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Panchagavya or panchakavyam is a mixture used in traditional Hindu rituals, prepared by mixing five ingredients. The three direct constituents are cow dung and milk; these are mixed in proper ratio and allowed to ferment. The Sanskrit word panchagavya means "five cow-derivatives"; when used in Ayurvedic medicine, it is called cowpathy. Proponents claim that cow urine therapy is capable of curing several diseases, including certain types of cancer, although these claims have no scientific backing. In fact, studies concerning ingesting individual components of panchagavya, such as cow urine, have shown no positive benefit, significant side effects, including convulsion, depressed respiration, death. Cow's urine can be a source of harmful bacteria and infectious diseases, including leptospirosis. Panchgavya is used as a fertilizer and pesticide in agricultural operations. Proponents claim that it is a growth promoter in the poultry diet, that it is capable of increasing the growth of plankton for fish feed, that it increases the production of milk in cows, increases the weight of pigs, increases the egg laying capacity of poultry.

It is sometimes used as a base in cosmetic products. Pseudoscience List of ineffective cancer treatments Panchamrita, a similar mixture that replaces dung and urine with honey and sugar Traditional Knowledge Digital Library Urine therapy

St Mark's School (Mbabane)

St Mark's School is a public co-educational school in Mbabane, Eswatini. Founded in 1908, it has a total population of about 2,000 students. St Mark's School was founded in 1908 by then-Reverend Christopher Charles Watts of the Anglican Diocese of then-Swaziland. Reverend Watts was concerned by the lack of adequate education facilities for the children of members of the expanding colonial settler community in Eswatini. A staunch believer in quality education, Watts sought to establish a school that would acquire the prestige of other Anglican boarding schools in Southern Africa and would thus provide a viable alternative for children within reasonable traveling distance of Mbabane. At the beginning of the school year in January 1908, with just four children who gathered in the ten-by-ten-foot room of the priest in charge of Mbabane, St Mark's School was born. From its establishment, enrollment grew and with a significant amount of support from the government of Swaziland and various private contributors the school became established.

Because of its significant successes in the Cape Matriculation Examination it came to be regarded as the most prestigious school in the country, a position that would go unchallenged for six decades until the formation of Waterford Kamhlaba by Michael Stern in 1963. At its establishment,'Nisi Dominus' was adopted as the school motto; the motto is a summarization of the Latin translation of Psalm 127: "nisi Dominus aedificaverit domum in vanum laboraverunt qui aedificant eam nisi Dominus custodierit civitatem frusta vigilavit qui custodit" meaning "unless the Lord builds the house, they work on a useless thing who build it. Notable Old Marcians include: Patrice Motsepe, executive chairman, African Rainbow Minerals Ltd. Phuthuma Nhleko, group chief executive officer of MTN telecommunications group Richard E. Grant, British Actor and Directoras well as the following spouses to HM King Mswati III: Inkhosikati LaMbikiza former Inkhosikati LaHwala Inkhosikati LaNtentesa St Marks Alumni Old Marcians St Marks Facebook group

Down on Abby

Down on Abby: Tales from Bottomley Manor is a 2014 pornographic comedy film that parodies the British television series Downton Abbey. The film is the first porn parody directed by Gazzman; the film includes an all-British cast, including Ben Dover and Lexi Lowe as the title character "Abby", was filmed in a castle near Birmingham. Gazzman states that the local town council tried to get the shoot closed down when villagers realized what was going on at their castle, but the production wrapped successfully. Down on Abby is set at the beautiful Bottomley Manor, home to the eccentric and debauched Lord and Lady Grabhem and their stepdaughters Abby and Fanny; the film follows the upper-class family upstairs and members of the working-class staff downstairs, including characters with names such as Master Bates, as they prepare for a dinner party quite unlike any other. Lexi Lowe as Abby Ben Dover as Lord Grabhem Jasmine Jae as Lady Grabhem Jasmine James as Fanny Ryan Ryder as Lord Stiffie Jess West as Lady Stiffie Ava Dalush as Missy Cathy Heaven as Lucy Emma Leigh as Betty Clarke Kent as Master Bates Tony De Sergio as Smallcock Dimitris XXX as James Big Bad Dave as Smithers The film was released on region-free DVD on 1 April 2014.

