Yajna literally means sacrifice, worship and refers in Hinduism to any ritual done in front of a sacred fire, often with mantras. Yajna has been a Vedic tradition, described in a layer of Vedic literature called Brahmanas, as well as Yajurveda, the tradition has evolved from offering oblations and libations into sacred fire to symbolic offerings in the presence of sacred fire. Yajna rituals-related texts have been called the Karma-kanda portion of the Vedic literature, the proper completion of Yajna-like rituals was the focus of Mimansa school of Hindu philosophy. Yajna have continued to play a role in a Hindus rites of passage. Modern major Hindu temple ceremonies, Hindu community celebrations, or monastic initiations may include Yajna vedic rites, the word yajna appears in the early Vedic literature, composed in 2nd millennium BCE. In Rigveda and others, it means worship, devotion to anything and praise, an act of worship or devotion, a form of offering or oblation, and sacrifice. In post-Vedic literature, the term meant any form of rite, a Yajna included major ceremonial devotions, with or without a sacred fire, sometimes with feasts and community events.
It is derived, states Nigal, from the Sanskrit verb yaj, the Sanskrit word is related to the Avestan term yasna of Zoroastrianism. Unlike the Vedic yajna, the Yasna is the name of a religious service, not a class of rituals. Yajna has been a part of an individual or social ritual since the Vedic times, when the ritual fire – the divine Agni, the god of fire and the messenger of gods – were deployed in a Yajna, mantras were chanted. The hymns and songs sung and oblations offered into the fire were a form of hospitality for the Vedic gods, the Vedangas, or auxiliary sciences attached to the Vedic literature, define Yajna as follows, Definition of a Vedic sacrifice — Apastamba Yajna Paribhasa-sutras 1. The Shvetashvatara Upanishad in verse 1.5.14, for example, uses the analogy of Yajna materials to explain the means to see ones soul and God, with inner rituals and without external rituals. Vedic yajnas are performed by four priests of the Vedic priesthood, the hotar, the adhvaryu, the udgatar.
The functions associated with the priests were, The Hotri recites invocations, the Adhvaryu is the priests assistant and is in charge of the physical details of the ritual like measuring the ground, building the altar explained in the Yajurveda. The Udgatri is the chanter of hymns set to melodies and music drawn from the Samaveda, the udgatar, like the hotar, chants the introductory and benediction hymns. The Brahmin is the superintendent of the performance, and is responsible for correcting mistakes by means of supplementary verses. There were usually one, or three, fires lit in the center of the offering ground, oblations are offered into the fire. Among the ingredients offered as oblations in the yajna are ghee, grains, the duration of a yajna depends on its type, some last only a few minutes whereas, others are performed over a period of hours, days or even months
Pūjā or Poojan is a prayer ritual performed by Hindus to host and worship one or more deities, or to spiritually celebrate an event. Sometimes spelt phonetically as pooja or poojah, it may honour or celebrate the presence of special guest, the word pūjā comes from Sanskrit, and means reverence, homage and worship. Puja rituals are held by Buddhists and Sikhs. In Hinduism, puja is done on a variety of occasions and settings. It may include daily puja done in the home, to temple ceremonies and annual festivals, to few lifetime events such as birth of a baby or a wedding. The two main areas where puja is performed are in the home and at temples to mark certain stages of life, events or some such as Durga Puja. Puja is not mandatory, it may be a daily affair for some Hindus, periodic ritual for some. In some temples, various pujas may be performed daily at various times of the day, in other temples, Puja varies according to the school of Hinduism. Puja may vary by region, deity honored, in formal Nigama ceremonies, a fire may be lit in honour of deity Agni, without an idol or image present.
In contrast, in Agama ceremonies, an idol or image of deity is present, in both ceremonies, a diya or incense stick may be lit while a prayer is chanted or hymn is sung. Puja is typically performed by a Hindu worshipper alone, though sometimes in presence of a priest who is well versed in procedure, both Nigama and Agama puja are practiced in Hinduism in India. In Hinduism of Bali Indonesia, Agama puja is most prevalent both inside homes and in temples, Puja is sometimes called Sembahyang in Indonesia. Puja is an ancient culture or way of life, with unclear origins, joshi claims the word puja was first used in vedic times when Sūtra were composed, to describe prayers and worship before yajna or homa – fire deity, Agni. Charpentier suggests the origin of the word Puja may lie in the Dravidian languages, two possible Tamil roots have been suggested, Poosai to smear with something and Poochei to do with flowers. According to scholars, one of the earliest mentions of pūjā is in the Grihya Sutras and these Sutras, dated to be about 500 BC, use the term puja to describe the hospitality to honor priests who were invited to one’s home to lead rituals for departed ancestors.
