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Pancho Villa

Francisco "Pancho" Villa was a Mexican revolutionary general and one of the most prominent figures of the Mexican Revolution. As commander of the División del Norte,'Division of the North', in the Constitutionalist Army, he was a military-landowner of the northern Mexican state of Chihuahua. Given the area's size and mineral wealth, it provided him with extensive resources. Villa was provisional governor of Chihuahua in 1913 and 1914. Villa can be credited with decisive military victories leading to the ousting of Victoriano Huerta from the presidency in July 1914. Villa fought his erstwhile leader in the coalition against Huerta, "First Chief" of the Constitutionalists Venustiano Carranza. Villa was in alliance with southern revolutionary Emiliano Zapata, who remained fighting in his own region of Morelos; the two revolutionary generals came together to take Mexico City after Carranza's forces retreated from it. Villa's heretofore undefeated División del Norte engaged the military forces of Carranza under Carrancista general Álvaro Obregón and was defeated in the 1915 Battle of Celaya.

Villa again was defeated by Carranza, 1 November 1915, at the Second Battle of Agua Prieta, after which Villa's army collapsed as a significant military force. Villa subsequently led a raid against a small U. S.-Mexican border town resulting in the Battle of Columbus on 9 March 1916, retreated to escape U. S. retaliation. The U. S. government sent U. S. Army General John J. Pershing on an expedition to capture Villa, but Villa continued to evade his attackers with guerrilla tactics during the unsuccessful, nine-month incursion into Mexican sovereign territory; the mission ended when the United States entered World War I and Pershing was recalled to other duties. In 1920, Villa made an agreement with the Mexican government to retire from hostilities, following the ouster and death of Carranza, was given a hacienda near Parral, which he turned into a "military colony" for his former soldiers. In 1923, as presidential elections approached, he re-involved himself in Mexican politics. Shortly thereafter he was assassinated.

In life, Villa helped fashion his own image as an internationally known revolutionary hero, starring as himself in Hollywood films and giving interviews to foreign journalists, most notably John Reed. After his death, he was excluded from the pantheon of revolutionary heroes until the Sonoran generals Obregón and Calles, whom he battled during the Revolution, were gone from the political stage. Villa's exclusion from the official narrative of the Revolution might have contributed to his continued posthumous popular acclaim, he was celebrated during the Revolution and long afterward by corridos, films about his life, novels by prominent writers. In 1976, his remains were reburied in the Monument to the Revolution in Mexico City in a huge public ceremony. Villa told a number of conflicting stories about his early life, his "early life remains shrouded in mystery." According to most sources, he was born on 5 June 1878, named José Doroteo Arango Arámbula at birth. His father was a sharecropper named Agustín Arango, his mother was Micaela Arámbula.

He grew up at one of the largest haciendas in the state of Durango. The family's residence now houses the Casa de Pancho Villa historic museum in San Juan del Rio. Doroteo claimed to be the son of the bandit Agustín Villa, but according to at least one scholar, "the identity of his real father is still unknown." He was the oldest of five children. As a child, he received some education from a local church-run school, but was not proficient in more than basic literacy, he quit school to help his mother. He became a bandit at some point early, worked as a sharecropper, butcher and foreman for a U. S. railway company. According to his dictated remembrances, published as Memorias de Pancho Villa, at the age of 16 he moved to Chihuahua, but soon returned to Durango to track down and kill a hacienda owner named Agustín López Negrete who had raped his sister, afterward stealing a horse and fleeing to the Sierra Madre Occidental region of Durango, where he roamed the hills as a thief, he became a member of a bandit band headed by Ignacio Parra, one of the most famous bandits in Durango at the time.

As a bandit, he went by the name "Arango". In 1902, the rurales, the crack rural police force of President Porfirio Díaz, arrested Pancho for stealing mules and for assault; because of his connections with the powerful Pablo Valenzuela, a recipient of goods stolen by Villa/Arango, he was spared the death sentence sometimes imposed on captured bandits. Pancho Villa forcibly was inducted into the Federal Army, a practice adopted under the Diaz regime to deal with troublemakers. Several months he deserted and fled to the neighboring state of Chihuahua. In 1903, after killing an army officer and stealing his horse, he no longer was known as Arango but Francisco "Pancho" Villa after his paternal grandfather, Jesús Villa. However, others claim, he was known to his friends as La Cucaracha or. Until 1910, Villa is said to have alternated episodes of thievery with more legitimate pursuits. Villa's outlook on banditry changed after he met Abraham González, the local representative for presidential candidate Francisco Madero, a rich hacendado turned politician from the northern state of Coahuila, who opposed the continued rule of Díaz and convinced Villa that through his banditry he could fight for the people and hurt the hacienda owners.

At the outbreak of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, Villa was 32 years old. The

School Ties

School Ties is a 1992 American sports-drama film directed by Robert Mandel and starring Brendan Fraser, Matt Damon, Ben Affleck, Chris O'Donnell, Cole Hauser, Randall Batinkoff, Andrew Lowery and Anthony Rapp. Fraser plays the lead role as David Greene, a Jewish high school student, awarded an athletic scholarship to an elite preparatory school in his senior year. Set in the 1950s, David Greene is a working-class Jewish teenager from Pennsylvania, he is given a football scholarship to an exclusive Massachusetts prep school for his senior year due to his grades and ability to play football. Upon his arrival, he meets his teammates Rip Van Kelt, Charlie Dillon, Jack Connors, his roommate Chris Reece who are the big men on campus and learns of the school's cherished honor code system. Soon learning that his new friends are prejudiced against Jews, he suppresses his background. David becomes the team hero and wins the attentions of beautiful débutante Sally Wheeler, whom Dillon claims is his girlfriend.