A softcore version is available to buy from Amazon.comTelevision X announced that they had acquired the film's exclusive television rights and would be airing one episode a week from 5 April 2014. Down on Abby garnered attention from international mainstream press as well as adult industry-related media since the announcement of its production with mentions from Jimmy Fallon on the Jimmy Fallon Show, Time, The Sun-Herald and the London Metro among others. Stars of the main Downton Abbey show have expressed dismissive opinions on the porn parody. Michelle Dockery spoke of her "porn doppleganger" Lexi Lowe, pointing to Lowe on the cover and saying "That's me, is it? The one with the large breasts?" during an interview with Conan O'Brien on Conan. Hugh Bonneville was asked about his opinion of Down on Abby by Brad Blanks on the red carpet of The Monuments Men première in New York City; when told the title, Bonnevile stated "that's hilarious" before jokingly asking Bob Balaban if he had directed it.

Balaban replied. Bonnevile stated that he "can't wait to watch it" and that he would get the Downton Abbey crew around to watch it for a Saturday night event; the parody has had a mixed reception. Mainstream press appear to give negative reviews of the parody. A New York magazine writer commented that although the parody of the Downton Abbey was humorous, it was "rife with historical inaccuracies" and "not recommended for those who get distracted by inaccurate details like squared-off French tips and thongs.". A writer for Cosmopolitan magazine wrote: "What I witnessed were things that were both horrifying and factually incorrect: This nonsense would never have happened at Downton Abbey or any respectable 1920's British country estate"In contrast, adult industry reviewers give a more positive review. A reviewer for the porn review website Die Screaming wrote: "After watching Down on Abby, I can say with absolute certainty that the movie more than lived up to all the hype surrounding it." And "Down on Abby delivers a solid hardcore porn film wrapped in the luxurious look and feel of British aristocratic wealth, what you’d want from a Downton Abbey porn parody."

He added "I need to take a moment to stand up and applaud Lexi Lowe. Her scene with Tony DeSergio and Clarke Kent was arguably the highlight of the movie, with Ms. Lowe delivering a performance that will make your jaw drop." And ended the review with 5/5 stars. Another review from adult DVD review site XCritic noted: "I was surprised at how good I thought the movie was. A porn parody of Downton Abby was inevitable, but it found a way to get beautiful and sexy stars to parody the costume drama and mix in hot, depraved sex. I loved the puns with the names and thought it was funny overall; this parody is recommended." Best Adult Film 2014 – Paul Raymond Awards Official website Down on Abby on IMDb


Reuptake is the reabsorption of a neurotransmitter by a neurotransmitter transporter located along the plasma membrane of an axon terminal or glial cell after it has performed its function of transmitting a neural impulse. Reuptake is necessary for normal synaptic physiology because it allows for the recycling of neurotransmitters and regulates the level of neurotransmitter present in the synapse, thereby controlling how long a signal resulting from neurotransmitter release lasts; because neurotransmitters are too large and hydrophilic to diffuse through the membrane, specific transport proteins are necessary for the reabsorption of neurotransmitters. Much research, both biochemical and structural, has been performed to obtain clues about the mechanism of reuptake; the first primary sequence of a reuptake protein was published in 1990. The technique for protein sequence determination relied upon the purification and cloning of the transporter protein in question, or expression cloning strategies in which transport function was used as an assay for cDNA species coding for that transporter.

After separation, it was realized. Further exploration in the field of reuptake proteins found that many of the transporters associated with important neurotransmitters within the body were very similar in sequence to the GABA and norepinephrine transporters; the members of this new family include transporters for dopamine, serotonin, proline and GABA. They were called Na+/Cl− dependent neurotransmitter transporters. Sodium and chloride ion dependence will be discussed in the mechanism of action. Using the commonalities among sequences and hydropathy plot analyses, it was predicted that there are 12 hydrophobic membrane spanning regions in the ‘Classical’ transporter family. In addition to this, the N- and C-termini exist in the intracellular space; these proteins all have an extended extracellular loop between the third and fourth transmembrane sequences. Site-directed chemical labeling experiments verified the predicted topological organization of the serotonin transporter. In addition to neurotransmitter transporters, many other proteins in both animals and prokaryotes were found with similar sequences, indicating a larger family of Neurotransmitter:Sodium Symporters.

One of these proteins, LeuT, from Aquifex aeolicus, was crystallized by Yamashita et al. with high resolution, revealing a molecule of leucine and two Na+ ions bound near the center of the protein. They found that the transmembrane helices 1 and 6 contained unwound segments in the middle of the membrane. Along with these two helices, TM helices 3 and 8 and the areas surrounding the unwound sections of 1 and 6 formed the substrate and sodium ion binding sites; the crystal structure revealed pseudo-symmetry in LeuT, in which the structure of TM helices 1-5 is reflected in the structure of helices 6-10. There is an extracellular cavity in the protein, into which protrudes a helical hairpin formed by extracellular loop EL4. In TM1, an aspartate distinguishes monoamine NSS transporters from amino acid transporters which contain a glycine at the same position. External and internal “gates” were assigned to pairs of negatively and positively charged residues in the extracellular cavity and near the cytoplasmic ends of TM helices 1 and 8.

