Nickel (United States coin)
A nickel, in American usage, is a five-cent coin struck by the United States Mint. Composed of 75% copper and 25% nickel, the piece has been issued since 1866, its diameter is.835 inches and its thickness is.077 inches. Due to inflation, the purchasing power of the nickel continues to drop and the coin represents less than 1% of the federal hourly minimum wage. In 2015, over 1.5 billion nickels were produced at the Denver mints. The silver half dime, equal to five cents, had been issued since the 1790s; the American Civil War caused economic hardship, driving silver from circulation. In 1865, Congress abolished the five-cent fractional currency note after Spencer M. Clark, head of the Currency Bureau, placed his own portrait on the denomination. After the successful introduction of two-cent and three-cent pieces without precious metal, Congress authorized a five-cent piece consisting of base metal; the initial design of the Shield nickel was struck from 1866 until 1883 was replaced by the Liberty Head nickel.
The Buffalo nickel was introduced in 1913 as part of a drive to increase the beauty of American coinage. In 2004 and 2005, special designs in honor of the bicentennial of the Lewis and Clark Expedition were issued. In 2006, the Mint reverted to using Jefferson nickel designer Felix Schlag's original reverse, although a new obverse, by Jamie Franki, was substituted; as of the end of FY 2013, it cost more than nine cents to produce a nickel. The silver half disme was one of the denominations prescribed by the Mint Act of 1792; the first pieces under federal authority were half dimes, struck in 1792 in the cellar of John Harper, a saw maker. The dies were engraved by Adam Eckfeldt, who a half-century recalled that the silver for the half dimes was supplied by President George Washington, that the 1,500 coins struck from the bullion were given to Washington's Secretary of State, Thomas Jefferson, for distribution to important people, both in the US and overseas. By legend, President Washington supplied silverware from his home, Mount Vernon, to provide bullion for the coins.
In his annual message to Congress in late 1792, Washington noted the ongoing construction of a mint building and stated: "There has been a small beginning in the coinage of half dimes, the want of small coins in circulation calling the first attention to them."In 1793, the newly established Philadelphia Mint began striking cents and half cents. Coinage of precious metal was delayed. In 1794, Congress lowered the chief coiner's bond to $5,000, the assayer's to $1,000. Subsequently, silver coinage began that year; the half dime was struck from 1794 until 1805, though none were dated 1798, 1799, or 1804. By 1804, silver US coins were exported, as they could be exchanged at par in the West Indies with heavier Spanish coins, which were imported as bullion and deposited at the Mint for melting and restriking. In response, in 1804 the US stopped striking silver dollars. In 1807, mint Director Robert Patterson in a letter explained to Jefferson "nearly the whole of our Silver Bullion come through the Banks, it is seldom that they will consent to take any coin less than half dollars."Beginning in 1829, the silver five-cent piece was again struck.
In 1837, the half dime's obverse design changed from one by William Kneass, depicting a bust of Liberty, to one that featured a seated Liberty by Christian Gobrecht. In 1851, it ceased to be the smallest US silver coin; the Civil War caused most American coins to vanish from circulation, with the gap filled by such means as merchant tokens, encased postage stamps, United States fractional currency, issued in denominations as low as three cents. Although specie was hoarded or exported, the copper-nickel cent the only base metal denomination being struck vanished. In 1864, Congress began the process of restoring coins to circulation by abolishing the three-cent note and authorizing bronze cents and two-cent pieces, with low intrinsic values, to be struck; these new coins proved popular, though the two-cent piece soon faded from circulation. On March 3, 1865, Congress passed legislation authorizing the Mint to strike three-cent pieces of 75% copper and 25% nickel. In 1864, Congress authorized a third series of fractional currency notes.
