Louis XVI of France
Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste, was the last King of France and Navarre before the French Revolution, during which he was known as Louis Capet. In 1765, at the death of his father, Dauphin of France and heir apparent of Louis XV of France, Louis XVI was guillotined on 21 January 1793. The first part of his reign was marked by attempts to reform France in accordance with Enlightenment ideas and these included efforts to abolish serfdom, remove the taille, and increase tolerance toward non-Catholics. The French nobility reacted to the reforms with hostility. Louis implemented deregulation of the market, advocated by his liberal minister Turgot. In periods of bad harvests, it would lead to food scarcity which would prompt the masses to revolt, from 1776, Louis XVI actively supported the North American colonists, who were seeking their independence from Great Britain, which was realized in the 1783 Treaty of Paris. The ensuing debt and financial crisis contributed to the unpopularity of the Ancien Régime and this led to the convening of the Estates-General of 1789.
In 1789, the storming of the Bastille during riots in Paris marked the beginning of the French Revolution. Louiss indecisiveness and conservatism led some elements of the people of France to view him as a symbol of the tyranny of the Ancien Régime. The credibility of the king was deeply undermined, and the abolition of the monarchy, Louis XVI was the only King of France ever to be executed, and his death brought an end to more than a thousand years of continuous French monarchy. Louis-Auguste de France, who was given the title Duc de Berry at birth, was born in the Palace of Versailles. Out of seven children, he was the son of Louis, the Dauphin of France. His mother was Marie-Josèphe of Saxony, the daughter of Frederick Augustus II of Saxony, Prince-Elector of Saxony and King of Poland. A strong and healthy boy, but very shy, Louis-Auguste excelled in his studies and had a taste for Latin, history and astronomy. He enjoyed physical activities such as hunting with his grandfather, and rough-playing with his brothers, Louis-Stanislas, comte de Provence.
From an early age, Louis-Auguste had been encouraged in another of his hobbies, upon the death of his father, who died of tuberculosis on 20 December 1765, the eleven-year-old Louis-Auguste became the new Dauphin. His mother never recovered from the loss of her husband, and died on 13 March 1767, throughout his education, Louis-Auguste received a mixture of studies particular to religion and humanities. His instructors may have had a hand in shaping Louis-Auguste into the indecisive king that he became
A post is a main vertical or leaning support in a structure similar to a column or pillar but the term post generally refers to a timber but may be metal or stone. A stud in wooden or metal building construction is similar but lighter duty than a post, in the U. K. a strut may be very similar to a post but not carry a beam. A post is an element in a fence. The terms jack and cripple are used with shortened studs and rafters but not posts, Timber framing is a general term for building with wooden posts and beams. In roof construction such as king post, queen post, crown post framing, a round post is often called a pole or mast depending on its diameter thus pole building framing, or a mast church. Wall~, A general term for a post in a wall, principal is a general term meaning a major member often distinguished from common or minor members. Angle~ A historical name for a corner post, intermediate~ A post in an exterior wall not at a corner. Chimney~ An intermediate post receiving its name from being near a chimney, interior~ A general term for posts not in an exterior wall.
Arcade~ A post located between an aisle and nave, corner~ Any post at the corner of a building. Story~ A post only one story tall as in storeyed construction known as platform framing, prick~ 1) Same as story post, a one story post for extra support at a particular location, 2) In a roof truss a side post. Ridge~ A post extending from the ground or foundation to the ridge beam, samson~ similar to a prick post or puncheon. Puncheon, 1) A short, stout post may be identical to a prick post, dragon~ A corner post supporting a dragon beam in jetty framing. A flared post, larger at the top than the bottom, most commonly found in the side walls, rarely a post may have an integral bracket which is a mid-post flair to carry a lower timber. The portion of a flared post extending upward at the top is called the upstand, jetty~ A post supporting a jetty Door~, A post framing a doorway. Blade, A specific name for the timber in cruck framing. Cruck stud, The upright stud or post forming a wall, mounted on a cruck blade, piling, A post driven or set into the ground such as in earthfast, post in ground, or posthole construction.