The classic transporter proteins use transmembrane ion gradients and electrical potential to transport neurotransmitter across the membrane of the presynaptic neuron. Typical neurotransmitter sodium symport transporters, which are Na+ and Cl− ion dependent, take advantage of both Na+ and Cl− gradients, inwardly directed across the membrane; the ions flow down their concentration gradients, in many cases leading to transmembrane charge movement, enhanced by the membrane potential. These forces pull the neurotransmitter substrate into the cell against its own concentration gradient. At a molecular level, Na+ ions stabilize amino acid binding at the substrate site and hold the transporter in an outward-open conformation that allows substrate binding; the role of the Cl− ion in the symport mechanism has been proposed to be for stabilizing the charge of the symported Na+. After ion and substrate binding have taken place, some conformational change must occur. From the conformational differences between the structure of TMs 1-5 and that of TMs 6-10, from the identification of a substrate permeation pathway between the binding site of SERT and the cytoplasm, a mechanism for conformational change was proposed in which a four-helix bundle composed of TMs 1, 2, 6 and 7 changes its orientation within the rest of the protein.

A structure of LeuT in the inward-open conformation subsequently demonstrated that the major component of the conformational change represents movement of the bundle relative to the rest of the protein. The main objective of a reuptake inhibitor is to decrease the rate by which neurotransmitters are reabsorbed into the presynaptic neuron, increasing the concentration of neurotransmitter in the synapse; this increases neurotransmitter binding to pre- and postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptors. Depending on the neuronal system in question, a reuptake inhibitor can have drastic effects on cognition and behavior. Non-competitive inhibition of the bacterial homologue LeuT by tricyclic antidepressants resulted from binding of these inhibitors in the extracellular permeation pathway. However, the competitive nature of serotonin transport inhibition by antidepressants suggests that in neurotransmitter transporters, they bind in a site overlapping the substrate site. Horschitz et al. examined reuptake inhibitor selectivity among the rat serotonin reuptake protein expressed in human em

Jane Eyre (musical)

Jane Eyre is a musical drama with music and lyrics by composer-lyricist Paul Gordon and a book by John Caird, based on the novel by Charlotte Brontë. The musical premiered on Broadway in 2000. A workshop of the musical was performed at Manhattan Theatre Club in 1995; the musical had a work-in-progress workshop production in Wichita, Kansas in Autumn 1995 at the Centre Theatre. Minor roles and the large ensemble of schoolgirls for the scenes at Brocklehurst's school were cast locally, while the directors brought several members of the principal cast from New York; the musical was well received, a recording of this rendition allowed the creative team and their backers to move the project towards an opening on Broadway. The musical had its world premiere at the Royal Alexandra Theatre in Toronto, Canada in late 1996; the musical had a pre-Broadway try-out at La Jolla Playhouse, San Diego, July 14, 1999 to August 29, 1999. The cast had been reduced from 30 in Toronto to 19; the musical debuted on Broadway at the Brooks Atkinson Theatre on November 9, 2000, with an official opening on December 10, 2000 and closed on June 10, 2001 after 36 previews and 209 performances.

Marla Schaffel, who played the title character, won a Drama Desk Award and the Outer Critics Circle Award for her performance. The production was directed by John Caird and Scott Schwartz, choreography by Jayne Paterson, set designer by John Napier, costumes by Andreane Neofitou, lighting by Jules Fisher and Peggy Eisenhauer. Days after the Tony Award nominations were announced, a closing date of May 20 was announced. Alanis Morissette, a friend of Paul Gordon's, bought $150,000 worth of tickets to the musical and donated them to various charity groups; this would allow the show to be open past the Tony Award telecast, although the show closed a week after. Years in 2018, it was announced a new version of the musical would have its world premiere at the Cleveland Playhouse; the new production would feature a 10 person cast, instead of the original 21, as well as new songs written by Gordon. Every actor in the ensemble would play multiple roles throughout the course of the show; the production opened in late August to rave reviews.