The five-cent note was to bear a depiction of "Clark", but Congress was appalled when the issue came out not with a portrait of William Clark, the explorer, but Spencer M. Clark, head of the Currency Bureau. According to numismatic historian Walter Breen, Congress's "immediate infuriated response was to pass a law retiring the five-cent denomination, another to forbid portrayal of any living person on federal coins or currency." Clark kep
Centesimo is an Italian word derived from the Latin centesimus meaning "hundredth". It was equal to 1/100 of currencies named lira. However, not all lira-denominated currencies feature centesimo as their 1/100 subunit. For example, the Turkish new lira is divided into 100 kuruş and the Maltese lira was divided into 100 cents. Currencies that have centesimo as subunits include: Swiss franc Panamanian balboa In Italian, centesimo is the common way of describing the euro cent. Italian lira Maltese lira Sammarinese lira Vatican and Papal lira Parman lira Sardinian lira
Vasco Núñez de Balboa
Vasco Núñez de Balboa was a Spanish explorer and conquistador. He is best known for having crossed the Isthmus of Panama to the Pacific Ocean in 1513, becoming the first European to lead an expedition to have seen or reached the Pacific from the New World, he traveled to the New World in 1500 and, after some exploration, settled on the island of Hispaniola. He founded the settlement of Santa María la Antigua del Darién in present-day Panama in 1510, the first permanent European settlement on the mainland of the Americas. Balboa was born in Spain, he was a descendant of the Lord mason of the castle of Balboa, on the borders of Galicia. His mother was the Lady de Badajoz, his father was the hidalgo, Nuño Arias de Balboa. Little is known of Vasco's early childhood except. During his adolescence, he served as a squire to Don Pedro de Portocarrero, lord of Moguer. In 1500, motivated by his master after the news of Christopher Columbus's voyages to the New World became known, he decided to embark on his first voyage to the Americas, along with Juan de la Cosa, on Rodrigo de Bastidas' expedition.
Bastidas had a license to bring back treasure for the king and queen, while keeping four-fifths for himself, under a policy known as the quinto real, or "royal fifth". In 1501, he crossed the Caribbean coasts from the east of Panama, along the Colombian coast, through the Gulf of Urabá toward Cabo de la Vela; the expedition continued to explore the north east of South America, until they realized they did not have enough men and sailed to Hispaniola. With his share of the earnings from this campaign, Balboa settled in Hispaniola in 1505, where he resided for several years as a planter and pig farmer, he was not successful in this enterprise and ended up in debt. He was forced to abandon life on the island. In 1508, the king of Spain, Ferdinand II "The Catholic", launched the conquest of Tierra Firme, he created two new territories in the region between El Cabo de la Vela and El Cabo de Gracias a Dios. The Gulf of Urabá became the border between the two territories: Nueva Andalucía to the east, governed by Alonso de Ojeda, Veragua to the west, governed by Diego de Nicuesa.
In 1509, wishing to escape his creditors in Santo Domingo, Balboa set sail as a stowaway, hiding inside a barrel together with his dog Leoncico, in the expedition commanded by the Alcalde Mayor of Nueva Andalucía, Martín Fernández de Enciso, whose mission it was to aid Alonso de Ojeda, his superior. Ojeda, together with seventy men, had founded the settlement of San Sebastián de Urabá in Nueva Andalucía, on the location where the city of Cartagena de Indias would be built. However, the settlers encountered resistance from natives living in the area, who used poisoned weapons, Ojeda was injured in the leg. A short time Ojeda sailed for Hispaniola, leaving the colony under the supervision of Francisco Pizarro, who, at that time, was only a soldier waiting for Enciso's expedition to arrive. Ojeda asked Pizarro to leave some men in the settlement for fifty days and, if no help arrived at the end of that time, to use all possible means to get back to Hispaniola. Before the expedition arrived at San Sebastián de Urabá, Fernández de Enciso discovered Balboa aboard the ship, threatened to leave him at the first uninhabited island they encountered.
This, in addition to the crew's pleas for his life, left Fernández de Enciso with no choice but to spare Balboa and keep him aboard. Moreover, both agreed on removing Nicuesa as governor of Veragua. After the fifty days had passed, Pizarro started preparations for the return to Hispaniola, when Enciso's ship arrived. Balboa had gained popularity among his knowledge of the region. By contrast Fernández de Enciso was not well liked by the men: many disapproved of his order to return to San Sebastián after discovering, once they had arrived, that the settlement had been destroyed and that the natives were waiting for them, leading to a series of relentless attacks. Balboa suggested that the settlement of San Sebastián be moved to the region of Darién, to the west of the Gulf of Urabá, where the soil was more fertile and the natives presented less resistance. Fernández de Enciso gave serious consideration to this suggestion, the regiment went to Darién, where the native cacique Cémaco had 500 warriors waiting, ready for battle.
