Panettone is an Italian type of sweet bread from Milan prepared and enjoyed for Christmas and New Year in Western and Southeastern Europe as well as in Latin America, the Horn of Africa, to a lesser extent in former French and Portuguese colonies. It has a cupola shape, which extends from a cylindrical base and is about 12–15 cm high for a panettone weighing 1 kg. Other bases may be used, such as an octagon, or a frustum with a star section shape more common to pandoro, it is made during a long process that involves curing the dough, acidic, similar to sourdough. The proofing process alone takes several days, giving the cake its distinctive fluffy characteristics, it contains candied orange and lemon zest, as well as raisins, which are added dry and not soaked. Many other variations are available such as plain or with chocolate, it is served in wedge shapes, vertically cut, accompanied with sweet hot beverages or a sweet wine, such as Asti or Moscato d'Asti. In some regions of Italy, it is served with crema di mascarpone, a cream made from mascarpone, sometimes dried or candied fruits, a sweet liqueur such as amaretto.

Efforts are under way to obtain Protected Designation of Origin and Denominazione di origine controllata status for this product, but these have not yet been successful. Former Italian Agriculture Minister Paolo De Castro was known to be looking at ways to protect genuine Italian cakes from growing competition in South America, exploring whether action could be taken at the World Trade Organization. In Italy, panettone comes with an varied history, but one that invariably states that its birthplace was Milan; the word "panettone" derives from a small loaf cake. The augmentative Italian suffix "-one" changes the meaning to "large cake"; the origins of this cake appear to be ancient, dating back to the Roman Empire, when ancient Romans sweetened a type of leavened cake with honey. Throughout the ages, this "tall, leavened fruitcake" makes cameo appearances in the arts: It is shown in a sixteenth-century painting by Pieter Brueghel the Elder and is mentioned in a contemporary recipe book written by Italian Bartolomeo Scappi, personal chef to popes and emperors during the time of Charles V.

The first recorded association of panettone with Christmas can be found in the Italian writings of 18th century illuminist Pietro Verri. He refers to it as "Pan de Ton". Though the etymology of the word'panettone' is rather mundane, three more complex and fanciful folk etymologies have arisen, it is thought that one of the ecclesiastical brothers, Fr. Antonio, who always wore the proper hat, was fond of this "pane"; the ecclesiastical hat Pane Tone was adopted as the shape, which gave rise to Panettone. This derivation received credence and acceptability at the turn of the century, is to be the forerunner of the more recent Christmas cake. Gianrian Carli in "Il Caffè" makes passing reference to panettone in 1850 in discussion with Pietro Verri and alludes to a clerical hat. One theory suggests that the word derives from the Milanese, "pan del ton", meaning "cake of luxury". In the early 20th century, two enterprising Milanese bakers began to produce panettone in large quantities for the rest of Italy.

In 1919, Angelo Motta started producing his eponymous brand of cakes. It was Motta who revolutionised the traditional panettone by giving it its tall domed shape by making the dough rise three times, for 20 hours, before cooking, giving it its now-familiar light texture; the recipe was adapted shortly after by another baker, Gioacchino Alemagna, around 1925, who gave his name to a popular brand that still exists today. The stiff competition between the two that ensued led to industrial production of the cake. Nestlé took over the brands together in the late 1990s, but Bauli, an Italian bakery company based in Verona, has acquired Motta and Alemagna from Nestlé. By the end of World War II, panettone was cheap enough for anyone and soon became the country's leading Christmas sweet. Lombard immigrants to Argentina, Paraguay and Brazil brought their love of panettone, panettone is enjoyed for Christmas with hot cocoa or liquor during the holiday season, which became a mainstream tradition in those countries.

In some places, it replaces the king cake. Panettone is available in South America, including in Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Venezuela, Bolivia and Peru, it is known in Spanish as panetón or pan dulce, as panetone in Brazilian Portuguese. Peru's Antonio D'Onofrio, son of immigrants hailing from Caserta, spawned his own brand using a modified form of the Alemagna formula, which he licensed along with the packaging style; this brand is now owned by Nestlé and exported throughout South America. In recent years, Brazilian panetone have increased in quality and in popularity due to their low cost and abundance. Italian food manufacturing companies and bakeries produce 117 million panettone and pandoro cakes every Christmas, collectively worth 579 million euros. There is an event held in Milan since 2013. In 2016, the prize was awarded from Salento. Panettone is popular within Italian communities around the world, can be found in Italian grocery stores in the US, Canada and the UK

The Power of Nightmares

The Power of Nightmares: The Rise of the Politics of Fear is a BBC television documentary series by Adam Curtis. It consists of archive footage, with Curtis narrating; the series was broadcast in the United Kingdom in 2004. It has subsequently been aired in multiple countries and shown at various film festivals, including the 2005 Cannes Film Festival; the film compares the rise of the neoconservative movement in the United States and the radical Islamist movement, drawing comparisons between their origins, remarking on similarities between the two groups. More controversially, it argues that radical Islamism as a massive, sinister organisation in the form of al-Qaeda, is a myth, or noble lie, perpetuated by leaders of many countries—and neoconservatives in the U. S.—in a renewed attempt to unite and inspire their people after the ultimate failure of utopian ideas. The Power of Nightmares was praised by film critics in the United States, its message and content have been the subject of various critiques and criticisms from conservatives and progressives.

