The Panchen Lama, is a tulku of the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism. Panchen Lama is one of the most important figures in the Gelug tradition, with its spiritual authority second only to Dalai Lama. "Panchen" is a portmanteau of "Pandita" and "Chenpo", meaning "Great scholar". The recognition of Panchen Lamas began with Lobsang Chökyi Gyaltsen, tutor of the 5th Dalai Lama, who received the title "Panchen Bogd" from Altan Khan and the Dalai Lama in 1645. "Bogd" is Mongolian, meaning "holy". Khedrup Gelek Pelzang, Sönam Choklang and Ensapa Lobsang Döndrup were subsequently recognized as the first to third Panchen Lamas posthumously. In 1713, the Kangxi Emperor of the Qing dynasty granted the title Panchen Erdeni to the 5th Panchen Lama. In 1792, the Qianlong Emperor issued a decree known as the 29-Article Imperial Decree for Better Governing in Tibet, Article One of the decree was designed to be used in the selection of rinpoches and other high offices within Tibetan Buddhism, including the Dalai Lamas, Panchen Lamas and Mongolian lamas.
Traditionally, the Panchen Lama was the head of Tashilhunpo Monastery, held religious and secular power over the Tsang region centered in Shigatse, independent of the Ganden Podrang authority led by Dalai Lama. However and Panchen Lamas are connected, Panchen Lama is part of the process by which each new Dalai Lama is chosen; the identity of the current, 11th Panchen Lama is controversial. Under Chinese official support, Chökyi Gyalpo acts as the 11th Panchen Lama in Tibet. However, he has been rejected abroad; the Chinese government took Gedhun Choekyi Nyima and his family into custody as soon as he was recognized as the Panchen Lama by the 14th Dalai Lama, Nyima has never publicly been seen since. The successive Panchen Lamas form a tulku reincarnation lineage which are said to be the incarnations of Amitābha; the title, meaning "Great Scholar", is a Tibetan contraction of the Sanskrit paṇḍita and the Tibetan chenpo. The Panchen Lama traditionally lived in Tashilhunpo Monastery in Shigatse. From the name of this monastery, the Europeans referred to the Panchen Lama as the Tashi-Lama.
Other titles of Panchen Lama include "Panchen Bogd", the original title given by Altan Khan at the creation of the lineage. "Bogd" is Mongolian, meaning "holy, saint". In 1713, 5th Panchen Lama Lobsang Yeshe received the title "Panchen Erdeni" from Kangxi Emperor of Qing Empire, inherited by successive Panchen Lamas since then. "Erdeni", or "Erdini", is Manchu, meaning "treasure". Lobsang Chökyi Gyaltsen, was the first Panchen Lama to be accorded this title during his lifetime, he was the tutor and a close ally of the 5th Dalai Lama, "The Great Fifth", as he is known, pronounced the Panchen to be an incarnation of the celestial buddha Amitābha. The 5th Dalai Lama requested the Panchen to accept Tashilhunpo Monastery, built by the 1st Dalai Lama, as his multi-lifetime seat for future incarnations. Since every incarnation of the Panchen Lama has been the master of Tashilhunpo Monastery and it is there that they have all received their education and their mummified bodies were enshrined; when Lobsang Chökyi Gyaltsen died in 1662, the 5th Dalai Lama commenced the tradition of searching for his next incarnation.
He reserved the traditional title of Panchen, a courtesy title for all exceptionally learned lamas – for his successors. Khedrub Je, Sönam Choklang and Ensapa Lobsang Döndrup were posthumously decided by the 5th Dalai Lama to have been a previous incarnation of Lobsang Chökyi Gyaltsen, 4th Panchen Lama. Traditionally, there were considered to be four Indian and three Tibetan incarnations before Khedrup, starting with Subhuti, one of the original disciples of Gautama Buddha. Gö Lotsawa is considered to be the first Tibetan incarnation of Amitabha in this line; the recognition of Panchen Lamas has always been a matter involving the Dalai Lama. Choekyi Gyaltsen, 10th Panchen Lama, himself declared, as cited by an official Chinese review that "according to Tibetan tradition, the confirmation of either the Dalai or Panchen must be mutually recognized." The involvement of the government of China in this affair is seen by some as a political ploy to try to gain control over the recognition of the next Dalai Lama, to strengthen their hold over the future of Tibet and its governance.