Stave, 1) Small, narrow pieces of wood used in a variety of ways, king~ 1) A single, central post in a roof truss in tension between the rafters and a tie beam, or 2) A short of the tie beam only supporting the rafters via struts. 3) A king post specifically carries a ridge beam otherwise is called a king strut, king post was formerly used to describe a crown post in the U. K. but no longer
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
In architecture and in structural engineering, a joist is one of a series of horizontal members supporting a ceiling or floor. Joists are supported by foundations, wall framing, or beams, joists are often laid out in repetitive patterns, much like the ribs of a human body. The intent of the use of type of framing is to span over an open space below the members. When incorporated into a framing system, the joists serve to provide stiffness to the subfloor sheathing, allowing it to function as a horizontal diaphragm. Joists are often doubled or tripled, placed side by side, joists are either made of wood, engineered wood, or steel, each of which have unique characteristics. Typically, wood joists have the section of a plank with the longer faces positioned vertically. However, engineered wood joists may have a cross resembling the Roman capital letter I. Steel joists can take on shapes, resembling the Roman capital letters C, I, L and S. For historical reference, look into the use of wood joists in old-style timber framing, the invention of the circular saw for use in modern sawmills has made it possible to fabricate wood joists as dimensional lumber.
Joists must exhibit the strength to support the load over a long period of time. In more developed countries such as the United States, the fabrication and installation of all framing members including joists must meet building code standards. Considering the cross section of a typical joist, the depth of the joist is critical in establishing a safe. The wider the spacing between the joists, the deeper the joist will need to be to stress and deflection under load. Lateral support called dwang, blocking, or strutting increases its stability, many steel joist manufacturers supply load tables in order to allow designers to select the proper joist sizes for their projects. Standard dimensional lumber joists have their limitations due to the limits of what farmed lumber can provide, the term binding joist is sometimes used to describe beams at floor level running perpendicular to the ridge of a gable roof and joined to the intermediate posts. Joists which land on a binding joist are called bridging joists, a large beam in the ceiling of a room carrying joists is a summer beam. A ceiling joist may be installed flush with the bottom of the beam or sometimes below the beam, joists left exposed and visible from below are called naked flooring or articulated and were typically planed smooth and sometimes chamfered or beaded.
Joists may be tenoned in during the raising with a tenon or a tusk tenon
A cruck or crook frame is a curved timber, one of a pair, which supports the roof of a building, used particularly in England. This type of timber framing consists of long, generally naturally curved, timber members that lean inwards and these posts are generally secured by a horizontal beam which forms an A shape. Several of these crooks are constructed on the ground and lifted into position and they are joined together by either solid walls or cross beams which aid in preventing racking. The term crook or cruck comes from Middle English crok, from Old Norse krāka and this is the origin of the word crooked, meaning bent, twisted or deformed, and the crook used by shepherds and symbolically by bishops. Crucks were chiefly in use in the period for structures such as large tithe barns. However, these bent timbers were comparatively rare, as they were in demand for the ship building industry. Where naturally curved timbers were convenient and available, carpenters continued to use them at dates.
For instance, base crucks are found in the roofs of the range of Staple Inn Buildings, Nos.337 –338, High Holborn. This is dated by documented records to 1586, with significant alterations in 1886 and further restorations in 1936, despite these changes, an authority on English Historic Carpentry, Cecil Hewett, has stated that these 16th-century crucks are original. There are some fine, historically authentic reconstructions, for instance, Tithe Barn, Glastonbury, whose original roof was destroyed by lightning, has been carefully rebuilt in 2005 from curved oaks. The necessary trees were sought out, using templates, in English woodlands. The large main barn of the manor house Barlow Woodseats Hall features what is claimed to be the longest continuously roofed cruck barn in Derbyshire, and possibly even in the United Kingdom. No cruck frames are known to have built in America though there are rare examples of what may be an upper cruck or knee rafters. Rare examples of framing are found on continental Europe such as in Belgium, Northern France.