In the afterglow of a victory over the school's chief rival St. Luke's, Dillon inadvertently discovers that David is Jewish. Out of jealousy, Dillon makes this known, causing Sally and his teammates to turn against David. Soon after, he finds a sign above his bed bearing a swastika and the words "Go home Jew". David is harassed by his classmates, led by Richard "McGoo" Collins and his bodyguard-like roommate Chesty Smith. Only Reece and another unnamed student remain loyal to Greene. Overwhelmed by pressure from his prestigious family, Dillon uses a crib sheet to cheat in an important history exam. David and Van Kelt each remain silent. After the exam, Dillon gets pushed while leaving class and drops the sheet on the floor after the test; when the teacher, Mr. Geirasch, discovers it, he informs the class that he will fail all of them if the cheater does not confess, he leaves the task of finding the cheater up to the students, led by the head prefect. When David confronts Dillon and threatens to turn him in if he does not confess, Dillon tells him about his pressure, apologises for his actions against him and unsuccessfully attempts to buy David's silence with money.

Just when David is about to reveal Dillon to the other students, Dillon accuses David. They fight until Van Kelt breaks it up and tells them to leave and leave it to the rest of the class to decide who's telling the truth. Both agree to do so; the majority of the class blame David out of anti-Semitic prejudice, while Reece, the unnamed student, Connors, going against his own self-professed anti-Semitism, argue that it is unlike David to cheat or be dishonest. Despite this, the class votes that David is guilty, prompting Van Kelt to tell him to report to the elitist headmaster, Dr. Bartram, to confess to cheating. David says that he was the cheater. Unbeknownst to him, Van Kelt has told the headmaster that the real offender was Dillon. Bartram absolves them. Dillon is expelled; as David leaves the headmaster's office, he sees Dillon leaving the school. Dillon says that he will be accepted to Harvard anyway and that years everybody will have forgotten about his cheating at school, while David will still just be a Jew.

"And you'll still be a prick," David replies, walks away. Brendan Fraser as David Greene Matt Damon as Charlie Dillon Chris O'Donnell as Chris Reece Randall Batinkoff as Rip Van Kelt, head prefect Cole Hauser as Jack Connors Andrew Lowery as "Mack" McGivern Ben Affleck as Chesty Smith Anthony Rapp as Richard "McGoo" Collins Amy Locane as Sally Wheeler Peter Donat as Headmaster Dr. Bartram Željko Ivanek as Mr. Cleary, French language teacher Kevin Tighe as Coach McDevitt, American football coach Michael Higgins as Mr. Gierasch, history teacher Ed Lauter as Alan Greene, David's father Peter McRobbie as Chaplain The scene at the bus depot in Scranton, was filmed at a liquor store in Leominster, Massachusetts; the scene shot at Skip's Blue Moon Diner was filmed in downtown Massachusetts. Most of the movie was filmed on location at Middlesex School in Massachusetts. In addition, Groton School, Worcester Academy, Lawrence Academy at Groton and St. Mark's School were involved in the filming. Opening scenes are of the south and west sides of Wyandotte Street, the Bethlehem Steel Plant and Zion Lutheran Church from the top of the graveyard looking northwest to 4th Street in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.

The opening credits scene showing the Mobile Station, Chip's Diner and the Roxy Theatre were filmed on Main Street in Northampton, Pennsylvania. The scene in the opening credits in front of Dana's Luncheonette and some scenes inside were filmed in Lowell, Massachusetts; the middle dinner and dancing scene was filmed at the Lanam Club in Massachusetts. The film received mixed reviews; the film has a 59% rating on Rotten Tomatoes based on 41 reviews. Roger Ebert found it "surprisingly effective", whereas Janet Maslin found it followed a "predictable path". School Ties on IMDb School Ties at Box Office Mojo

Cecil Pullan

Cecil Douglas Ayrton "Plug" Pullan was an Indian-born English first-class cricketer who played for Oxford University and Worcestershire in the 1930s. He was born in Mahoba. Pullan attended Malvern College, where he excelled at cricket: in 1928 he came top of the school's batting averages. In 1932 and 1933 he played eight times for Oxford University, taking two wickets: those of Yorkshire's Arthur Mitchell and Free Foresters' Noel Evans. With the bat he made 74 against 68 against Worcestershire. However, he did not win a blue. Pullan made one appearance for H. D. G. Leveson-Gower's XI against Oxford. In 1935, Pullan became a Worcestershire player, making 12 County Championship appearances for them that season, his 289 runs came at 16.05, included two half-centuries, while his two wickets cost 46 runs apiece. He returned in 1938 to make another 13 appearances; this time he was more successful with the bat, hitting 479 runs at 25.21, with an August match against Gloucestershire a personal highlight.

Captaining the county in the absence of Charles Lyttleton, he made a career-best 84 in the first innings and followed this up with 55 in the second. So, Worcestershire lost by two wickets. In 1938, against Surrey, he took 2-26, the only instance of his taking more than one wicket in an innings. However, his only other victim — the last of his first-class career — was Nottinghamshire wicket-keeper Arthur Wheat; that was in Pullan's penultimate game: his last was against Northamptonshire, he bowed out on a high note by scoring 24 not out in an unbeaten ninth-wicket partnership of 36 with Reg Perks to clinch a narrow victory. That was the end of Pullan at this level, although he did play for the Worcestershire Second XI in the Minor Counties Championship as late as 1950. Pullan was an administrator in the Gold Coast in the early 1950s, he died at the age of 59 at Tongaat Beach, South Africa. Cecil Pullan at ESPNcricinfo Cecil Pullan at CricketArchive