The Spanish, fearful of the large number of enemy combatants, made a vow to the Virgen de la Antigua, venerated in Seville, that they would name a settlement in the region after her should they prevail. It was a difficult battle for both sides. Cémaco, together with his warriors, headed for the jungle; the Spanish gathered a treasure-trove of golden ornaments. Balboa kept his vow, and, in September 1510, founded the first permanent settlement on mainland American soil, called it Santa María la Antigua del Darién; the victory of the Spanish over the natives and the founding of Santa María la Antigua del Darién, now located in a calm region, earned Balboa authority and respect among his companions. They were hos
Quarter (United States coin)
The quarter, short for quarter dollar, is a United States coin worth 25 cents, one-fourth of a dollar. It has a thickness of.069 inches. The coin sports the profile of George Washington on its obverse, its reverse design has changed frequently, it has been produced on and off since 1796 and since 1831. The choice of 1⁄4 as a denomination—as opposed to the 1⁄5 more common elsewhere—originated with the practice of dividing Spanish milled dollars into eight wedge-shaped segments. "Two bits" is a common nickname for a quarter. The current clad version is two layers of cupronickel, 75% copper and 25% nickel, on a core of pure copper; the total composition of the coin is 8.33% nickel, with the remainder copper. It weighs 1/80th of a pound, 0.1823 troy oz. The diameter is 0.955 inches, the width of 0.069 inches. The coin has a 0.069-inch reeded edge. Owing to the introduction of the clad quarter in 1965, it was called a "Johnson Sandwich" after Lyndon B. Johnson, the US President at the time; as of 2011, it cost 11.14 cents to produce each coin.
The U. S. Mint began producing silver quarters again in 1992 for inclusion in the annual Silver Proof set. Early quarters were larger in diameter and thinner than the current coin; the current regular issue coin is the George Washington quarter, showing George Washington on the front. The reverse featured an eagle prior to the 1999 50 State Quarters Program; the Washington quarter was designed by John Flanagan. It was issued as a circulating commemorative, but was made a regular issue coin in 1934. In 1999, the 50 State Quarters program of circulating commemorative quarters began; these have a modified Washington obverse and a different reverse for each state, ending the former Washington quarter's production completely. On January 23, 2007, the House of Representatives passed H. R. 392 extending the state quarter program one year to 2009, to include the District of Columbia and the five inhabited US territories: Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the United States Virgin Islands, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.
The bill passed through the Senate and was signed into legislation by President George W. Bush as part of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, Pub. L. 110–161, on December 27, 2007. The typeface used in the state quarter series varies a bit from one state to another, but is derived from Albertus. On June 4, 2008, a bill titled America's Beautiful National Parks Quarter Dollar Coin Act of 2008, H. R. 6184, was introduced to the House of Representatives. On December 23, 2008, President Bush signed the bill into law as Pub. L. 110–456. The America the Beautiful Quarters program will continue for 12 years. Silver quartersWright 1792 Draped Bust 1796–1807 Draped Bust, Small Eagle 1796 Draped Bust, Heraldic Eagle 1804–1807 Capped Bust 1815–1838 Capped Bust, With Motto 1815–1828 Capped Bust, No Motto 1831–1838 Seated Liberty 1838–1891 Seated Liberty, No Motto 1838–1865 Seated Liberty, With Motto 1866–1891 Barber 1892–1916 Standing Liberty 1916–1930Standing Liberty 1916–1917 Standing Liberty 1917–1924 Standing Liberty 1925-1930 Washington Quarter 1932–1964, 1992–1998 Washington Bicentennial 1975–1976 Washington U.