An example of a Yorkshire cruck barn complete with a thatched roof can be found in Appletreewick. The crucks or cruck blades are an oak tree riven in two to form an equally shaped A frame. True cruck or full cruck, The blades, straight or curved, a full cruck does not need a tie beam and may be called a full cruck -open or with a tie beam a full cruck - closed. Base cruck, The tops of the blades are truncated by the first transverse member such as by a tie beam, raised cruck, The blades land on masonry wall and extend to ridge
Louis XV of France
Louis XV, known as Louis the Beloved, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1 September 1715 until his death. He succeeded his great-grandfather Louis XIV at the age of five, Cardinal Fleury was his chief minister from 1726 until the Cardinals death in 1743, at which time the young king took sole control of the kingdom. During his reign, Louis returned the Austrian Netherlands, territory won at the Battle of Fontenoy of 1745, Louis ceded New France in North America to Spain and Great Britain at the conclusion of the Seven Years War in 1763. He incorporated the territories of Lorraine and Corsica into the kingdom of France and he was succeeded by his grandson Louis XVI in 1774. French culture and influence were at their height in the first half of the eighteenth century, many scholars believe that Louis XVs decisions damaged the power of France, weakened the treasury, discredited the absolute monarchy, and made it more vulnerable to distrust and destruction.
Evidence for this view is provided by the French Revolution, which broke out 15 years after his death, norman Davies characterized Louis XVs reign as one of debilitating stagnation, characterized by lost wars, endless clashes between the Court and Parliament, and religious feuds. A few scholars defend Louis, arguing that his negative reputation was based on propaganda meant to justify the French Revolution. Jerome Blum described him as a perpetual adolescent called to do a mans job, Louis XV was born in the Palace of Versailles on 15 February 1710 during the reign of Louis XIV. His grandfather, Louis Le Grand Dauphin, had three sons with his wife Marie Anne Victoire of Bavaria, Duke of Burgundy, Duke of Anjou, and Charles, Duke of Berry. Louis XV was the son of the Duke of Burgundy and his wife Marie Adélaïde of Savoy, the eldest daughter of Victor Amadeus II, Duke of Savoy. At birth, Louis XV received a title for younger sons of the French royal family. In April 1711, Louis Le Grand Dauphin suddenly died, making Louis XVs father, the Duke of Burgundy, at that time, Burgundy had two living sons, Duke of Brittany and his youngest son, the future Louis XV.
A year later, Marie Adélaïde, Duchess of Burgundy, contracted smallpox and her husband, said to be heartbroken by her death, died the same week, having contracted smallpox. Within a week of his death, it was clear that the two children had been infected. The elder son was treated by bloodletting in an unsuccessful effort to save him. Fearing that the Dauphin would die, the Court had both the Dauphin and the Duke of Anjou baptised, the Dauphin died the same day,8 March 1712. His younger brother, the Duke of Anjou, was treated by his governess, Madame de Ventadour. The two year old Dauphin survived the smallpox, on 1 September 1715, Louis XIV died of gangrene, having reigned for 72 years
Moulding, known as coving, is a strip of material with various profiles used to cover transitions between surfaces or for decoration. It is traditionally made from solid milled wood or plaster, in classical architecture and sculpture, the molding is often carved in marble or other stones. A sprung molding has bevelled edges that allow mounting between two planes, with an open space behind the molding. Other types of molding are referred to as plain, at their simplest, moldings are a means of applying light- and dark-shaded stripes to a structural object without having to change the material or apply pigments. The contrast of dark and light areas gives definition to the object, imagine the vertical surface of a wall lit by sunlight at an angle of about 45 degrees above the wall. Adding a small overhanging horizontal molding to the surface of the wall will introduce a dark horizontal shadow below the molding, adding a vertical fillet to a horizontal surface will create a light vertical shadow.