The government claims however, that their involvement does not break with tradition in that the final decision about the recognition of both the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Lama traditionally rested in the hands of the Chinese emperor. For instance, after 1792, the Golden Urn was thought to have been used in selecting the 10th, 11th and 12th Dalai Lamas. In 1924, the thirteenth Dalai Lama prohibited the 9th Panchen Lama's followers from holding any office in the Central Tibetan government and imprisoned them in Lhasa, prompting the Panchen Lama to flee to Inner Mongolia, China; the Dalai Lama was attempting to collect revenue from the Panchen Lama's estate to cover Tibet's military expenses, to reduce the power of the Panchen Lama. In China, the ninth Panchen Lama worked on plans to develop Tibet, he held a position in the Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission, was considered "pro Chinese". There, he adopted the ideas of Sun Yatsen through revolutionary Pandatsang Rapga of the Tibet Improvement Party.
When the Ninth Panchen
Nightwork Films has been founded on 21 October 2011. Their name, Nightwork Films, originates from when they were founded: in the middle of the night; as a sort of tradition, they pull an all-nighter to finish their projects. The team was created to participate in the Entertainment Experience, a Dutch filmmaking competition held by world-famous director Paul Verhoeven, with the goal to make the first user generated movie ever; the crew consists of the following people: Producer and script writer: Henriëtte Drost Producer: Sebass van Boxel Director of Photography and camera operator: Marijn Hurkens Web designer and camera operator: Pascal Adriaansen Boom operator and sound editor: Bas Moerland Editor: Piet van Steen Floor manager and production assistant: Thomas de Bruin Entertainment Experience is a film project in which two films are created. One user-generated film and one film made by Dutch director Paul Verhoeven; the script consists of eight parts. Part one was written bij Kim van Kooten.
The "crowd" will subsequently write the scripts for the seven following parts. Both Paul Verhoeven and the participating film crews will make their film based on those scripts; the process of making the film is shown in a TV show on Dutch channel'Veronica'. The project was launched on 21 September 2011 and will end somewhere in May 2012. Nightwork Films was created when the Entertainment Experience started in September 2011, they were the first film crew to enter the competition and upload an entry, two weeks before the first deadline. They started a successful marketing campaign, they won the first part of the competition and their entry will be used in the user-generated movie, which will premiere on 28 May 2012. In October, 2011 Nightwork Films started with a new project: the short film: ‘Flawed,’ which they submitted in March, 2012 to the Cannes Film festival. For this project, three new members were added to the team: Director of Photography: Alessandra Scalora, Story developer and production assistant: Boudewijn Arbouw and Public Relations manager and production assistant: Josephien Jansen.
All the team members are students who study the International Media & Entertainment Management bachelor at the NHTV University of Applied Sciences in Breda, the Netherlands. Entertainment Experience Entertainment Experience Nightwork Films
Hiroomi Umezawa was a physicist and Distinguished Professor in the Department of Physics at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee and at the University of Alberta. He is known for his fundamental contributions to quantum field theory and for his work on quantum phenomena in relation to the mind. Umezawa obtained his PhD from Nagoya University, Japan in 1952, he worked at the University of Tokyo and the University of Naples and took up a position as professor at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee in 1966 considered a famous physicist at the time. He joined the University of Alberta, Canada, in 1975 when he took the Killam Memorial Chair as Professor of Physics, a position which he held until his retirement in 1992. Umezawa is recognized as one of the eminent quantum field theorists of his generation, he applied his results in quantum field theory to high energy physics, condensed matter physics, nuclear physics and statistical physics, as well as his considerations of quantum theory and the mind.
In 1967, together with L. M. Ricciardi, he proposed a quantum theory of the brain which posits a spatially distributed charge formation exhibiting spontaneous breakdowns at micro levels as the basis for processing at macro levels. In this model, the information resides in the virtual field associated with the dynamics of the cellular matter; this model was subsequently expanded by Stuart and Umezawa with their proposal of the development of long range correlations among neurons due to the interaction of two quantum fields. The approach was built upon by many others, including Karl H. Pribram, was expanded by Giuseppe Vitiello to a dissipative quantum model of brain. Umezawa's scientific work has been characterized by his colleagues at UWM as "marked by extreme originality". After his death in 1995, Umezawa's family and students set up the Umezawa Fund at the University of Alberta in his memory, dedicated to support studies in physics. Books on quantum theory H Umezawa. 1956Articles on the quantum theory of mind: C.
