The pancreatic islets or islets of Langerhans are the regions of the pancreas that contain its endocrine cells, discovered in 1869 by German pathological anatomist Paul Langerhans. The pancreatic islets constitute 1 to 2% of the pancreas volume and receive 10–15% of its blood flow; the pancreatic islets are arranged in density routes throughout the human pancreas, are important in the metabolism of glucose. There are about 3 million islets distributed in the form of density routes throughout the pancreas of a healthy adult human, each of which measures an average of about 0.1 mm in diameter.:914 Each is separated from the surrounding pancreatic tissue by a thin fibrous connective tissue capsule, continuous with the fibrous connective tissue, interwoven throughout the rest of the pancreas.:914 Hormones produced in the pancreatic islets are secreted directly into the blood flow by five types of cells. In rat islets, endocrine cell subsets are distributed as follows: Alpha cells producing glucagon Beta cells producing insulin and amylin Delta cells producing somatostatin Epsilon cells producing ghrelin PP cells producing pancreatic polypeptide It has been recognized that the cytoarchitecture of pancreatic islets differs between species.
In particular, while rodent islets are characterized by a predominant proportion of insulin-producing beta cells in the core of the cluster and by scarce alpha, delta and PP cells in the periphery, human islets display alpha and beta cells in close relationship with each other throughout the cluster. Islets can influence each other through paracrine and autocrine communication, beta cells are coupled electrically to six to seven other beta cells; the paracrine feedback system of the pancreatic islets has the following structure: Glucose/Insulin: activates beta cells and inhibits alpha cells Glycogen/Glucagon: activates alpha cells which activates beta cells and delta cells Somatostatin: inhibits alpha cells and beta cellsA large number of G protein-coupled receptors regulate the secretion of insulin and somatostatin from pancreatic islets, some of these GPCRs are the targets of drugs used to treat type-2 diabetes. Electrical activity of pancreatic islets has been studied using patch clamp techniques.
It has turned out that the behavior of cells in intact islets differs from the behavior of dispersed cells. The beta cells of the pancreatic islets secrete insulin, so play a significant role in diabetes, it is thought. However, there are indications that beta cells have not been destroyed but have only become non-functional; because the beta cells in the pancreatic islets are selectively destroyed by an autoimmune process in type 1 diabetes and researchers are pursuing islet transplantation as a means of restoring physiological beta cell function, which would offer an alternative to a complete pancreas transplant or artificial pancreas. Islet transplantation emerged as a viable option for the treatment of insulin requiring diabetes in the early 1970s with steady progress over the last three decades. Recent clinical trials have shown that insulin independence and improved metabolic control can be reproducibly obtained after transplantation of cadaveric donor islets into patients with unstable type 1 diabetes.
Islet transplantation for type 1 diabetes requires potent immunosuppression to prevent host rejection of donor islets. An alternative source of beta cells, such insulin-producing cells derived from adult stem cells or progenitor cells would contribute to overcoming the shortage of donor organs for transplantation; the field of regenerative medicine is evolving and offers great hope for the nearest future. However, type 1 diabetes is the result of the autoimmune destruction of beta cells in the pancreas. Therefore, an effective cure will require a sequential, integrated approach that combines adequate and safe immune interventions with beta cell regenerative approaches, it has been demonstrated that alpha cells can spontaneously switch fate and transdifferentiate into beta cells in both healthy and diabetic human and mouse pancreatic islets, a possible future source for beta cell regeneration. In fact, it has been found that islet endocrine differentiation are directly related. Endocrine progenitor cells differentiate by migrating in cohesion and forming bud-like islet precursors, or "peninsulas", in which alpha cells constitute the peninsular outer layer and beta cells form beneath them.
William John Twaddell was a Unionist politician from Belfast. Twaddell was a draper from Belfast, educated at a Belfast primary school, he sat as an Ulster Unionist Party member. In November 1921, he and Robert Boyd organised the Ulster Imperial Guards as a paramilitary force of 21,000 men, he was elected to the Parliament of Northern Ireland for Belfast West from the general election of 1921 until he was assassinated on 22 May 1922 by the Irish Republican Army. He was walking in Garfield Street off Royal Avenue, to his business, a short distance away, had been followed by his assassins, his death precipitated a clamp-down on the IRA in Northern Ireland and 350 IRA members were interned. Seamus Woods, interned on HMS Argenta during the clampdown, was charged with his murder. Woods who had joined the Irish National Army was trying to control irregular elements within the IRA. By agreement with the government of Northern Ireland, two officers of the Irish National Army were given permission to travel to the trial.
