. The 407's airframe is similar to the LongRanger, but includes a carbon fiber composite tailboom; the helicopter has standard seating for five cabin seats. The 407 was certificated by Transport Canada on February 9, 1996, with the FAA following shortly after on February 23. Full production began in 1996 at Bell's Mirabel, Canada plant and produced 140 airframes in 1997, to fill the initial orders. In 1995, Bell did not proceed with it. For a time, Bell studied developing the Model 407T twin-engine variant, but instead chose to develop the all-new twin-PW206D powered Bell 427. Bell began deliveries of the 407 in 1996.
The 1,000th helicopter was delivered on June 15, 2010. The ARH-70 armed reconnaissance helicopter, developed for the U. S. Army was based on the 407, but was canceled on October 16, 2008; the Bell 417 was a growth variant of the Bell 407, in essence a civil version of the Bell ARH-70. The 417 made its first flight on June 8, 2006; the 417 was to be powered by a Honeywell HTS900 turboshaft engine, producing 970 shp and includes full FADEC controls. The cabin sat five passengers in club-seating configuration, in addition to the crew of two; the civilian 417 was canceled at Heli-Expo 2007 in Orlando. On March 4, 2013, Bell unveiled a new armed version of the Bell 407GX, named the 407GT, it incorporates the Garmin G1000HTM flight deck to provide flight information. It can include infrared cameras, various armaments, equipment to perform different missions such as armed transport, search-and-rescue and medical evacuation; the GT version uses the universal weapons pylon, derived from the Bell OH-58 Kiowa, to carry different weapons including machine guns and anti-armor missiles.
Bell made delivery of the first production 407 at Heli-Expo, in Dallas, Texas in February 1996. Launch customers for the aircraft were Petroleum Helicopters, Niagara Helicopters, Greenland Air. On 23 May 2007, Colin Bodill and Jennifer Murray completed a record pole-to-pole around the world flight utilizing a standard Bell 407; the flight originated from Bell's facility at the Fort Worth Alliance Airport on December 5, 2006. The team flew through 34 different countries; the project, named Polar First, was performed in partnership with the Royal Geographical Society to provide educational outreach to 28 international schools, which were visited during the trip. The project served as a fundraiser for the SOS Children's Villages. In 2009 the Iraqi Air Force ordered three Bell 407 armed scout helicopters. A contract for 24 additional Bell 407s with an option for 26 more was awarded in April of that same year; the U. S. Army is installation of military equipment on the helicopters. Three training T-407s were delivered to the Iraqi Army in 2010.
Armed IA-407s were delivered in eight batches of three aircraft from August 2012 to April 2013. The final Bell 407 for Iraq was delivered on 3 April 2013. There are 30 in service. Iraq is using the IA-407 in operations against Islamic State militants. On October 8, 2014, militants shot down an IA-407 using a shoulder-fired ground-to-air missile, killing the pilot and co-pilot. In December 2017, more than 1,400 were operating. Bell 407 A civil utility helicopter, a derivative of the Bell 206L-4. ARH-70 An upgraded 407 version to serve as an armed reconnaissance helicopter. Bell 417 Planned civil version of the ARH-70, was canceled. Bell 407 Light Observation Helicopter A military reconnaissance version. Eagle 407 HP Version from Eagle Copter with a more powerful Honeywell HTS900 engine, rated at 1,021 shp. Northrop Grumman MQ-8C Fire Scout An unmanned aerial vehicle version being developed by Northrop Grumman and Bell Helicopter as a cargo resupply demonstrator; the test aircraft flew on 10 December 2010 at the Yuma Proving Ground.
In February 2011, the US Navy's budget request for 2012 included funds to buy 12 Fire-X helicopters under the designation MQ-8C. Bell 407AH An armed civil-certified version for use with government and security forces. B
A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by rotors. This allows the helicopter to take off and land vertically, to hover, to fly forward and laterally; these attributes allow helicopters to be used in congested or isolated areas where fixed-wing aircraft and many forms of VTOL aircraft cannot perform. The English word helicopter is adapted from the French word hélicoptère, coined by Gustave Ponton d'Amécourt in 1861, which originates from the Greek helix "helix, whirl, convolution" and pteron "wing". English language nicknames for helicopter include "chopper", "copter", "helo", "heli", "whirlybird". Helicopters were developed and built during the first half-century of flight, with the Focke-Wulf Fw 61 being the first operational helicopter in 1936; some helicopters reached limited production, but it was not until 1942 that a helicopter designed by Igor Sikorsky reached full-scale production, with 131 aircraft built. Though most earlier designs used more than one main rotor, it is the single main rotor with anti-torque tail rotor configuration that has become the most common helicopter configuration.
