Panhard was a French motor vehicle manufacturer that began as one of the first makers of automobiles. It was a manufacturer of light military vehicles, its final incarnation, now owned by Renault Trucks Defense, was formed by the acquisition of Panhard by Auverland in 2005, by Renault in 2012. In 2018 Renault Trucks Defense, ACMAT and Panhard combined under Arquus. Panhard was called Panhard et Levassor, was established as an automobile manufacturing concern by René Panhard and Émile Levassor in 1887. Panhard et Levassor sold their first automobile based on a Daimler engine license. Levassor obtained his licence from Paris lawyer Edouard Sarazin, a friend and representative of Gottlieb Daimler's interests in France. Following Sarazin's 1887 death, Daimler commissioned Sarazin's widow Louise to carry on her late husband's agency; the Panhard et Levassor license was finalised by Louise, who married Levassor in 1890. Daimler and Levassor became friends, shared improvements with one another; these first vehicles set many modern standards.
They used a clutch pedal to operate a chain-driven gearbox. The vehicle featured a front-mounted radiator. An 1895 Panhard et Levassor is credited with the first modern transmission. For the 1894 Paris–Rouen Rally, Alfred Vacheron equipped his 4 horsepower with a steering wheel, believed to be one of the earliest employments of the principle. In 1891, the company built its first all-Levassor design, a "state of the art" model: the Système Panhard consisted of four wheels, a front-mounted engine with rear wheel drive, a crude sliding-gear transmission, sold at 3500 francs; this was to become the standard layout for automobiles for most of the next century. The same year, Panhard et Levassor shared their Daimler engine license with bicycle maker Armand Peugeot, who formed his own car company. In 1895, 1,205 cc Panhard et Levassor vehicles finished first and second in the Paris–Bordeaux–Paris race, one piloted solo by Levassor, for 48¾hr. However, during the 1896 Paris–Marseille–Paris race, Levassor was fatally injured due to a crash while trying to avoid hitting a dog, died in Paris the following year.
Arthur Krebs succeeded Levassor as General Manager in 1897, held the job until 1916. He turned the Panhard et Levassor Company into one of the largest and most profitable manufacturers of automobiles before World War I. Panhards won numerous races from 1895 to 1903. Panhard et Levassor developed the Panhard rod, which came to be used in many other types of automobiles as well. From 1910 Panhard worked to develop engines without conventional valves, using under license the sleeve valve technology, patented by the American Charles Yale Knight. Between 1910 and 1924 the Panhard & Levassor catalogue listed plenty of models with conventional valve engines, but these were offered alongside cars powered by sleeve valve power units. Following various detailed improvements to the sleeve valve technology by Panhard's own engineering department, from 1924 till 1940 all Panhard cars used sleeve valve engines. Under the presidency of Raymond Poincaré, which ran from 1913 till 1920, Panhard & Levassor's 18CV and 20CV models were the official presidential cars.
During the war Panhard, like other leading automobile producers, concentrated on war production, including large numbers of military trucks, V12-cylinder aero-engines, gun components, large 75 and 105 diameter shells. The military were keen on the sleeve valve engined Panhard 20HP. General Joffre himself used two 35HP Panhard Type X35s with massive 4-cylinder 7,360 cc engines for his personal transport, these were to be seen by Parisians carrying military leaders between the front-line and the Élysée Palace. Following the return to peace in 1918, Panhard resumed passenger car production in March 1919 with the 10HP Panhard Type X19, which used a 4-cylinder 2,140 cc engine; this was followed three months by three more 4-cylinder models which will have been familiar to any customers whose memories pre-dated the war, but they now incorporated ungraded electrics and a number of other modifications. For the 15th Paris Motor Show, in October 1919, Panhard were displaying four models, all with four cylinder engines, as follows: Panhard Type X19 2,150 cc / 10 HP Panhard Type X31 2,275 cc / 12 HPPanhard Type X28 3,175 cc / 16 HP Panhard Type X29 4,850 cc / 20 HPBy 1925, all Panhard's cars were powered by Knight sleeve valve engines that used steel sleeves.