General Ginger O'Connell and Commandant Charles McAlister gave evidence and Woods was found not guilty. Nobody has been convicted of Twaddell's murder. Twaddell was buried at Drumcree Church where his headstone records that he was'foully murdered in Belfast'. Stormont Biographies
Sathon or Sathorn is one of the 50 districts of Bangkok, Thailand. The district is bounded by six other districts: Bang Rak, Pathum Wan, Khlong Toei, Yan Nawa, Bang Kho Laem, Khlong San. Sathon District was once part of Yan Nawa. Due to its large area and population, first a branch district office of Yan Nawa was set up on 9 March 1989 to serve the people in three khwaeng of Yan Nawa, and on 9 November 1989, the Sathon District was established inheriting the area once served by the branch office. The district is named after Khlong Sathon. Khlong Sathon, the older of the two, is a canal; the Chinese owner was granted the name Luang Sathon Racha Yut by King Chulalongkorn for his accomplishment. Both sides of the canal became Sathon Road. Incorrect Thai spelling for Sathon สาธร had been used for long time, but it was corrected in April 1999, his former house is now Sathon Mansion in Bang Rak District. The district is divided into three sub-districts; the Department of Airports of Thailand is headquartered in Sathon, as was its predecessor, the Department of Civil Aviation.
Sathon Road marks the northern boundary of the district, with the southern lane of the road belonging to Sathon District and the northern lane across the Sathon Canal belonging to Bang Rak. Along Sathon Road there are many up-scale hotels, the famous "Robot Building", Saint Louis Hospital, the Apostolic Nunciature of The Holy See, the Blue Elephant cooking school. Wat Yan Nawa, a temple dating back to the Ayutthaya period, is the best known temple in Sathon, it has a unique junk-shaped chedi and viharn built by King Rama III. The idea behind the construction was that Chinese junk was disappearing and the pagoda should show present descendants what it looked like; the temple was known as Wat Kok Khwai during the Ayutthaya Kingdom and Wat Kok Krabue during the Thonburi and early-Bangkok eras before the construction of the chedi. Wat Don was built in 1797 during the Rama I period by people who immigrated from Myanmar; the name Wat Don is well known for the Wat Don Cemetery not far away. The graveyard contains the remains of people of Chinese heritage.
Next to the cemetery is Wat Prok, a Mon-styled Buddhist temple. Nok Air has its head office in the Rajanakarn Building in Sathon. Garden International School Bangkok is in Sathon. Embassy of Austria Embassy of Brazil Embassy of Denmark Embassy of Germany Apostolic Nunciature of the Holy See Embassy of Luxembourg Embassy of Malaysia Embassy of Mexico Embassy of Morocco Embassy of Panama Embassy of Singapore Embassy of Slovakia BMA website with tourist landmarks of Sathon Sathon district office
Food Wars!: Shokugeki no Soma is a Japanese anime television series adapted from the manga of the same title by Yūto Tsukuda and Shun Saeki. Produced by J. C. Staff and directed by Yoshitomo Yonetani, the series was first announced in October 2014 by Shueisha; the series was broadcast in Japan on TBS from April 3 to September 25, 2015 with additional broadcasts on MBS, CBC, BS-TBS, Animax. The video streaming service Crunchyroll simulcast the series with English subtitles to the United States, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Latin America, the Middle East, North Africa. Sentai Filmworks licensed the series for home video distribution in North America. A second season named Food Wars! Shokugeki no Soma The Second Plate aired from July 2 to September 24, 2016; the first cour of the third season, titled Food Wars! Shokugeki no Soma: The Third Plate, aired was broadcast from October 4 to December 20, 2017; the second half aired from April 9 to June 25, 2018. A fourth season entitled Food Wars! Shokugeki no Soma: The Fourth Plate aired from October 12 to December 28, 2019.