Tandem rotor helicopters are in widespread use due to their greater payload capacity. Coaxial helicopters, tiltrotor aircraft, compound helicopters are all flying today. Quadcopter helicopters pioneered as early as 1907 in France, other types of multicopter have been developed for specialized applications such as unmanned drones; the earliest references for vertical flight came from China. Since around 400 BC, Chinese children have played with bamboo flying toys; this bamboo-copter is spun by rolling a stick attached to a rotor. The spinning creates lift, the toy flies when released; the 4th-century AD Daoist book Baopuzi by Ge Hong describes some of the ideas inherent to rotary wing aircraft. Designs similar to the Chinese helicopter toy appeared in some Renaissance paintings and other works. In the 18th and early 19th centuries Western scientists developed flying machines based on the Chinese toy, it was not until the early 1480s, when Italian polymath Leonardo da Vinci created a design for a machine that could be described as an "aerial screw", that any recorded advancement was made towards vertical flight.
His notes suggested that he built small flying models, but there were no indications for any provision to stop the rotor from making the craft rotate. As scientific knowledge increased and became more accepted, people continued to pursue the idea of vertical flight. In July 1754, Russian Mikhail Lomonosov had developed a small coaxial modeled after the Chinese top but powered by a wound-up spring device and demonstrated it to the Russian Academy of Sciences, it was powered by a spring, was suggested as a method to lift meteorological instruments. In 1783, Christian de Launoy, his mechanic, used a coaxial version of the Chinese top in a model consisting of contrarotating turkey flight feathers as rotor blades, in 1784, demonstrated it to the French Academy of Sciences. Sir George Cayley, influenced by a childhood fascination with the Chinese flying top, developed a model of feathers, similar to that of Launoy and Bienvenu, but powered by rubber bands. By the end of the century, he had progressed to using sheets of tin for rotor blades and springs for power.
His writings on his experiments and models would become influential on future aviation pioneers. Alphonse Pénaud would develop coaxial rotor model helicopter toys in 1870 powered by rubber bands. One of these toys, given as a gift by their father, would inspire the Wright brothers to pursue the dream of flight. In 1861, the word "helicopter" was coined by Gustave de Ponton d'Amécourt, a French inventor who demonstrated a small steam-powered model. While celebrated as an innovative use of a new metal, the model never lifted off the ground. D'Amecourt's linguistic contribution would survive to describe the vertical flight he had envisioned. Steam power was popular with other inventors as well. In 1878 the Italian Enrico Forlanini's unmanned vehicle powered by a steam engine, rose to a height of 12 meters, where it hovered for some 20 seconds after a vertical take-off. Emmanuel Dieuaide's steam-powered design featured counter-rotating rotors powered through a hose from a boiler on the ground. In 1887 Parisian inventor, Gustave built and flew a tethered electric model helicopter.
In July 1901, the maiden flight of Hermann Ganswindt's helicopter took place in Berlin-Schöneberg. A movie covering the event was taken by Max Skladanowsky. In 1885, Thomas Edison was given US$1,000 by James Gordon Bennett, Jr. to conduct experiments towards developing flight. Edison built a helicopter and used the paper for a stock ticker to create guncotton, with which he attempted to power an internal combustion engine; the helicopter was damaged by explosions and one of his workers was badly burned. Edison reported that it would take a motor with a ratio of three to four pounds per horsepower produced to be successful, based on his experiments. Ján Bahýľ, a Slovak inventor, adapted the internal combustion engine to power his helicopter model that reached a height of 0.5 meters in 1901. On 5 May 1905, his helicopter flew for over 1,500 meters. In 1908, Edison patented his own design for a helicopter powered by a gasoline engine with box kites attached to a mast by cables for a rotor, but it never flew.