As Hindu philosophy expanded and diversified, with such as the bhakti movement. As with vedic times, the concept of puja remained the same. The Puranic corpus of literature, dating from about 6th century CE, deity puja thus melds Vedic rites with devotion to deity in its ritual form
Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent. Until the mid-19th century, the term Kashmir denoted only the valley between the Great Himalayas and the Pir Panjal mountain range. In the first half of the 1st millennium, the Kashmir region became an important centre of Hinduism and of Buddhism, still, in the ninth century, in 1339, Shah Mir became the first Muslim ruler of Kashmir, inaugurating the Salatin-i-Kashmir or Swati dynasty. Kashmir was part of the Mughal Empire from 1586 to 1751 and that year, the Sikhs, under Ranjit Singh, annexed Kashmir. The Sanskrit word for Kashmir was, the Nilamata Purana describes the Valleys origin from the waters, a lake called Sati-saras. A popular, but uncertain, local etymology of Kashmira is that it is land desiccated from water, an alternative, but uncertain, etymology derives the name from the name of the sage Kashyapa who is believed to have settled people in this land. Accordingly, Kashmir would be derived from either kashyapa-mir or kashyapa-meru, the Ancient Greeks called the region Kasperia which has been identified with Kaspapyros of Hecataeus and Kaspatyros of Herodotus.
Kashmir is believed to be the country meant by Ptolemys Kaspeiria, Cashmere is an archaic spelling of present-Kashmir, and in some countries it is still spelled this way. In the Kashmiri language, Kashmir itself is known as Kasheer, the Buddhist Mauryan emperor Ashoka is often credited with having founded the old capital of Kashmir, now ruins on the outskirts of modern Srinagar. Kashmir was long to be a stronghold of Buddhism, as a Buddhist seat of learning, the Sarvāstivādan school strongly influenced Kashmir. East and Central Asian Buddhist monks are recorded as having visited the kingdom, in the late 4th century CE, the famous Kuchanese monk Kumārajīva, born to an Indian noble family, studied Dīrghāgama and Madhyāgama in Kashmir under Bandhudatta. He became a translator who helped take Buddhism to China. His mother Jīva is thought to have retired to Kashmir, vimalākṣa, a Sarvāstivādan Buddhist monk, travelled from Kashmir to Kucha and there instructed Kumārajīva in the Vinayapiṭaka. Karkota Empire was a powerful Hindu empire, which originated in the region of Kashmir and it was founded by Durlabhvardhana during the lifetime of Harshavardhan.
The dynasty marked the rise of Kashmir as a power in South Asia, avanti Varman ascended the throne of Kashmir on 855 A. D. establishing the Utpala dynasty and ending the rule of Karkota dynasty. According to tradition, Adi Shankara visited the pre-existing Sarvajñapīṭha in Kashmir in the late 8th century or early 9th century CE, the Madhaviya Shankaravijayam states this temple had four doors for scholars from the four cardinal directions. The southern door of Sarvajna Pitha was opened by Adi Shankara, abhinavagupta was one of Indias greatest philosophers and aestheticians. He was considered an important musician, dramatist, exegete and logician – a polymathic personality who exercised strong influences on Indian culture
Hinduism is a religion, or a way of life, found most notably in India and Nepal. Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, and some practitioners and scholars refer to it as Sanātana Dharma, scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no founder. This Hindu synthesis started to develop between 500 BCE and 300 CE following the Vedic period, although Hinduism contains a broad range of philosophies, it is linked by shared concepts, recognisable rituals, shared textual resources, and pilgrimage to sacred sites. Hindu texts are classified into Shruti and Smriti and these texts discuss theology, mythology, Vedic yajna, agamic rituals, and temple building, among other topics. Major scriptures include the Vedas and Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, prominent themes in Hindu beliefs include the four Puruṣārthas, the proper goals or aims of human life, namely Dharma, Artha and Moksha, karma and the various Yogas. Hindu practices include such as puja and recitations, family-oriented rites of passage, annual festivals.