The steel sleeves were thinner and lighter than the cast iron ones, fitted in Panhard sleeve valve engines since 1910, this gave rise to an improved friction coefficient permitting engines to run at higher speeds. To reduce further the risk of engines jamming, the outer sleeves, which are less thermally stressed than the inner sleeves, were coated on their inner sides with an anti-friction material, employing a patented technique with which Panhard engineers had been working since 1923; this was one of several improvements applied by Panhard engineers to the basic Knight sleeve-valve engine concept. In 1925 a 4,800 cc model set the world record for an average of 185.51 km/h. A surprise appeared on the Panhard stand at the 20th Paris Motor Show in October 1926, in the shape of the manufacturer's first six-cylinder model since before the war; the new Panhard 16CV "Six" sat on a 3,540 mm wheelbase. At the show it was priced, at 58,000 francs. Of the nine models displayed for the 1927 model year, seven
Nakanokuchi was a village located in Nishikanbara District, Niigata Prefecture, Japan. As of 2005, the village had an estimated population of 6,613 and a density of 328.03 persons per km². The total area was 20.16 km². On March 21, 2005, along with the cities of Niitsu and Toyosaka, the towns of Kameda and Yokogoshi, the town of Nishikawa, the villages of Ajikata, Iwamuro and Tsukigata, was merged into the expanded city of Niigata; as of April 1, 2007, the area is now part of Nishikan-ku ward. The village is the birthplace of Haguroyama Masaji, sumo's 36th yokozuna. Haguroyama held the title for twelve years and three months, it remains an all-time record today. During his career Haguroyama won seven top division championships and was runner-up on six other occasions. In Nakanokuchi, there is a museum dedicated to Haguroyama and a bronze statue of the famous wrestler wearing his shimenawa. Haguroyama
C Television is the flagship television station of the Caribbean New Media Group, a state-owned media company in Trinidad and Tobago. C Television broadcasts from studios at 11 A Maraval Road, Port of Spain and Tobago; the station boasts that its facilities are the most technologically advanced of its kind in the Caribbean region. The Caribbean New Media Group was formed in 2005 after the financial demise of its predecessor, the National Broadcasting Network, the parent company of the flagship television station, Trinidad & Tobago Television; the studios located on Maraval Road, Port of Spain were refurbished where the station commenced operations on June 5, 2006. During the initial test period, programming consisted of a four-hour block from 6.00 to 10.00p.m. The formal launch of the Caribbean New Media Group occurred in mid-2007 and the station was re-branded from CNMG Television to C. In 2011, the station was rebranded to CTV. C TV's programming line-up includes local and foreign content; the station gained popularity with its broadcast of the Miss World Pageant annually, Digicel Rising Stars programme and the coverage of the 2007 ICC Cricket World Cup.
C TV's foreign line-up includes popular US television series such as Pretty Little Liars, Hawaii Five-0, The Cleveland Show, The Doctors, The Simpsons, Blue Bloods, Law & Order SVU, Motive, NCIS, NCIS: Los Angeles and Vampire Diaries among others. CTV broadcasts four and a half hours of news programming on weekdays and thirty minutes of news programming on weekends; the station's breakfast programme First Up, has been one of the highest rated programmes in the country. "First Up" is simulcast on its sister radio station Talk City 91.1. CTV carries an hour-long newscast at 7.00pm and news updates carried at 6pm, 9pm and 10pm There is a thirty-minute newscast at noon. All newscasts are available on demand on the station's website. On November 8, 2010, outspoken First Up presenter Fazeer Mohammed was replaced by GISL Chief Executive Officer Andy Johnson; the incident has led many commentators to speculate that it was politically motivated, stemming from an interview between Mohammed and Minister of Foreign Affairs, Suruj Rambajhan.