In 1906, two French brothers and Louis Breguet, began experimenting with airfoils for helicopters. In
Embraer Legacy 600
The Embraer Legacy 600 is a business jet derivative of the Embraer ERJ 145 family of commercial jet aircraft. The Legacy 600 is based on the ERJ-135 model, it was launched in 2000 at the Farnborough Airshow as the "Legacy 2000". The Legacy carries 13 passengers in three partitioned sections for 3,050 nautical miles or 8 passengers for 3,450 nautical miles, it features added range via extra fuel tanks in the tail behind the baggage compartment and forward of the wing, an extensive drag reduction program. It is certified 37,000 feet for the airline configuration; the Legacy Shuttle can seat 19 to 37 without the range. The first flight was made in June 2000, with the prototype of the ERJ-135; this same aircraft was once the prototype of the first ERJ-145. New winglets and new wing-to-fuselage fairing was added, but no additional fuel tanks were available; the new fuselage fuel tanks were ready for the second prototype, along with engine and avionics, that flew only in March 31st 2001. It was the second Embraer model to feature winglets, as the first were installed on the EMB-145SA military model.
Embraer winglet models differed in structure, due to their optimum design speed. The Legacy 600 competes on the upper end of the small to mid-sized range of business jets and is considered a "Super Midsize" aircraft, it has nearly the opposite design progression as the rival Canadair Challenger. The Legacy 600 was derived from the established ERJ family of regional jets, while the Canadair Regional Jet was developed by Bombardier from the Challenger business jet. Both lines of aircraft are competitors. Embraer has since launched an extensive lineup of business aircraft, from the entry-level Phenom 100 to the Lineage 1000, a bizliner version of the company's 100-seat E190. With the updated Mark I cockpit of the EMB-145, the Legacy includes a Honeywell Primus Elite avionics suite glass cockpit. Announced at the 2009 NBAA show, the Legacy 650 is a longer-range version of the Legacy 600, giving it a range capability of 7,220 km non-stop with four passengers, or carry 1,134 kg more than the 600 for a 6,290 km trip.
It features a lowered alley, with increased headroom and it was certified by the FAA in February 2011. Embraer had a joint venture with Aviation Industry Corp. in China assembling Legacy 650 and ERJ-145 for thirteen years. An enhanced version, the 650E, was announced at the 2016 NBAA and scheduled for introduction in 2017, it includes a synthetic vision system and autothrottle as standard, a restyled three-zone interior and comes with a 10-year or 10,000-flight-hour warranty. On 29 September 2006, an ExcelAire Legacy collided with Gol Transportes Aéreos Flight 1907 Boeing 737 while cruising over the northern state of Mato Grosso, Brazil; the Boeing crashed to the ground and all 154 passengers and crew were killed, while the Embraer jet, despite serious damage to the left horizontal stabilizer and left winglet, was able to continue flying and managed to land at a Brazilian military airfield. This survival aircraft remained un-preserved three years, but in mid-2009 American company General Aviation Services agreed to buy the aircraft.
The company partnered with Gantt Aviation and Constant Aviation to check and prepare it for its ferry to the US. Constant completed the work and on 19 November 2010 the aircraft, now with the new registration of N965LL, arrived at Cleveland International Airport to be refurbished and put up for sale; the plane was reported to be on sale in March 2011 though repairs to the left wingtip and stabilizer were still being completed in August 2011. The plane was sold to a private owner in 2013 and registered in Mexico as XA-MHA. Related development Embraer ERJ 145 familyAircraft of comparable role and era Gulfstream G280 Bombardier Challenger 350 Dassault Falcon 2000 Bombardier Challenger 650 Related lists List of civil aircraft Legacy 600 Legacy 650 "Embraer Legacy 650 Operators Survey". Business & Commercial Aviation. Aviation Week. July 2015
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Romance languages such as Spanish and French are predominantly spoken. The term "Latin America" was first used in an 1856 conference with the title "Initiative of the America. Idea for a Federal Congress of the Republics", by the Chilean politician Francisco Bilbao; the term was used by Napoleon III's French government in the 1860s as Amérique latine to consider French-speaking territories in the Americas, along with the larger group of countries where Spanish and Portuguese languages prevailed, including the Spanish-speaking portions of the United States Today, areas of Canada and the United States where Spanish and French are predominant are not included in definitions of Latin America. Latin America consists of 13 dependencies and 20 countries which cover an area that stretches from the northern border of Mexico to the southern tip of South America, including the Caribbean, it has an area of 19,197,000 km2 13% of the Earth's land surface area.