A fifth and final season entitled Food Wars! Shokugeki no Soma: The Fifth Plate will premiere in April 2020. Opening theme Ending themes Official website
Robert Merrihew Adams is an American analytic philosopher, specializing in metaphysics, philosophy of religion and the history of early modern philosophy. Adams was born on September 1937, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, he taught for many years at the University of California, Los Angeles, before moving to Yale University in the early 1990s as the Clark Professor of Moral Philosophy and Metaphysics. As chairman, he helped revive the philosophy department after its near-collapse due to personal and scholarly conflicts between analytical and Continental philosophers. Adams retired from Yale in 2004 and taught part-time at the University of Oxford in England, where he was a senior research fellow of Mansfield College. In 2009 he became a Distinguished Research Professor of Philosophy at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Adams's late wife, Marilyn McCord Adams, was a philosopher, working on medieval philosophy and the philosophy of religion and was the Regius Professor of Divinity at Christ Church, Oxford.
In 2013 both became visiting research professors at Rutgers University, in conjunction with the founding of the Rutgers Center for the Philosophy of Religion. He is a past president of the Society of Christian Philosophers. In 1999, he delivered the Gifford Lectures on "God and Being", he was elected a Fellow of the British Academy in 2006 and was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1991. As a historical scholar, Adams has published on the work of the philosophers Søren Kierkegaard and G. W. Leibniz, his work in the philosophy of religion includes influential essays on the problem of evil and the relation between theism and ethics. In metaphysics, Adams defends actualism in metaphysics of modality and Platonism about nature of so-called possible worlds. Adams, Robert Merrihew. "Must God Create the Best?". The Philosophical Review. 81: 317–332. Doi:10.2307/2184329. JSTOR 2184329.. Reprinted in The Virtue of Faith and Other Essay in Philosophical Theology below. "A Modified Divine Command Theory of Ethical Wrongness" in Religion and Morality: A Collection of Essays.
Eds. Gene Outka and John P. Reeder. New York: Doubleday. Reprinted in The Virtue of Faith. Adams, Robert Merrihew. "Theories of Actuality". Noûs. 8: 211–231. Doi:10.2307/2214751. JSTOR 2214751. Adams, Robert Merrihew. "Motive Utilitarianism". Journal of Philosophy. 73: 467–481. Doi:10.2307/2025783. JSTOR 2025783. Adams, Robert Merrihew. "Primitive Thisness and Primitive Identity". The Journal of Philosophy. 76: 5–26. Doi:10.2307/2025812. JSTOR 2025812. "Actualism and Thisness", Synthèse, XLIX 3–41. 1981. Adams, Robert Merrihew. "Time and Thisness". Midwest Studies in Philosophy. 11: 315–329. Doi:10.1111/j.1475-4975.1986.tb00501.x. The Virtue of Faith and Other Essays in Philosophical Theology. New York: Oxford University Press. 1987. Adams, Robert Merrihew. "Involuntary Sins". The Philosophical Review. 94: 3–31. Doi:10.2307/2184713. JSTOR 2184713. "Divine Commands and the Social Nature of Obligation" Faith and Philosophy, 1987. "The Knight of Faith", Faith and Philosophy, 1990. "Moral Faith", Journal of Philosophy, 1995. Leibniz: Determinist, Idealist.
New York: Oxford. 1994. "Things in Themselves", Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 1997. Finite and Infinite Goods. New York: Oxford University Press. 1999. A Theory of Virtue: Excellence in Being for the Good. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 2006. Gifford Lecture Series "Philosophy Takes Steps to Rebuild", Yale Daily News
Georgina "Gina" Martinez Benavides is a justice at the Texas Thirteenth Court of Appeals based in Corpus Christi and Edinburg. She was first elected in 2006, re-elected in 2012, she resides in McAllen, Texas. Justice Benavides was born in Laredo and grew up in Corpus Christi, Texas, she is a 1981 graduate of Mary Carroll High School. Upon graduation, Benavides attended the University of Texas at Austin, where she graduated in 1985 with a bachelor's degree in business administration. After receiving her undergraduate degree, Benavides enrolled at the University of Houston Law Center. During law school, Benavides was active in the Hispanic Law Students Association and the civil practice clinic. Benavides obtained her law degree and law license in 1988. Before joining the Thirteenth Court of Appeals, Justice Benavides was a litigator with over 17 years of courtroom experience, she began her legal career at the Adams & Graham Law Firm in Harlingen, Texas, in 1988. At this defense firm, she tried over 30 cases throughout the state of Texas in the areas of toxic tort, products liability, commercial litigation, personal injury.