Other varieties of concave molding are the scotia and congé and other convex moldings the echinus, the torus, placing an ovolo directly above a cavetto forms a smooth s-shaped curve with vertical ends that is called an ogee or cyma reversa molding. Its shadow appears as a light at the top and bottom. Similarly, a cavetto above an ovolo forms an s with horizontal ends and its shadow shows two dark bands with a light interior. Together the basic elements and their variants form a vocabulary that can be assembled and rearranged in endless combinations. This vocabulary is at the core of classical architecture and Gothic architecture. Decorative moldings have been made of wood and cement, recently moldings made of Expanded Polystyrene as a core with a cement-based protective coating have become popular. These moldings have environmental and safety concerns that were investigated by Doroudiani et al, there are a variety of common moldings, Astragal — A semi-circular molding attached to one of a pair of especially fire doors to cover the air gap where the doors meet.
Baguette — Thin, half-round molding, smaller than an astragal, sometimes carved, when enriched with ornaments, it was called chapelet. Bandelet — Any little band or flat molding, which crowns a Doric architrave and it is called a tenia (from Greek ταινία an article of clothing in the form of a ribbon. Baseboard, base molding or skirting board — used to conceal the junction of a wall and floor, to protect the wall from impacts. A speed base makes use of a base cap molding set on top of a plain 1 thick board, see also, chin-beak Bed molding — a narrow molding used at the junction of a wall and ceiling. Bed moldings can be either sprung or plain, bolection — a molding which is raised, projecting proud of the face frame
In architecture and decorative art, ornament is a decoration used to embellish parts of a building or object. A wide variety of styles and motifs have been developed for architecture. In textiles and other objects where the decoration may be the justification for its existence. The vast range of used in ornament draw from geometrical shapes and patterns, plants. In a 1941 essay, the architectural historian Sir John Summerson called it surface modulation, the earliest decoration and ornament often survives from prehistoric cultures in simple markings on pottery, where decoration in other materials has been lost. Ornament implies that the object has a function that an unornamented equivalent might fulfill. Where the object has no function, but exists only to be a work of art such as a sculpture or painting. In recent centuries a distinction between the arts and applied or decorative arts has been applied, with ornament mainly seen as a feature of the latter class. Ornament increased over the Romanesque and Gothic periods, but was reduced in Early Renaissance styles.
While the concept of the Kunstwollen has few followers today, his analysis of the development of forms has been confirmed and refined by the wider corpus of examples known today. Styles of ornamentation can be studied in reference to the culture which developed unique forms of decoration. The Ancient Egyptian culture is arguably the first civilization to add decoration to their buildings. Their ornament takes the forms of the world in that climate, decorating the capitals of columns and walls with images of papyrus. Assyrian culture produced ornament which shows influence from Egyptian sources and a number of themes, including figures of plants. Ancient Greek civilization created many new forms of ornament, with variations from Doric, Ionic. The Romans Latinized the pure forms of the Greek ornament and adapted the forms to every purpose, a few medieval notebooks survive, most famously that of Villard de Honnecourt showing how artists and craftsmen recorded designs they saw for future use. As printing became cheaper, the single ornament print turned into sets, from the 16th to the 19th century, pattern books were published in Europe which gave access to decorative elements, eventually including those recorded from cultures all over the world.
Napoleon had the great pyramids and temples of Egypt documented in the Description de lEgypte, owen Jones published The Grammar of Ornament in 1856 with colored illustrations of decoration from Egypt, Turkey and Spain
Wood flooring is any product manufactured from timber that is designed for use as flooring, either structural or aesthetic. Wood is a choice as a flooring material and can come in various styles, cuts. Bamboo flooring is often considered a form of wood flooring, although it is made from a rather than a timber. Solid hardwood floors are made of planks milled from a piece of timber. Solid hardwood floors were used for structural purposes, being installed perpendicular to the wooden support beams of a building known as joists or bearers. With the increased use of concrete as a subfloor in some parts of the world, solid wood floors are still common and popular. Solid wood floors have a thicker wear surface and can be sanded and finished more times than a wood floor. It is not uncommon for homes in New England, Eastern Canada, solid wood flooring is milled from a single piece of timber that is kiln or air dried before sawing. Depending on the look of the floor, the timber can be cut in three ways, flat-sawn, quarter-sawn, and rift-sawn.