Some Hindus leave their world and material possessions, engage in lifelong Sannyasa to achieve Moksha. Hinduism prescribes the eternal duties, such as honesty, refraining from injuring living beings, forbearance, self-restraint, Hinduism is the worlds third largest religion, with over one billion followers or 15% of the global population, known as Hindus. The majority of Hindus reside in India, Mauritius, the Caribbean, the word Hindu is derived from the Indo-Aryan/Sanskrit word Sindhu, the Indo-Aryan name for the Indus River in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. The term Hindu in these ancient records is a geographical term, the Arabic term al-Hind referred to the people who live across the River Indus. This Arabic term was taken from the pre-Islamic Persian term Hindū. By the 13th century, Hindustan emerged as an alternative name of India. It was only towards the end of the 18th century that European merchants and colonists began to refer to the followers of Indian religions collectively as Hindus.
The term Hinduism, spelled Hindooism, was introduced into the English language in the 18th-century to denote the religious, because of the wide range of traditions and ideas covered by the term Hinduism, arriving at a comprehensive definition is difficult. The religion defies our desire to define and categorize it, Hinduism has been variously defined as a religion, a religious tradition, a set of religious beliefs, and a way of life. From a Western lexical standpoint, Hinduism like other faiths is appropriately referred to as a religion, in India the term dharma is preferred, which is broader than the western term religion. Hindu traditionalists prefer to call it Sanatana Dharma, the study of India and its cultures and religions, and the definition of Hinduism, has been shaped by the interests of colonialism and by Western notions of religion. Since the 1990s, those influences and its outcomes have been the topic of debate among scholars of Hinduism, Hinduism as it is commonly known can be subdivided into a number of major currents
Ganesha, known as Ganapati and Vinayaka, is one of the best-known and most worshipped deities in the Hindu pantheon. His image is found throughout India, Sri Lanka, Hindu sects worship him regardless of affiliations. Devotion to Ganesha is widely diffused and extends to Jains and Buddhists, although he is known by many attributes, Ganeshas elephant head makes him easy to identify. Ganesha is widely revered as the remover of obstacles, the patron of arts and sciences, as the god of beginnings, he is honoured at the start of rituals and ceremonies. Ganesha is invoked as patron of letters and learning during writing sessions, several texts relate mythological anecdotes associated with his birth and exploits and explain his distinct iconography. Ganesha emerged as a deity in the 4th and 5th centuries AD, during the Gupta period. He was formally included among the five deities of Smartism in the 9th century. A sect of devotees called the Ganapatya arose, who identified Ganesha as the supreme deity, the principal scriptures dedicated to Ganesha are the Ganesha Purana, the Mudgala Purana, and the Ganapati Atharvashirsa.
Brahma Purana and Brahmanda Purana are other two Puranic genre encyclopedic texts that deal with Ganesha, Ganesha has been ascribed many other titles and epithets, including Ganapati and Vighneshvara. The Hindu title of respect Shri is often added before his name, the name Ganesha is a Sanskrit compound, joining the words gana, meaning a group, multitude, or categorical system and isha, meaning lord or master. The word gaņa when associated with Ganesha is often taken to refer to the gaņas, the term more generally means a category, community, association, or corporation. Some commentators interpret the name Lord of the Gaņas to mean Lord of Hosts or Lord of created categories, Ganapati, a synonym for Ganesha, is a compound composed of gaṇa, meaning group, and pati, meaning ruler or lord. Though the earliest mention of the word Ganapati is found in hymn 2.23.1 of the 2nd-millennium BCE Rigveda, it is however uncertain that the Vedic term referred specifically to Ganesha. The Amarakosha, an early Sanskrit lexicon, lists eight synonyms of Ganesha, Vighnarāja, Dvaimātura, Gaṇādhipa, Heramba, Vinayaka is a common name for Ganesha that appears in the Purāṇas and in Buddhist Tantras.