S. Statehood Series 1999–2008 Washington District of Columbia and U. S. Territories 2009 Washington America the Beautiful Quarters 2010–2021 Copper-nickel quartersWashington Quarter 1965–1974, 1977–1998 Washington Bicentennial 1975–1976 Washington U. S. Statehood Series 1999–2008 Washington District of Columbia and U. S. Territories 2009 Washington America the Beautiful Quarters 2010–2021 Non-clad silver quarters weigh 6.25 grams and are composed of 90% silver, 10% copper, with a total silver weight of 0.1808479 troy ounce pure silver. They were issued from 1932 through 1964; the current rarities for the Washington Quarter silver series are: Branch Mintmarks are D = Denver, S = San Francisco. Coins without mintmarks are all made at the main Mint in Philadelphia; this listing is for Business strikes, not Proofs 1932-D 1932-S 1934 – with Doubled Die Obverse 1935-D 1936-D 1937 – with Doubled Die Obverse 1937-S 1938-S 1939-S 1940-D 1942-D – with Doubled Die Obverse 1943 – with Doubled Die Obverse 1943-S – with Doubled Die Obverse 1950-D/S Over mintmark 1950-S/D Over mintmark The 1940 Denver Mint, 1936 Denver mint and the 1935 Denver Mint coins, as well as many others in the series, are more valuable than other coins.
This is not due to their mintages. Many of these coins are worth only melt value in low grades. Other coins in the above list are expensive because of their low mintages, such as the 1932 Denver and San Francisco issues; the overstruck mintmark issues are scarce and expensive in the higher grades. The 1934 Philadelphia strike appears in two versions: one with a light motto, the same as that used on the 1932 strikings, the other a heavy motto seen after the dies were reworked. Except in the highest grades, the difference in value between the two is minor; the Silver Series of Was
Dime (United States coin)
The dime, in United States usage, is a ten-cent coin, one tenth of a United States dollar, labeled formally as "one dime". The denomination was first authorized by the Coinage Act of 1792; the dime is the smallest in diameter and is the thinnest of all U. S. coins minted for circulation, being.705 inch in diameter and.053 inch in thickness. The obverse of the coin depicts the profile of President Franklin D. Roosevelt and the reverse boasts an olive branch, a torch, an oak branch, from left to right respectively; as of 2011, the dime coin cost 5.65 cents to produce. The word dime comes from the French word dîme, meaning "tithe" or "tenth part", from the Latin decima. In the past prices have been quoted on signage and other materials in terms of dimes, abbreviated as "d" or a lowercase "d" with a slash through it as with the cent and mill signs; the Coinage Act of 1792 established the dime and mill. As subdivisions of the dollar equal to 1⁄10, 1⁄100 and 1⁄1000 dollar respectively; the first known proposal for a decimal-based coinage system in the United States was made in 1783 by Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, David Rittenhouse.
Hamilton, the nation's first Secretary of the Treasury, recommended the issuance of six such coins in 1791, in a report to Congress. Among the six was a silver coin, "which shall be, in weight and value, one tenth part of a silver unit or dollar". From 1796 to 1837, dimes were composed of 89.24% silver and 10.76% copper, the value of which required the coins to be physically small to prevent their intrinsic value being worth more than face value. Thus dimes are made thin; the silver percentage was increased to 90.0% with the introduction of the Seated Liberty dime. With the passage of the Coinage Act of 1965, the dime's silver content was removed. Dimes from 1965 to the present are composed of outer layers of 75% copper and 25% nickel, bonded to a pure copper core. Starting in 1992, the U. S. Mint began issuing Silver Proof Sets annually, which contain dimes composed of the pre-1965 standard of 90% silver and 10% copper; these sets are intended for collectors, are not meant for general circulation.
Since its introduction in 1796, the dime has been issued in six different major types, excluding the 1792 "disme". The name for each type indicates the design on the coin's obverse. Draped Bust 1796–1807 Capped Bust 1809–1837 Seated Liberty 1837–1891 Barber 1892–1916 Winged Liberty Head 1916–1945 Roosevelt 1946–present The Coinage Act of 1792, passed on April 2, 1792, authorized the mintage of a "disme", one-tenth the silver weight and value of a dollar; the composition of the disme was set at 10.76 % copper. In 1792, a limited number of dismes were never circulated; some of these were struck in copper. The first dimes minted for circulation did not appear until 1796, due to a lack of demand for the coin and production problems at the United States Mint; the first dime to be circulated was the Draped Bust dime, in 1796. It featured the same obverse and reverse as all other circulating coins of the time, the so-called Draped Bust/Small Eagle design; this design was the work of then-Chief Engraver Robert Scot.