Cool Cleveland stated in their review: “Jane Eyre in its new form and format is a musical that shows that a “small” production, in which care is taken with directing and technical aspects, can make musical theater more captivating than big, overproduced shows”

Romana Acosta BaƱuelos

Romana Acosta Bañuelos was the thirty-fourth Treasurer of the United States. Appointed by President Richard Nixon on September 20, 1971, she served from December 17, 1971 to February 14, 1974. Born into a poor family of Mexican-Americans, Acosta became the first Hispanic treasurer of the United States and owner of a multimillion-dollar business, Ramona's Mexican Food Products, Inc. headquartered in Gardena, California. She co-founded the Pan American National Bank in East Los Angeles. Acosta, daughter of poor Mexican immigrants, was born in the mining town of Miami, Arizona, on March 20, 1925, to Juan Francisco Acosta and Teresa Lugo. In 1933, during the Great Depression, the U. S. government deported her family, thousands of other Mexican-Americans though many of the deportees, like Acosta, had been born in the United States. The Acostas believed the deportation officials' statement that they could return as soon as the country's economy had improved, so they accepted the government's offer to pay for their moving expenses and left their home peacefully.

They moved in with relatives. Along with her parents, Acosta began rising early to tend the crops that her father and other male relatives had planted, she helped her mother in the kitchen as well, making empanadas that her mother sold to bakeries and restaurants to make extra money. Acosta recalled that her mother, who raised chickens for their eggs, "was the type of woman who taught us how to live in any place and work with what we have." She called her mother a resourceful businesswoman who presented a strong role model for what a woman could do economically with little. Acosta married in Mexico at age 16, not an unusually young age in that culture at the time, she had two sons and Martin, by age 18, but her husband deserted the family in 1943. She returned to the United States with her children; some reports speculate she worked in an El Paso, laundromat for a time, while others say she followed an aunt to Los Angeles. Most accounts describe Acosta arriving in Los Angeles, California with her children, unable to speak English and with only seven dollars to her name.

Finding employment as a dishwasher during the day and as a tortilla maker from midnight to 6 a.m. Acosta soon began making enough money to save a little. At 21, she married a man named Alejandro and saved about $500, which she used to start her own tortilla factory in downtown Los Angeles. Acosta bought a tortilla machine, a fan, a corn grinder, with her aunt helping her she made $36 on the factory's first day of business in 1949. Ambitious and driven, Acosta looked for opportunities to sell her tortillas to local businesses; as sales volumes increased, she incorporated the company and named it Ramona's Mexican Food Products, Inc. There is some discrepancy as to how the business' name came about: some say the sign painters made a mistake when spelling "Romana". Regardless, by the mid-1960s, Ramona's Mexican Food Products, Inc. was thriving and Acosta had a daughter, whom she named Ramona after the business. In 1963, looking for ways to help the struggling Latinos in her neighborhood and some businessmen founded the Pan-American National Bank in East Los Angeles, California.

The men had approached Alejandro with the proposal, but he was busy with political work and suggested the men talk to Acosta. The bank's main purpose was to bankroll Latinos. Acosta believed that if Hispanics could increase their financial base they would have more political influence and be able to improve their standard of living. In 1969 Acosta was appointed chairperson of the bank's board of directors and received the city's Outstanding Business Woman of the Year Award; that year, Mayor Sam Yorty presented her with a commendation from the County Board of Supervisors, Acosta established a college scholarship fund, the Ramona Mexican Food Products Scholarship, for poor Mexican-American students. With bank assets in the millions and deposits climbing Pan-American National's huge success caught the attention of the Richard Nixon's administration; the president was seeking to repay the Republican National Hispanic Assembly, which had played a strong role in his election. Acosta agreed to throw her name into the hat when asked in 1970 if she would consider the post of U.

S. treasurer. Not believing she had a chance to be nominated and confirmed, Acosta went about her daily life, she was stunned when Nixon chose her as his candidate. During the nomination process, Acosta was more taken aback by a sudden raid on her tortilla factory by U. S. Immigration Service agents; the agents, contrary to their usual methods carried out a loud, disruptive raid through the facility, attracting a lot of press attention and hurting Acosta's chances of securing the treasurer nomination. However, Nixon sided with her and called the raid politically motivated, charging the Democratic Party with instigating it, she was vindicated when a Senate investigation ruled that the raid was carried out to cause embarrassment to the Nixon administration. Despite the ugly affair, Acosta sailed through the confirmation process to become the nation's 34th treasurer and the first Latina in the position in U. S. history. She took office on December 17, 1971, becoming the highest-ranking Mexican-American in the government.

Her daughter would say of Acosta's performance as trea