As of 2016, its population was estimated at more than 639 million and in 2014, Latin America had a combined nominal GDP of US$5,573,397 million and a GDP PPP of 7,531,585 million USD. The idea that a part of the Americas has a linguistic affinity with the Romance cultures as a whole can be traced back to the 1830s, in the writing of the French Saint-Simonian Michel Chevalier, who postulated that this part of the Americas was inhabited by people of a "Latin race", that it could, ally itself with "Latin Europe" overlapping the Latin Church, in a struggle with "Teutonic Europe", "Anglo-Saxon America" and "Slavic Europe". Further investigations of the concept of Latin America are by Michel Gobat in the American Historical Review, the studies of Leslie Bethell, the monograph by Mauricio Tenorio-Trillo, Latin America: The Allure and Power of an Idea. Historian John Leddy Phelan (located the origins of “Latin America” in the French occupation of Mexico, his argument is that French imperialists used the concept of "Latin" America as a way to counter British imperialism, as well as to challenge the German threat to France.
The idea of a "Latin race" was taken up by Latin American intellectuals and political leaders of the mid- and late-nineteenth century, who no longer looked to Spain or Portugal as cultural models, but rather to France. French ruler Napoleon III had a strong interest in extending French commercial and political power in the region he and his business promoter Felix Belly called “Latin America” to emphasize the shared Latin background of France with the former colonies of Spain and Portugal; this led to Napoleon's failed attempt to take military control of Mexico in the 1860s. However, though Phelan thesis is still mentioned in the U. S. academy, two Latin American historians, the Uruguayan Arturo Ardao and the Chilean Miguel Rojas Mix proved decades ago that the term "Latin America" was used earlier than Phelan claimed, the first use of the term was opposite to support imperialist projects in the Americas. Ardao wrote about this subject in his book Génesis de la idea y el nombre de América latina, Miguel Rojas Mix in his article "Bilbao y el hallazgo de América latina: Unión continental, socialista y libertaria".
As Michel Gobat reminds in his article "The Invention of Latin America: A Transnational History of Anti-Imperialism and Race", "Arturo Ardao, Miguel Rojas Mix, Aims McGuinness have revealed the term'Latin America' had been used in 1856 by Central and South Americans protesting U. S. expansion into the Southern Hemisphere". Edward Shawcross summarizes Ardao's and Rojas Mix's findings in the following way: "Ardao identified the term in a poem by a Colombian diplomat and intellectual resident in France, José María Torres Caicedo, published on 15 February 1857 in a French based Spanish-language newspaper, while Rojas Mix located it in a speech delivered in France by the radical liberal Chilean politician Francisco Bilbao in June 1856". So, regarding when the words "Latin" and "America" were combined for the first time in a printed work, the term "Latin America" was first used in 1856 in a conference by the Chilean politician Francisco Bilbao in Paris; the conference had the title "Initiative of the America.
Idea for a Federal Congress of Republics." The following year the Colombian writer José María Torres Caicedo used the term in his poem "The Two Americas". Two events related with the U. S. played a central role in both works. The first event happened less than a decade before the publication of Bilbao's and Torres Caicedo works: the Mexican–American War, after which Mexico lost a third of its territory; the second event, the Walker affair, happened the same year both works were written: the decision by U. S. president Franklin Pierce to recognize the regime established in Nicaragua by American William Walker and his band of filibusters who ruled Nicaragua for nearly a year and attempted to reinstate slavery there, where it had been abolished for three decades In both Bilbao's and Torres Caicedo's works, the Mexican-American War and Walker's expedition to Nicaragua are explicitly mentioned as examples of dangers for the region. For Bilbao, "Latin America" w