The portrait of Liberty on the obverse was based on a Gilbert Stuart drawing of prominent Philadelphia socialite Ann Willing Bingham, wife of noted American statesman William Bingham. The reverse design is of a small bald eagle surrounded by palm and olive branches, perched on a cloud. Since the Coinage Act of 1792 required only that the cent and half cent display their denomination, Draped Bust dimes were minted with no indication of their value. All 1796 dimes have 15 stars on the obverse, representing the number of U. S. states in the Union. The first 1797 dimes were minted with 16 stars. Realizing that the practice of adding one star per state could clutter the coin's design, U. S. Mint Director Elias Boudinot ordered a design alteration. Therefore, 1797 dimes can be found with either 16 stars. Designed by Robert Scot, the Heraldic Eagle reverse design made its debut in 1798; the obverse continued from the previous series, but the eagle on the reverse was changed from the criticized "scrawny" hatchling to a scaled-down version of the Great Seal of the United States.
The Draped Bust/Heraldic Eagles series continued through 1807. Both Draped Bust designs were composed of 10.76 % copper. In all, there are 31 varieties of Draped Bust dimes; the Draped Bust design was succeeded by the Capped Bust, designed by Mint Assistant Engraver John Reich. Both the obverse and reverse were changed extensively; the new reverse featured a bald eagle grasping an olive branch. Covering the eagle's breast is a U. S. shield with 13 vertical stripes. On the reverse is the lettering "10C," making it the only dime minted with the value given in cents; the lack of numeric value markings on subsequent dime coins causes some confusion amongst foreign visitors, who may be unaware of the value of the coin. The Capped Bust dime was the first dime to have its value written on the coin. Previous designs of the dime had no indication of its value, the way people determined its value was by its sizeCappe
Urracá or Ubarragá Maniá Tigrí was an Ngäbe Amerindian chieftain or cacique in the region of present-day Panama who fought against the Spanish conquistadors. Captured at one point, Urracá managed to rejoin his own people, he continued to lead the fight against the Spanish until he was killed in battle in 1531. He is remembered as el caudillo amerindio de Veragua and adversary of the Spanish Empire), the great resistance leader of Panama, he has been honored by his image on the smallest-denomination coin of Panama. Shortly after the foundation of Panama City in 1519, the Spanish Governor-Captain Pedrarias Dávila began moving into the country, hoping to find a gold-rich village; the Spanish conquered the Veragua province, rich in gold mining. Urracá's territory was in the vicinity of the present town of Nata de los Caballeros, founded on 20 May 1520 to serve as a basis for exploration of the rest of Central America. Urracá and his forces bravely faced the Spanish expedition for nine years, defeated the conquistadors, led by Gaspar de Espinosa.
When Espinosa was called back to Panama City by Pedrarias Dávila, Francisco de Compañón was commissioned to his post. Urracá attacked the Spanish warriors, but Compañón sent a messenger to report to Panama City to seek aid, Pedrarias sent a relief battalion led by Hernán Ponce de León. Urracá succeeded in making alliances with tribes, traditional enemies, in order to unite to defeat the Spaniards. Caciques such as Ponca, Duraria, Guisia, Tabor, Guracona and other great masters of Veragua united under his command. Ponce de León succeeded in breaking the siege of Nata, he was followed by Pedrarias commanding new forces that reinforced the Spanish at Nata. Bloody clashes continued, without any of the parties achieving complete victory. In a subsequent battle, Urracá's forces managed to defeat Captain Diego de Albitres, who escaped and reported to the governor of Castilla del Oro. Led by Compañón, the Spanish attempted to capture Urracá with a trick, they sent emissaries to his territory to propose peace negotiations in Nata de los Caballeros.