I. J. Stuart, Y. Takahashi, H. Umezawa: Mixed system brain dynamics: neural memory as a macroscopic ordered state, Foundations of Physics, vol. 9, pp. 301–307 C. I. J. Stuart, Y. Takahashi, H. Umezawa: On the stability and non-local properties of memory, Journal of Theoretical Biology, vol. 31, pp. 605–618 L. M. Ricciardi, U. Umezawa: Brain physics and many-body problems, vol. 4, pp. 44–48 Giuseppe Vitiello: Hiroomi Umezawa and Quantum Field Theory, NeuroQuantology Vol 9, No 3 doi:10.14704/nq.2011.9.3.450 Susumu Kamefuchi, Summary talk: Hiroomi Umezawa, his physics and research], International Journal of Modern Physics B, Volume 10, pp. 1807 ff. doi:10.1142/S0217979296000829 Ferdinando Mancini: Quantum field theory: proceedings of the international symposium in honour of Hiroomi Umezawa, held in Positano, Italy, June 5–7, 1985 Hiroomi Umezawa at the Mathematics Genealogy Project Hiroomi Umezawa, article search at the Falvey Memorial Library, Villanova University
Kahal Zur Israel was a Jewish synagogue located at Rua do Bom Jesus number 197 in Recife, Brazil. It was established in 1636 by Portuguese and Spanish Sephardic Jews that had taken refuge in the Netherlands fleeing forced conversion and were joined by New Christians, who helped to build the structure and were living in the colony, it was the first synagogue. The building is now a museum, including a Torah and bema as well as archeological excavations displaying various parts of the original synagogue, such as the mikveh. From 1636 to 1654, the synagogue functioned on the site of the houses no. 197 and 203 Rua do Bom Jesus. It flourished in the mid-17th century when the Dutch controlled this part of northeastern Brazil; the synagogue served a community of 1,450 Jews. It had a cantor, Josue Velosino, a rabbi, Isaac Aboab da Fonseca, sent to Recife in 1642; the original synagogue building survived until the early 20th century. The site has been confirmed by an archaeological excavation. In 2001 the decision was made to create a Jewish museum in the two-story house with two shops located on the first floor standing on the site of the old synagogue.
The museum, designed to resemble synagogues built in the 17th and 18th centuries by Sephardic Jews from Spain and Portugal, opened in 2001. Today, there are four synagogues in Recife. Many Jews choose to celebrate their weddings and Bnei Mitzvot celebrations in the Kahal Zur Israel because of its symbolism as a connection to their long history in this country; the synagogue is at the center of a broader cultural renaissance. In November of every year, a Jewish festival offering dance and food, from gefilte fish to fluden, attracts around 20,000 visitors. "The Kahal Zur Israel Synagogue, Brazil". The Museum of the Jewish People at Beit Hatfutsot. Archived from the original on November 24, 2007. Retrieved 2008-06-28. "The Jewish Community of Recife". The Museum of the Jewish People at Beit Hatfutsot. Retrieved 2008-06-28. "Synagogue in Brazilian town Recife considered oldest in the Americas". Reuters. 2008-11-12. Archived from the original on May 30, 2012. Retrieved 2008-06-29. José Luiz Mota Menezes, Sinagoga Kahal Zur Israel, Recife-PE
On 2 October 2015, Farhad Khalil Mohammad Jabar, a 15-year-old boy and killed Curtis Cheng, an unarmed police civilian finance worker, outside the New South Wales Police Force headquarters in Parramatta. Jabar was subsequently killed by special constables who were protecting the headquarters; as of 27 April 2016, four other men have been charged in relation to the shooting, among whom Raban Alou was convicted of terrorism offences in March 2018. NSW Police Commissioner Andrew Scipione described the event as a politically motivated act of terrorism. In the days leading up to the shooting, police reported that there had been an increase of "chatter" about a potential attack occurring. An alert had been circulated to all police, ordering them to wear their firearms on them at all times at their desk. Police are believed to have had intelligence of a potential attack on the Parramatta headquarters up to 12 months prior, although it was unknown if, linked to 2 October 2015 incident. In the days before the shooting and security officers had seen an individual taking photographs of the entrance to Police Headquarters.