The timber is cut to the dimensions and either packed unfinished for a site-finished installation or finished at the factory. The moisture content at time of manufacturing is carefully controlled to ensure the product does not warp during transport, a number of proprietary features for solid wood floors are available. Many solid woods come with grooves cut into the back of the wood that run the length of each plank, often called absorption strips, solid wood floors are mostly manufactured.75 inches thick with a tongue-and-groove for installation. This process involves treating the wood by boiling the log in water, after preparation, the wood is peeled by a blade starting from the outside of the log and working toward the center, thus creating a wood veneer. The veneer is pressed flat with high pressure and this style of manufacturing tends to have problems with the wood cupping or curling back to its original shape. Rotary-peeled engineered hardwoods tend to have an appearance in the grain.
This process begins with the treatment process that the rotary peel method uses. However, instead of being sliced in a fashion, with this technique the wood is sliced from the log in much the same manner that lumber is sawn from a log – straight through. The veneers do not go through the manufacturing process as rotary peeled veneers
The city of Bern or Berne is the de facto capital of Switzerland, referred to by the Swiss as their Bundesstadt, or federal city. With a population of 141,762, Bern is the fourth-most populous city in Switzerland, the Bern agglomeration, which includes 36 municipalities, had a population of 406,900 in 2014. The metropolitan area had a population of 660,000 in 2000, Bern is the capital of the canton of Bern, the second-most populous of Switzerlands cantons. The official language in Bern is German, but the language is an Alemannic Swiss German dialect. In 1983, the old town in the centre of Bern became a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Bern is ranked among the top ten cities for the best quality of life. The etymology of the name Bern is uncertain and it has long been considered likely that the city was named after the Italian city of Verona, which at the time was known as Bern in Middle High German. As a result of the find of the Bern zinc tablet in the 1980s, it is now common to assume that the city was named after a pre-existing toponym of Celtic origin.
The bear was the animal of the seal and coat of arms of Bern from at least the 1220s. The earliest reference to the keeping of bears in the Bärengraben dates to the 1440s. No archaeological evidence that indicates a settlement on the site of city centre prior to the 12th century has been found so far. In antiquity, a Celtic oppidum stood on the Engehalbinsel north of Bern, fortified since the second century BC, during the Roman era, a Gallo-Roman vicus was on the same site. The Bern zinc tablet has the name Brenodor, in the Early Middle Ages, a settlement in Bümpliz, now a city district of Bern, was some 4 km from the medieval city. The medieval city is a foundation of the Zähringer ruling family, according to 14th-century historiography, Bern was founded in 1191 by Berthold V, Duke of Zähringen. In 1218, after Berthold died without an heir, Bern was made an imperial city by the Goldene Handfeste of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II. In 1353, Bern joined the Swiss Confederacy, becoming one of the eight cantons of the period of 1353 to 1481.
The city grew out towards the west of the boundaries of the peninsula formed by the river Aare, the Zytglogge tower marked the western boundary of the city from 1191 until 1256, when the Käfigturm took over this role until 1345. It was, in turn, succeeded by the Christoffelturm until 1622, during the time of the Thirty Years War, two new fortifications – the so-called big and small Schanze – were built to protect the whole area of the peninsula
The Kramgasse is one of the principal streets in the Old City of Bern, the medieval city centre of Bern, Switzerland. It was the center of life in Bern until the 19th century. Today, it is a shopping street. Its length, slight curve and long line of Baroque façades combine to produce Berns most impressive streetscape, the Kramgasse and its buildings are a heritage site of national significance and part of the UNESCO Cultural World Heritage Site that encompasses the Old City. The Kramgasse is some 330 meters long and lies at the center of the old city and it is the western half of the central axis of the citys oldest part, the Zähringerstadt, built right after the founding of the city in 1191. It is bounded to the west by the Zytglogge, Berns iconic clock tower that served as the main gate tower in the 12th century. In the east, the Kreuzgasse, literally a crossroads, separates it from the half of the old main street. Several narrow alleys and passageways connect the Kramgasse to the parallel Rathausgasse in the north, the Kramgasse cannot be reached by car without a special permit.