After 12 years, she joined the law firm of Gonzalez & Associates, P. C. in McAllen, Texas where she continued to litigate but as a plaintiffs' lawyer. She began an active appellate practice at this time; as a private attorney, Justice Benavides was recognized in Texas Monthly as a Super Lawyer in 2003 and 2004 by her peers as one of the best lawyers in the state of Texas. She served as a minority director for the State Bar of Texas, she was president of the Mexican-American Bar Association of Texas and the Cameron County Bar Association, as well as a vice-president of the Texas Association of Defense Counsel. Her service includes stints on numerous committees for the State Bar of Texas, including Continuing Legal Education and Law Focused Education. Justice Benavides was first elected to the Thirteenth Court of Appeals in 2006 and was re-elected in 2012. Prior to her re-election, she was endorsed by the Corpus Christi Caller-Times; the newspaper's editorial highlighted Justice Benavides's experience, "folksy manner" and "impressive intellect."After her first year on the Court, Justice Benavides was bestowed the honor of "Latina Judge of the Year" by the National Hispanic Bar Association at their annual meeting in Puerto Rico in 2007.
In 2008, she was appointed to serve on the Texas Center for the Judiciary Board of Directors. The Texas Center was established in 1973 to provide continuing judicial education programs for the state's judiciary and support personnel; the Texas Center pursues its mission of judicial excellence through education by providing leadership education and training so that a qualified and a knowledgeable judiciary may administer justice with fairness and integrity. In 2010, she was elected Chair-Elect of the Texas Center by her fellow judges and became chair at the annual meeting on September 2011; the last time a judge from Region 5, which encompasses South Texas, held this position was in 1992. Justice Benavides is the first Hispanic woman to hold this position. In 2010, the Texas Supreme Court appointed Justice Benavides to the Texas Access to Justice Commission; this commission was created by the Supreme Court of Texas in 2001 to develop and implement initiatives to expand access to, enhance the quality of, justice in civil matters for low-income Texans.
In February 2012, the State Bar of Texas through President Bob Black appointed a new task force dubbed "Solutions 2012" to deal with decreasing funding for legal access and rising numbers of unrepresented litigants, the implications of these developments for the Texas legal system. He called upon Justice Benavides to serve on the committee. Justice Benavides is asked to serve as a speaker and presenter of papers throughout the State of Texas. Justice Benavides was honored to be the keynote speaker at the Red Mass in Texas; the Red Mass is a mass celebrated annually for judges, law school professors, government officials, all those who seek justice. She has spoken at several candlelight vigils against domestic violence and abuse. Justice Benavides is committed to youth education, she judges the annual "We the People" Constitution Competition, UIL Mock Trial and Moot Court competitions, the Texas Young Lawyer's Association Moot Court Competition at the State Bar Annual Meeting. She is a frequent career-day speaker.
Benavides is active in the National Association of Women Judges, served on the Judicial Independence Committee, Judicial Selection Committee, Judicial Education Committee. She continues to be involved in the Mexican-American Bar Association of Texas, an organization she served as President when she was an attorney in private practice. In 2014, Justice Benavides was the Democratic candidate for Place 7 on the nine-member Texas Supreme Court, she ran against incumbent Jeff Boyd of Austin, Don Fulton of Fort Worth, Charles Edwin Waterbury of Dallas. On February 12, 2014, the State Bar of Texas released the results of its 2014 Judicial Poll. Justice Benavides received the most votes in the supreme court race for Place 7 race with 4,039 votes. Additionally, she was the only non-incumbent candidate for the Texas Supreme Court to receive the most votes for each place on the ballot. Benavides was defeated in the election by incumbent Jeff Boyd