The NSW Police Headquarters is home to several crime commands, including those of the homicide, Middle Eastern Organised Crime, various gang squads. It is still unknown. Police investigated the crime as a "terrorism offence." On 2 October 2015, a 15-year-old boy carried a S&W.38 revolver to the street outside NSW Police Headquarters at Parramatta, walking past an unarmed plainclothes female detective. At 4:30 p.m. the assailant killed 58-year-old unarmed police civilian accountant Curtis Cheng as he was walking out of the building. The shooter continued firing into the police headquarters, he was shot dead by one of three special constables. Farhad Khalil Mohammad Jabar, an Iranian-born boy of Iraqi Kurdish background, was identified as the shooter, he was not known to police, just prior to the attack he had visited a local mosque, where he listened to a lecture by extremist Islamist group Hizb ut-Tahrir. A report by Peter Lloyd on PM argued that Jabar had visited Bukhari House, which promotes the views of Feiz Mohammad.
Jabar was a Year 10 student at Arthur Phillip High School. He was in the same year as a student, he was described by classmates as quiet upset-looking, obedient, humble bullied, good at basketball. His neighbours called him a "normal" kid. Investigations into Jabar's motivations for the attack were ongoing, but it is suspected "there was some influence", of an ideological, religious, or political nature. Jabar was buried in the Islamic section of Rookwood Cemetery. ABC News reported that Farhad Jabar's older sister, Shadi Jabar Khalil Mohammad, went missing on 1 October and may have flown out of the country to Istanbul, it was subsequently reported. In May 2016 the Australian Government was advised by the US Government that she had been killed by a US air-strike on 22 April 2016 in al Bab, near Aleppo in Syria. Cheng's funeral was held at St Mary's Cathedral, Sydney on 17 October 2015; the service was attended by his family, senior politicians and police officers, 1500 mourners. A guard of honour lined the road outside.
In November 2015 the Four Corners TV program ran an episode entitled Plan of Attack: The making of a teenage terrorist which documented the chronology of related events prior to the Parramatta shooting. The program covered the roles of: Abdul Nacer Benbrika, Faheem Khalid Lodhi, Khaled Sharrouf, Jihadi Jake and detailed the 2005 Sydney terrorism plot, the Holsworthy Barracks terror plot and the 2014 Endeavour Hills stabbings. Jabar's older brother, his wife and daughter said. Subsequently, they left Australia. On 4 October 2015, police raided the Parramatta mosque, it was reported that Farhad Jabar would skip school to attend prayers at the mosque. On 6 October 2015, police arrested another student of Arthur Phillip High School for posting offensive and threatening material on Facebook in support of the shooting. On the next morning, 200 counter-terrorism police raided four homes near Parramatta and arrested four males. Three of the four males were released. On 15 October 2015, police re-arrested, charged, Talal Alameddine, 22, with supplying a firearm, breaching a firearms prohibition order and hindering police.
Almeddine was one of the three released. In January 2016 new charges of being members of a terrorist group were laid against three men, in connection with Cheng's murder; the men are being held with bail being refused. On 27 April 2016 Milad Atai, was charged in relation to the shooting, he was charged with "providing support to a terrorist organisation" for aiding the travel of Jabar's sister to Syria. Atai has since been charged with planning the attack. Raban Alou, 18, held since 6 October, was charged with aiding, abetting and procuring the commission of a terrorist act. Counter-terrorism sources have said that the case against Alameddine was circumstantial. In a court case during which the judge warned Alou that refusal to stand for the court could have consequences for sentencing, Alou pleaded guilty to "aiding, abetting and procuring the commission of a terrorist act" and was sentenced to 44 years in prison. NSW Police Commissioner Andrew Scipione and Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull said Jabar appears to have committed a politically motivated act of terrorism.
Wei was a state of Dingling ethnicity that existed from 388 to 392, during the Sixteen Kingdoms period of Chinese history. It is referred to as Zhai Wei to be distinguished from numerous other states named Wei in history, its founder Zhai Liao had been vacillating between being a vassal of Later Yan, Western Yan, Jin dynasty, in 388, after his last overture to reconcile with Later Yan's emperor Murong Chui was rejected, he declared his own state, over the territory of modern central and eastern Henan. In 392, Wei under Zhai Liao's son Zhai Zhao, was destroyed by Later Yan forces; because of its small size and short lifespan, Wei is not included by historians among the Sixteen Kingdoms. The rulers of Wei used the title "Heavenly King". List of past Chinese ethnic groups Theobald, Ulrich. "Chinese History - Dingling 丁零". Chinaknowledge.de. Retrieved 2015-11-09. Historical Dictionary of Medieval China, p. 119, at Google Books