The first part of the series explains the origins of neoconservatism. It shows Egyptian civil servant Sayyid Qutb, depicted as the founder of modern Islamist thinking, visiting the U. S. to learn about its education system becoming disgusted at what he judged as the corruption of morals and virtues in western society through individualism. When he returns to Egypt, he is disturbed by westernisation under Gamal Abdel Nasser and becomes convinced that in order to save his own society, it must be restructured along the lines of Islamic law while still using western technology, he becomes convinced that his vision can only be accomplished through use of an elite "vanguard" to lead a revolution against the established order. Qutb becomes a leader of the Muslim Brotherhood and, after being tortured in one of Nasser's jails, comes to believe that western-influenced leaders can be justifiably killed to remove their corruption. Qutb is executed in 1966, but he influences Ayman al-Zawahiri, the future mentor of Osama bin Laden, to start his own secret Islamist group.

Inspired by the 1979 Iranian revolution and his allies assassinate Egyptian president Anwar Al-Sadat in 1981 in the hopes of starting their own revolution. However, the revolution does not materialise, Zawahiri comes to believe that a majority of Muslims have been corrupted, not only by their western-inspired leaders, but Muslims themselves have been affected by jahilliyah and thus may be legitimate targets of violence if they refuse to join his cause, they continued to believe that a vanguard was necessary to rise up and overthrow the corrupt regime and replace it with a'pure' Islamist state. At the same time in the United States, a group of disillusioned liberals, including Irving Kristol and Paul Wolfowitz, look to the political thinking of Leo Strauss after the perceived failure of President Johnson's "Great Society", they conclude. They envisioned restructuring America by uniting the American people against a common evil, set about creating a mythical enemy; these factions, the neoconservatives, came to power during the 1980s under the Reagan administration, with their allies Dick Cheney and Donald Rumsfeld.

They alleged that the Soviet Union was not following the terms of a disarmament treaty between the two countries, together with the outcomes of "Team B", they built a case using dubious evidence and methods to prove it to Ronald Reagan. In the second part, Islamist factions falling under the more radical influence of Zawahiri and his rich Saudi acolyte Osama bin Laden, join the neoconservative-influenced Reagan administration to combat the Soviet Union's invasion of Afghanistan; when the Soviets pull out of Afghanistan, when the Eastern Bloc begins to collapse in 1989, both the Islamists and the neoconservatives believe they are the primary architects of the Soviet Union's demise. Curtis argues. However, the Islamists see it quite differently. In their triumph, they believe they have the power to create'pure' Islamic states in Egypt and Algeria. Attempts to create such Islamic states are blocked by force; the Islamists try to foment revolutions in Egypt and Algeria by using terrorism to scare the people into rising up against their leaders.

But the people are terrified by the violence, the Algerian government exploits that fear as a way to hang on to power. In the end, the Islamists declare the entire populations of the countries to be contaminated by western values. In Algeria, they begin to turn on each other, each believing that members of other terrorist groups are not true Muslims. In America, neoconservative aspirations to use the United States' military power to further destroy evildoers are thrown off track by the election of George H. W. Bush to the presidency, followed by the election in 1992 of Bill Clinton which left them out of power; the neoconservatives, along with their conservative Christian allies, attempt to demonize Clinton throughout his presidency with various real and fabricated stories of corruption and immorality. To their disappointment, the American people do not turn against Clinton. Meanwhile, Islamist attempts at revolution end in massive bloodshed, leaving the Islamists without popular support. Zawahiri and bin Laden declare a new strategy.

To fight Western-inspired moral decay, they must deal a blow to its source: the United States. The final part addresses the actual rise of al-Qaeda. Curtis argues that, after their failed revolutions, bin Laden and Zawahiri had little or no popular su

Eaton's inequality

In probability theory, Eaton's inequality is a bound on the largest values of a linear combination of bounded random variables. This inequality was described in 1974 by Morris L. Eaton. Let be a set of real independent random variables, each with an expected value of zero and bounded above by 1; the variates do not have to be symmetrically distributed. Let be a set of n fixed real numbers with ∑ i = 1 n a i 2 = 1. Eaton showed that P ≤ 2 inf 0 ≤ c ≤ k ∫ c ∞ 3 ϕ d z = 2 B E, where φ is the probability density function of the standard normal distribution. A related bound is Edelman's P ≤ 2 = 2 B E d, where Φ is cumulative distribution function of the standard normal distribution. Pinelis has shown that Eaton's bound can be sharpened: B E P = min A set of critical values for Eaton's bound have been determined. Let be a set of independent Rademacher random variables – P = P = 1/2. Let Z be a distributed variate with a mean 0 and variance of 1. Let be a set of n fixed real numbers such that ∑ i = 1 n b i 2 = 1.

This last condition is required by the Riesz–Fischer theorem which states that a i b i + ⋯ + a n b n will converge if and only if ∑ i = 1 n b i 2 is finite. E f ≤ E f for f = | x |p; the case for p ≥ 3 was proved by Whittle and p ≥ 2 was proved by Haagerup. If f = eλx with λ ≥ 0 E f ≤ inf = e − x 2 / 2 where inf is the infimum. Let S n = a i b i + ⋯ + a n b n Then P ≤ 2 e 3 9 P The constant in the last inequality is 4.4634. An alternative bound is known: P ≤ e − x 2 / 2 This last bound is related to the Hoeffding's inequality. In the uniform case where all the bi = n−1/2 the maximum value of Sn is n1/2. In this case van Zuijlen has shown that P ≤ 0.5 where