The Media Association of Trinidad and Tobago has condemned the action. The incident caused a massive public outcry on the station's social networking sites. CTV broadcasts on VHF channels 9 and 13 on the island of Trinidad and channel UHF 20 on the island of Tobago; the station is transmitted on all of the country's major cable systems on the following channels: Flow: Ch. 6 Ch. 106 Massy Communications: Ch. 105 Digicel Play: Ch. 7 Trico: Ch. 2 RVR International: Ch. 9 Mayaro Cable: Ch. 9 Diamond Vale Cable: Ch. 13CTV is available on national platforms Blink and Green Dot. Samantha John - C News At 7 James Saunders - C News At 7 Ean Wallace - C News At 7 StacyAnn Providence - C News At Noon Paul Richards - Good Morning T&T Jessie May Ventour - Good Morning T&T C TV is available to listen live on Talk City 91.1 FM. Trinidad Express 11/09/2010 -Fired Trinidad Guardian 11/09/2010 - Mohammed pulled from Channel Six talk show Trinidad Express 11/10/2010 - Editorial: Political Interference? Official Website Caribbean New Media Group
DeSoto is an American automobile marque, manufactured and marketed by the DeSoto Division of the Chrysler Corporation from 1928 to the 1961 model year. De Soto vehicles were part of the demise of several well-established marques in the late-1950s that included Hudson and Packard nameplates that had all disappeared from the marketplace by the early-1960s. Over two million vehicles were built for markets in the United States and Canada; the DeSoto make was founded by Walter Chrysler on August 4, 1928, introduced for the 1929 model year. It was named after the Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto; the DeSoto logo featured a stylized image of the explorer who led the first European expedition deep into the territory of the modern-day United States, was the first documented European to have crossed the Mississippi River. Chrysler wanted to enter the brand in competition with its competitors Oldsmobile, Studebaker and Willys, in the mid-price class. DeSoto served as a lower priced version of Chrysler products, with Dodge and Plymouth added to the Chrysler family in 1928.
The inaugural DeSoto model year sales in 1929 totaled 81,065 cars, a first year record in the U. S. that lasted until the introduction of the 1960 Ford Falcon. Shortly after DeSoto was introduced, Chrysler completed its purchase of the Dodge Brothers, giving the company two mid-priced makes; the two-make strategy was successful, with DeSoto priced below Dodge models. Despite the economic times, DeSoto sales were healthy, pacing Dodge at around 25,000 units in 1932. However, in 1933, Chrysler reversed the market positions of the two marques in hopes of boosting Dodge sales. By elevating DeSoto, it received Chrysler's streamlined 1934 Airflow bodies. But, on the shorter DeSoto wheelbase, the design was unpopular with consumers. Unlike Chrysler, which still had more traditional models to fall back on, DeSoto was hobbled by the Airflow design until the 1935 Airstream arrived. Aside from its Airflow models, DeSoto's 1942 model is its second most memorable model from the pre-war years, when the cars were fitted with powered pop-up headlights, a first for a North American mass-production vehicle.
DeSoto marketed the feature as "Air-Foil" lights. After wartime restrictions on automotive production were ended, DeSoto returned to civilian car production when it reissued its 1942 models as 1946 models, but without the hidden-headlight feature, with fender contours extending into the doors, like other Chrysler products of the immediate postwar period; until 1952, DeSoto used the Custom model designations. In 1952 DeSoto added the Firedome with its 276-cid Hemi engine. However, in 1953, DeSoto dropped the Deluxe and Custom names and designated its six-cylinder cars the'Powermaster' and its V8 car remained the'Firedome'. At its height, DeSoto's more popular models included the Firesweep and Fireflite; the DeSoto Adventurer, introduced for 1956 as a high-performance hard-top coupe, became a full-range model in 1960. In 1955, along with all Chrysler models, DeSotos were redesigned with Virgil Exner's "Forward Look." DeSotos sold well through the 1956 model year. That year, for the first and only time in the marque's history, it served as Pace Car at the Indianapolis 500.
For the 1956 update Exner gave the DeSoto soaring tailfins fitted with triple taillights, consumers responded by buying record numbers. The 1957 had a well integrated design, with two variations: the smaller Firesweep body placed on the concurrent Dodge 122-inch wheelbase chassis with Dodge front fenders; as was conventional in the era, subsequent years within the typical three-year model block were distinguished by trim and other low-cost modifications by adding bulk to bumpers and grilles, taillight changes, color choices and interior design changes and additional external trim. The 1958 economic downturn hurt sales of mid-priced makes across the board, DeSoto sales were 60 percent lower than those of 1957 in what would be DeSoto's worst year since 1938. Ford Motor Company had introduced new mid-price competitors for the 1958 model year with the Edsel brand; the sales slide continued for 1959 and 1960, rumors began to circulate DeSoto was going to be discontinued. 1960 was the last year for DeSoto sales in Canada.