This name is reflected in the naming of the eight famous Ganesha temples in Maharashtra known as the Ashtavinayak, the names Vighnesha and Vighneshvara refers to his primary function in Hinduism as the master and remover of obstacles. A prominent name for Ganesha in the Tamil language is Pillai or Pillaiyar, a. K. Narain differentiates these terms by saying that pillai means a child while pillaiyar means a noble child. He adds that the words pallu and pell in the Dravidian family of languages signify tooth or tusk, elephant tooth or tusk. Anita Raina Thapan notes that the root word pille in the name Pillaiyar might have meant the young of the elephant
The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire founded by Sri Gupta. The empire existed at its zenith from approximately 320 to 550 CE, the peace and prosperity created under the leadership of the Guptas enabled the pursuit of scientific and artistic endeavors. Chandragupta I, and Chandragupta II were the most notable rulers of the Gupta dynasty, the high points of the period is great cultural developments which took place during the reign of Chandragupta II. Science and political administration reached new heights during the Gupta era, strong trade ties made the region an important cultural center and set the region up as a base that would influence nearby kingdoms and regions in Burma, Sri Lanka, and Southeast Asia. The earliest available Indian epics are thought to have committed to written texts around this period. After the collapse of the Gupta Empire in the 6th century, a minor line of the Gupta clan continued to rule Magadha after the disintegration of the empire. These Guptas were ultimately ousted by Vardhana ruler Harsha, who established his empire in the first half of the 7th century, according to many historians, the Gupta dynasty was a Vaishya dynasty.
Historian Ram Sharan Sharma asserts that the Vaishya Guptas appeared as a reaction against oppressive rulers, the rise of the Gupta Empire was one of the most prominent violations of the caste system in ancient India. There is controversy among scholars about the homeland of the Guptas. Jayaswal has pointed out that the Guptas were originally inhabitants of Prayaga, Uttar Pradesh, in north India, another scholar, Gayal supported the theory of Jaiswal, suggesting that the original home of the Guptas was Antarvedi embracing the regions of Oudh and Prayag. However another historian of this time in Indian history, has offered a different view about the original Gupta homeland, according to him the Guptas homeland is further south, the Murshidabad region of Bengal, and not Magadha in Bihar. He based his theory on the statement of the Chinese Buddhist monk, Yijing and other historians however criticize Gangulis theory because Sri Gupta ruled during the end of the 3rd century, but Yijing placed him at the end of the 2nd century.
Hence the theory of historians, who have provided their views based on the accounts of Yijing, are considered less valid than theories based on sources such as coinage. From these theories, several conflicting opinions about the original homeland, according to Allan and a few other scholars, the Guptas were initially concentrated in the region of Magadha and from there they extended their sway to Bengal. According to other groups, the homeland of the Guptas was Varendri or the Varendra Bhumi in Bengal. Whatever the theory is, the rule of the Guptas initiated the Golden Age in history of ancient India, bengali historians like HC Raychoudhuri the Guptas originated from the Varendri region which is now part of Rangpur and Rajshahi Division of modern-day Bangladesh. DC Ganguly, on the hand, considers the surrounding region of Murshidabad as the original home of the Guptas. The most likely time for the reign of Sri Gupta is c, the Murundas who were feudal lords of Kushans provided or granted land to Srigupta
Homa is a Sanskrit word that refers to a ritual, wherein an oblation or any religious offering is made into fire. A Homa is sometimes called a sacrifice ritual because the fire destroys the offering, the fire is the agent, and the offerings include those that are material and symbolic such as grains, clarified butter, milk and seeds. It is rooted in the Vedic religion, and was adopted in ancient times by Buddhism and Jainism, the practice spread from India to Central Asia, East Asia and Southeast Asia. Homa rituals remain an important part of many Hindu ceremonies, and variations of Homa continue to be practiced in current-day Buddhism, particularly in parts of Tibet and it is found in modern Jainism. A Homa ritual is known by names, such as yajna in Hinduism which sometimes means larger public fire rituals. In modern times, a Homa or Havana tends to refer to a private ritual around a symbolic fire, the Sanskrit word Homa is from the root hu, which refers to pouring into fire, sacrifice. Some sources treat the words homa/homam and havan as synonymous, Homa traditions are found all across Asia, from Samarqand to Japan, over a 3000-year history.