It is accessible by foot, bike or by means of the Bernmobil bus line no.12 that runs through it and has stops at either end of the street, both sides of the Kramgasse are covered with Lauben, stone arcades that protect pedestrians from inclement weather. The Kramgasse was known as the Märitgasse until the 15th century, the changes in name reflect the streets changes in character. In medieval times, it served as the marketplace. The street remained the center of the city until the middle of the 19th century. Over the centuries, the street was slowly gentrified, throughout the 19th century, residents complained about the waste and noise associated with the Schaal, an open hall of butchers stalls vis-à-vis the Simsonbrunnen. The Schaal was eventually demolished in 1938 and a built in its place. Local legend has it that a calf once flayed alive here still haunts the place of its death with frightful bleats, at the turn of the 20th century, the Kramgasse was already a tourist attraction. Beginning in the 1920s, buses and tramways were routed through it, the number of apartments on the Kramgasse steadily dwindled as they came to be replaced by shops and offices.
In 2005, the street was renovated and its cobblestone pavement replaced. The city ditch running through the middle of the street since medieval times is now visible again through metal gratings, apart from a few cellars, only fragments of the current buildings on the Kramgasse date from before 1500
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established as a sovereign state on 1 January 1801 by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland. The growing desire for an Irish Republic led to the Irish War of Independence, Northern Ireland remained part of the United Kingdom, and the state was consequently renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Britain financed the European coalition that defeated France in 1815 in the Napoleonic Wars, the British Empire thereby became the foremost world power for the next century. The Crimean War with Russia and the Boer wars were relatively small operations in a largely peaceful century, rapid industrialisation that began in the decades prior to the states formation continued up until the mid-19th century. A devastating famine, exacerbated by government inaction in the century, led to demographic collapse in much of Ireland. It was an era of economic modernization and growth of industry and finance.
Outward migration was heavy to the colonies and to the United States. Britain built up a large British Empire in Africa and Asia, India, by far the most important possession, saw a short-lived revolt in 1857. In foreign policy Britain favoured free trade, which enabled its financiers and merchants to operate successfully in many otherwise independent countries, as in South America. Britain formed no permanent military alliances until the early 20th century, when it began to cooperate with Japan and Russia, and moved closer to the United States. A brief period of limited independence for Ireland came to an end following the Irish Rebellion of 1798, the British governments fear of an independent Ireland siding against them with the French resulted in the decision to unite the two countries. This was brought about by legislation in the parliaments of both kingdoms and came into effect on 1 January 1801, King George III was bitterly opposed to any such Emancipation and succeeded in defeating his governments attempts to introduce it.
When the Treaty of Amiens ended the war, Britain agreed to return most of the territories it had seized, in May 1803, war was declared again. In 1806, Napoleon issued the series of Berlin Decrees, which brought into effect the Continental System and this policy aimed to eliminate the threat from the British by closing French-controlled territory to foreign trade. Frances population and agricultural capacity far outstripped that of the British Isles, Napoleon expected that cutting Britain off from the European mainland would end its economic hegemony. The Spanish uprising in 1808 at last permitted Britain to gain a foothold on the Continent, after Napoleons surrender and exile to the island of Elba, peace appeared to have returned. The Allies united and the armies of Wellington and Blucher defeated Napoleon once, simultaneous with the Napoleonic Wars, trade disputes, arming hostile Indians and British impressment of American sailors led to the War of 1812 with the United States. The war was little noticed in Britain, which could devote few resources to the conflict until the fall of Napoleon in 1814, American frigates inflicted a series of defeats on the Royal Navy, which was short on manpower due to the conflict in Europe