Urracá accepted the invitation and attended the site along with two of his men, but Compañón captured him, sending the chief to Nombre de Dios for transport to Spain. Urracá escaped and reunited with his people, maintaining his resistance against the Spanish forces for several years. Opposite the facade of Escuela Normal in the city of Santiago, capital of the province of Veraguas, stands a statue of Urracá with a warrior expression as if willing to attack the Spanish conquistadors. In his honor, the Asociación Nacional de Scouts de Panamá calls Scout Urracá the highest rank awarded to those who have made outstanding community service. Lempira AttributionThis article is based on the translation of the corresponding article of the Spanish Wikipedia. A list of contributors can be found there at the History section. Resistencia Indígena Contra los Españoles Panama Historia
The half dime, or half disme, was a silver coin, valued at five cents minted in the United States. Some numismatists consider the denomination to be the first coin minted by the United States Mint under the Coinage Act of 1792, with production beginning on or about July 1792. However, others consider the 1792 half dime to be nothing more than a pattern coin, or "test piece", this matter continues to be subject to debate; these coins were much smaller than dimes in diameter and thickness, appearing to be "half dimes". In the 1860s, powerful nickel interests lobbied for the creation of new coins, which would be made of a copper-nickel alloy; the introduction of the copper-nickel five-cent pieces made the silver coins of the same denomination redundant, they were discontinued in 1873. The following types of half dimes were produced by the United States Mint or under the authority of the Coinage Act of 1792: The half dime was one of the early coins of the U. S. Mint. Authorized by the Act of April 2, 1792, it lasted until 1873.
Until 1829 it showed no value anywhere on its reverse. The flowing hair half dime was designed by Robert Scot and this same design was used for half dollar and dollar silver coins minted during the same period; the obverse bears a Liberty portrait similar to that appearing on the 1794 half cent and cent but without the liberty cap and pole. Mintage of the 1794 version was 7,765; the obverse of the draped bust half dime was based on a sketch by artist Gilbert Stuart, with the dies engraved by Robert Scot and John Eckstein. The primary 1796 variety bears fifteen stars representing the number of states in the union. In 1797, fifteen and sixteen star varieties were produced – the sixteenth star representing newly admitted Tennessee – as well as a thirteen star variety after the mint realized that it could not continue to add more stars as additional states joined the union; the reverse bears an open wreath surrounding a small eagle perched on a cloud. 54,757 half dimes of this design were minted. Following a two-year hiatus, mintage of half dimes resumed in 1800.
The obverse remained the same as the prior version, but the reverse was revised substantially. The eagle on the reverse now had outstretched heraldic style; this reverse design first appeared on gold quarter and half eagles and dimes and dollars in the 1790s. Mintage of the series never surpassed 40,000, with none produced in 1804. No denomination or mintmark appears on the coins. Production of half dimes resumed in 1829 based on a new design by Chief Engraver William Kneass, believed to have adapted an earlier John Reich design. All coins were display no mintmark; the high circulating mintage in the series was in 1835, when 2,760,000 were struck, the low of 871,000 was in 1837. Both Capped Bust and Liberty Seated half dimes were minted in 1837; these were the last silver. The design features Liberty seated on a rock and holding a shield and was first conceived in 1835 used first on the silver dollar patterns of 1836; the series is divided into several subtypes. The first lacks stars on the obverse.
In 1838 a semicircle of 13 stars was added around the obverse border, this basic design was used through 1859. In 1853, small arrows were added to each side of the date to reflect a reduction in weight due to rising silver prices, the arrows remained in place through 1855; the arrows were dropped in 1856, with the earlier design resumed through 1859. In 1860, the obverse stars were replaced with the inscription UNITED STATES OF AMERICA and the reverse wreath was enlarged; this design stayed in place through the end of the series. In 1978 a unique 1870-S Seated Liberty half dime became known; the Seated Liberty half dime was produced at the Philadelphia, San Francisco and New Orleans mints in an aggregate amount of 84,828,478 coins struck for circulation. See United States Seated Liberty coinage. In 1978 a coin collector surprised the coin collecting community with an 1870–S half dime, believed to have been found in a dealer's box of cheap coins at a coin show. According to mint records for 1870, no half dimes had been minted in San Francisco.
At an auction that same year, the 1870-S half dime sold for $425,000. It is believed that another example may exist—along with other denominations minted that year in San Francisco—in the cornerstone of the old San Francisco Mint. In July, 2004, the discovery coin sold for $661,250 in MS-63 in a Stack`s-Bowers auction. Canada once used silver coins of five-cent denomination. Nickel Dime Q. David Bowers, United States Three-Cent and Five-Cent Pieces: An Action Guide for the Collector and Investor. Wolfeboro, NH: Bowers and Merena Galleries, 1985. US Half Dime information by type. Half Dime Pictures