A homa, in all its Asian variations, is a ritual that offers food to fire and is ultimately linked to the traditions contained in the Vedic religion. The tradition reflects a reverence for fire and cooked food that developed in Asia, yajna or the Vedic fire sacrifice ritual became a distinct feature of the early Sruti rituals. A srauta ritual is a form of quid pro quo where through the ritual, a sacrificer offered something to the Gods and Goddesses. This Vedic tradition split into Srauta and Smarta, the homa-style Vedic sacrifice ritual, states Musashi Tachikawa, was absorbed into Mahayana Buddhism and homa rituals continue to be performed in some Buddhist traditions in Tibet and Japan. The Homa ritual grammar is common to many Sanskara ceremonies in various Hindu traditions, the Vedic fire ritual, at the core of various Homa ritual variations in Hinduism, is a bilaterally symmetrical structure of a rite. The Homa rituals altar is itself a symmetry, most often a square, the sequence of homa ritual events similarly, from beginning to end, are structured around the principles of symmetry.
The forms and means of offerings, states Michael Witzel, are symbolism of the masculine and feminine, the fire-altar is generally made of brick or stone or a copper vessel, and is almost always built specifically for the occasion, being dismantled immediately afterwards. This fire-altar is invariably built in square shape, while very large vedis are occasionally built for major public homas, the usual altar may be as small as 1 x 1 foot square and rarely exceeds 3 x 3 feet square. A ritual space of homa, the altar is temporary and movable, the first step in a homa ritual is the construction of the ritual enclosure, and the last step is its deconstruction. The altar and mandapa is consecrated by a priest, creating a space for the ritual ceremony. With hymns sung, the fire is started, offerings collected, the sacrificer enters, symbolically cleanses himself or herself, with water, joins the homa ritual, gods invited, prayers recited, conch shell blown
A quincunx /ˈkwɪn. kʌŋks/ is a geometric pattern consisting of five points arranged in a cross, with four of them forming a square or rectangle and a fifth at its center. It forms the arrangement of five units in the corresponding to the five-spot on six-sided dice, playing cards. It is represented in Unicode as U+2059 ⁙ Five dot punctuation or U+2684 ⚄ Die face-5, the quincunx was originally a coin issued by the Roman Republic c. 211–200 BC, whose value was five twelfths of an as, on the Roman quincunx coins, the value was sometimes indicated by a pattern of five dots or pellets. However, these dots were not always arranged in a quincunx pattern, the Oxford English Dictionary dates the first appearances of the Latin word in English as 1545 and 1574. The first citation for “A pattern used for planting dates from 1606. The OED cites a 1647 reference to the German astronomer Kepler to the astronomical/astrological meaning, quincunx patterns occur in many contexts, In heraldry, groups of five elements are often arranged in a quincunx pattern, called in saltire in heraldic terminology.
The flag of the Solomon Islands features this pattern, with its five stars representing the five island groups in the Solomon Islands. Another instance of this occurred in the flag of the 19th-century Republic of Yucatán. A quincunx is a pattern for planting an orchard. Quincunxes are used in computer graphics as a pattern for multisample anti-aliasing. Quincunx antialiasing samples scenes at the corners and centers of each pixel and these five sample points, in the shape of a quincunx, are combined to produce each displayed pixel. However, samples at the points are shared with adjacent pixels. In numerical analysis, the quincunx pattern describes the two-dimensional five-point stencil, in architecture, a quincuncial plan, defined as a cross-in-square, is the plan of an edifice composed of nine bays. The central and the four angular ones are covered with domes or groin vaults so that the pattern of these forms a quincunx. In Khmer architecture, the towers of a temple, such as Angkor Wat, are arranged in a quincunx to represent the five peaks of Mount Meru.
A quincunx is one of the designs of Cosmatesque inlay stonework. A quincuncial map is a map projection that maps the poles of the sphere to the centre and four corners of a square
Harihara is the fused representation of Vishnu and Shiva from the Hindu tradition. Also known as Shankaranarayana, Harihara is thus revered by both Vaishnavites and Shaivites as a form of the Supreme God, Harihara is sometimes used as a philosophical term to denote the unity of Vishnu and Shiva as different aspects of the same Ultimate Reality called Brahman. This concept of equivalence of various gods as one principle and oneness of all existence is discussed as Harihara in the texts of Advaita Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy. The diversity within Hinduism encourages a variety of beliefs and traditions. Some schools focus on Vishnu as the Supreme God, and others on Shiva, the Puranas and various Hindu traditions treat both Shiva and Vishnu as being different aspects of the one Brahman. Harihara is a representation of this idea. A similar idea, called Ardhanarishvara or Naranari, fuses masculine and feminine deities as one, depending on which scriptures are quoted, evidence is available to support each of the different arguments.