By the time the 1961 DeSoto was introduced in the fall of 1960, rumors were widespread that Chrysler was moving towards terminating the brand, fueled by a reduction in model offerings for the 1960 model year. The introduction of the lower priced Newport to the upscale Chrysler brand no doubt hastened the decision to end production of DeSoto, similar in size, styling and standard features. For 1961, DeSoto lost its series designations in a move reminiscent of Packard's final lineup. And, like the final Packards, the final DeSoto was of questionable design merit. Again, based on the shorter Chrysler Windsor wheelbase, the DeSoto featured a two-tiered grille and revised taillights. Only a two-door hardtop and a four-door hardtop were offered; the cars were trimmed to the 1960 Fireflite. The final decision to discontinue DeSoto was announced on November 18, 1960, just forty-seven days after the 1961 models were introduced. At the time, Chrysler warehouses contained s
Jamea Al Kauthar is an independent academic girls’ establishment in Lancaster, England, educating girls in a Muslim tradition over the age of 11. Jamea Al Kauthar started with 60 pupils in 1996 and now has the capacity to cater for up to 450 students. Jamea Al Kauthar adopted and converted the Royal Albert Hospital historic building in 1996 and, on its conversion, received the moral and financial support of various members of the community. Since its inception, the school has grown in its intake, accepting both EU pupils; the school employs both residential and non-residential staff, offers the following: the traditional six-year Alimiyyah course, a two-year abridged version of the Alimiyyah course known as Sanatayn, GCSEs, A-Levels and other vocational courses. Alongside the curriculum, pupils benefit from a number of extra-curricular initiatives such as fundraising for local and international charities, hosting visiting speakers, getting involved with local campaigns. Jamea Al Kauthar has a sister boarding school in Preston for boys, known as Darul Uloom Preston.
The boarding site has a nearby educational site for the pupils day-time and evening studies, known as Abrar Academy. To teach students to acquire an in-depth understanding of Deen. Developing the love for Allah and his Prophet. Instilling religious and moral values, tolerance of other races and religions. Producing individuals who have the capacity to think for themselves, to know their own minds but to have the flexibility to listen to others. Encouraging pupils to appreciate the needs of others and be sensitive to them, to work in teams and be able to recognise right from wrong. Encouraging students to respect and abide by the rule of law and be an exemplary citizen. Royal Albert Hospital, a previous use of the main building
Robert Thomas Ellis was a Welsh politician, elected several times as a Labour Member of Parliament, defected to the Social Democratic Party. Ellis was born in Pant, Rhosllannerchrugog and was educated at Ruabon Grammar School, he entered the mining industry, in 1957 was appointed manager of the nearby Bersham Colliery. He took further studies at the University of Nottingham, he was a president of Wrexham Fabian Society. Ellis first stood for Parliament without success in Flint West in 1966. Elected at the 1970 general election as Labour MP for Wrexham, he was re-elected in the February 1974, October 1974, May 1979 elections, he served as an indirectly elected Member of the European Parliament from 1975–1979. Ellis had grown disaffected with the leftward direction of the Labour Party by the beginning of the 1980s, he was one of the core handful of Jenkinsite Labour MPs who were prepared to leave the Labour Party without the Gang of Three of David Owen, Bill Rodgers, Shirley Williams. In fact, he had gone so far as to contemplate joining the Liberals.
Ellis' disenchantment with the Labour Party was so great that he voted for Michael Foot over Denis Healey in Labour's 1980 leadership election in order to accelerate the disintegration of the Labour Party. In 1981, Ellis became one of the founding members of the SDP. Ellis was one of three Welsh MPs to join the new party and he was elected to serve as the President of Welsh Social Democrats; as a result of boundary changes, Ellis did not contest Wrexham in 1983 election, instead he stood in the new constituency of Clwyd South West which incorporated much of his old constituency. Ellis finished second to the Conservative candidate Robert Harvey by 1,551 votes in a competitive three-way race. At the 1987 general election, Ellis stood again in Clwyd South West. After the merger of the SDP and the Liberals, he stood for the Social and Liberal Democrats at the 1989 Pontypridd by-election, finishing a weak fourth behind the victor Kim Howells. Ellis, Tom. Dan Loriau Maelor: Hunangofiant Tom Ellis. Gwasg Gomer.
ISBN 1-84323-179-4. Ellis, Tom. After The Dust Has Settled: The Autobiography of Tom Ellis. Bridge Books. ISBN 1-84494-013-6. Ellis, Tom. R. S. Thomas a'i Gerddi. Y Lolfa. ISBN 1-84771-051-4. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Tom Ellis