In most cases, even if one personality is taken as being superior over the other, sivananda states and Vishnu are one and the same entity. They are essentially one and the same and they are the names given to the different aspects of the all-pervading Supreme Parabrahman the Supreme Being or the Absolute. ‘Sivasya hridayam vishnur-vishnoscha hridayam sivah—Vishnu is the heart of Shiva and likewise Shiva is the heart of Vishnu’, Swaminarayan holds that Vishnu and Shiva are different aspects of the same God. Notably, the Swaminarayan view is a minority view among Vaishnavites, Harihara is depicted in art as split down the middle, one half representing Shiva, the other half representing Vishnu. The Shiva half will have the locks of a yogic master piled high on his head and sometimes will wear a tiger skin. Shivas pale skin may be read as ash-covered in his role as an ascetic, the Vishnu half will wear a tall crown and other jewelry, representing his responsibility for maintaining world order. Broadly, these serve to represent the duality of humble religious influence in the ascetic.
However, in other aspects Shiva takes on the position of householder. Harihara has been part of temple iconography throughout South Asia and Southeast Asia, ardhanari Lingaraj Temple Trimurti Shiva and Vishnu as One and the Same Harihara - Photograph of Carving from Hoysaleshvara Temple, Halebid
Karthikeya is the Hindu god of war. He is the Commander-in-Chief of the army of the devas and he is the primary deity of the Kaumaram sect of Hinduism. Murugan is worshiped primarily in areas of Tamil speaking populations, including Tamil Nadu in India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Singapore and Réunion. It is one of the few sites in Sri Lanka that is venerated by, Hindu Sri Lankan Tamils, Sinhalese people. In northern India, he is known as Kartikeya. He is known as Subrahmanya, Muruga or Palani Andava in Tamil Nadu and he was known as Mahasena and the Kadamba dynasty worshiped him by this name. The Shatapatha Brahmana refers to him as the son of Rudra, the Taittiriya Aranyaka contains the Gayatri Mantra for Shanmukha. The Chandogya Upanishad refers to Skanda as the way leads to wisdom. Baudhāyanas Dharmasūtra calls Skanda Mahāsena Having a Great Army and Subrahmaṇya beloved of Brahmins, the āraṇyaparvan of the Mahabharata relates the legend of Kartikeya Skanda in considerable detail. The Skanda Purana is devoted to the narrative of Kartikeya, the Upanishads constantly make a reference to a Supreme Being called Guha, the indweller.
The Tirumurukāṟṟuppaṭai is a devotional poem included in the Pattuppāṭṭu ten idylls of the age of the third Sangam. In the Tirumurukāṟtruuppaṭai, he is described as a god of youth, His face shines a myriad rays light. Other Sangam period works in Tamil that refer to Murugan in detail include the Paripāṭal, the Akananūru, the first elaborate account of Kartikeyas origin occurs in the Mahabharata. In a complicated story, he is said to have been born from Agni and Svaha, the actual wives become the Pleiades. The Lord asked him what kind of boon he required, in reply to which he asked that no power in the universe should destroy him except the Lords power itself. Lord Shiva granted the boon to him, after succeeding in his penance, Suraabaathman began to torture humans as well as the devas. He conquered the Indraloka and made Indra captive, one day, upon losing her husband as a prisoner, Indraani prayed to Lord Shiva in earth to help her. Meanwhile, Ajaamukhi was in search of Indraani to produce her as a prize for her brother Suraabaathman as a result of victory of their war against the devas, Ajaamughi along with her servant finally found Indraani praying to Lord Shiva
The Kushan Empire was a syncretic empire, formed by Yuezhi, in the Bactrian territories in the early 1st century. Emperor Kanishka was a patron of Buddhism, however, as Kushans expanded southward. The Kushans were one of five branches of the Yuezhi confederation, the Kushans possibly used the Greek language initially for administrative purposes, but soon began to use Bactrian language. Kanishka sent his armies north of the Karakoram mountains, capturing territories as far as Kashgar and Yarkant, in the Tarim Basin of modern-day Xinjiang, China. A direct road from Gandhara to China remained under Kushan control for more than a century, encouraging travel across the Karakoram, the Kushan dynasty had diplomatic contacts with the Roman Empire, Sasanian Persia, Aksumite Empire and Han China. The Kushan empire fragmented into semi-independent kingdoms in the 3rd century AD, in the 4th century, the Guptas, an Indian dynasty pressed from the east. The last of the Kushan and Sasanian kingdoms were overwhelmed by invaders from the north.
Historian H. G. Rawlinson states that the Kushana Period is a prelude to the age of Guptas. Chinese sources describe the Guishuang, i. e, as the historian John E. Hill has put it, For well over a century. There have been arguments about the ethnic and linguistic origins of the Da Yuezhi and the Tochari. The five tribes constituting the Yuezhi are known in Chinese history as Xiūmì, Guìshuāng, Shuāngmǐ, Xìdùn, the Yuezhi reached the Hellenic kingdom of Greco-Bactria around 135 BC. The displaced Greek dynasties resettled to the southeast in areas of the Hindu Kush, some traces remain of the presence of the Kushans in the area of Bactria and Sogdiana. Archaeological structures are known in Takht-I-Sangin, Surkh Kotal, and in the palace of Khalchayan, various sculptures and friezes are known, representing horse-riding archers, and significantly men with artificially deformed skulls, such as the Kushan prince of Khalchayan. The Chinese first referred to people as the Yuezhi and said they established the Kushan Empire.
On the ruins of ancient Hellenistic cities such as Ai-Khanoum, the Kushans are known to have built fortresses, the earliest documented ruler, and the first one to proclaim himself as a Kushan ruler, was Heraios. He calls himself a tyrant on his coins, and exhibits skull deformation and he may have been an ally of the Greeks, and he shared the same style of coinage. Heraios may have been the father of the first Kushan emperor Kujula Kadphises, Ban Gus Book of Han tells us the Kushans divided up Bactria in 128 BC. He invaded Anxi, and took the Gaofu region and he defeated the whole of the kingdoms of Puda and Jibin
Free University of Berlin
The Freie Universität Berlin is a research university located in Berlin and one of the most prominent universities in Germany. It is internationally known for its research in the humanities and social sciences, as well as in the field of natural, founded in West Berlin during the early Cold War period, its name refers to citys status as part of the free western world. Freie Universität Berlin is one of eleven German elite universities in the German Universities Excellence Initiative, winning a distinction for five doctoral programs, three interdisciplinary research clusters and its overall institutional strategy as an International Network University. Freie Universität Berlin was established by students and scholars on 4 December 1948, the foundation is strongly connected to the beginning of the Cold War period. The University of Berlin was located in the former Soviet sector of Berlin and was granted permission to continue teaching by the Soviet Military Administration in Germany in January 1946, the universities were increasingly influenced by communism as they were ground for the political disputes of the postwar period.
This led to protests by students critical of the prevailing system, between 1945 and 1948, more than 18 students were arrested or persecuted, some even executed by the soviet secret police. At the end of 1947, first students demanded a university free from political influence, the climax of the protests was reached on 23 April 1948, after three students were expelled from the university without a trial, about 2,000 students protested at the Hotel Esplanade. By the end of April, the governor of the United States Army Lucius D. Clay gave the order to check for the formation of a new university in the western sectors. On 19 June 1948 the preparatory committee for establishing a university consisting of politicians, administrative staff members and students. With a manifesto titled Request for establishing a university in Berlin the committee appealed to the public for support. The municipal authorities of Berlin granted the foundation of a free university, the council-manager government accepted the by-law on 4 November 1948.
This form was unique in Germany at that time, as the students had more influence on the system than before. On 15 November 1948, the first lectures were held in the buildings of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society for the Advancement of Science. The actual foundation took place on 4 December 1948 in the Titania palace, attendants of the event were not only scientists and students, but representatives of American universities, among them Stanford University and Yale University. The first elected president of the FU Berlin was the historian Friedrich Meinecke, in 1949, Freie Universität already registered 4,946 students. Until the construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961, many came from the soviet sector. On 26 June 1963, the day he held his famous Ich bin ein Berliner speech at Rathaus Schöneberg. Amongst the attendant crowd are the Governing Mayor of Berlin Willy Brandt and his brother, Robert F. Kennedy visited Freie Universität in 1962 for the first time and in June 1964 for receiving his honorary degree from the Department of Philosophy