Kirtan or Kirtana is a Sanskrit word that means "narrating, telling, describing" of an idea or story. It refers to a genre of religious performance arts, connoting a musical form of narration or shared recitation of spiritual or religious ideas. With roots in the Vedic anukirtana tradition, a kirtan is a call-and-response style song or chant, set to music, wherein multiple singers recite or describe a legend, or express loving devotion to a deity, or discuss spiritual ideas, it may include dancing or direct expression of bhavas by the singer. Many kirtan performances are structured to engage the audience where they either repeat the chant, or reply to the call of the singer. A person performing kirtan is known as a kirtankara. A Kirtan performance includes an accompaniment of regionally popular musical instruments, such as the harmonium, the veena or ektara, the tabla, the mrdanga or pakhawaj and karatalas or talas, it is a major practice in Hinduism, Vaisnava devotionalism, the Sant traditions and some forms of Buddhism, as well as other religious groups.
Kirtan is sometimes accompanied by acting. Texts cover religious, mythological or social subjects. Kirtan has Vedic roots and it means "telling, describing, reporting"; the term is found as Anukirtan in the context of Yajna, wherein team recitations of dialogue-style and question-answer riddle hymns were part of the ritual or celebratory dramatic performance. The Sanskrit verses in chapter 13.2 of Shatapatha Brahmana, for example, are written in the form of a riddle play between two actors. The Vedic sacrifice is presented as a kind of drama, with its actors, its dialogues, its portion to be set to music, its interludes, its climaxes; the root of kirtan is kirt. The root is found in the Samhitas, the Brahmanas and other Vedic literature, as well as the Vedanga and Sutras literature. Kirt, according to Monier-Williams contextually means, "to mention, make mention of, name, recite, relate, communicate, celebrate, glorify".kirtan, sometimes referred to as sankirtana, is a call-and-response chanting or musical conversation, a genre of religious performance arts that developed during India's bhakti devotional traditions.
However, it is a heterogeneous practice that varies regionally according to Christian Novetzke, includes varying mixture of different musical instruments, oration, audience participation and moral narration. In Maharashtra for example, states Novetzke, a kirtan is a call-and-response style performance, ranging from devotional dancing and singing by a lead singer and audience, to an "intricate scholarly treatise, a social commentary or a philosophical/linguistic exposition", that includes narration, humor and entertainment – all an aesthetic part of ranga of the kirtana. Kirtan is locally known as Abhang, Samaj Gayan, Haveli Sangeet, Harikatha; the Vaishnava temples and monasteries of Hinduism in Assam and northeastern, called Satra, have a large worship hall named Kirtan ghar – a name derived from their being used for congregational singing and performance arts. In regional languages, Kirtana is scripted as Bengali: কীর্তন. Musical recitation of hymns and the praise of deities has ancient roots in Hinduism, as evidenced by the Samaveda and other Vedic literature.
Kirtan were popularized by the Bhakti movement of medieval era Hinduism, starting with the South Indian Alvars and Nayanars around the 6th century, which spread in central, northern and eastern India after the 12th century, as a social and congregational response to Hindu-Muslim conflicts. The foundations of the Kirtan traditions are found in other Hindu scriptures such as the Bhagavad-gita where Krishna describes multiple paths to spiritual freedom, including karma marga, jnana marga and bhakti marga. Kirtan relates to the bhakti marga tradition of Hinduism. References to Kirtan as a musical recitation are found in the Bhagavata Purana, an important Vaishnava text. Kirtan is practiced as a kind of theatrical folk song with call-and-response chanting or antiphon; the ancient sage Narada revered as a musical genius, is called a kirtankar in the Padma Purana. The famous story of Prahlada in the Avatara Katha mentions kirtan as one of nine forms of worship, called the nava vidha bhakti along with shravanam, pada sevanam, vandanam, dasyam and atmanivedanam.
The so-called Naradiya Kirtan divides kirtan into five parts: naman, chanting, katha or akhyan and a final prayer for universal welfare. Kirtan as a genre of religious music has been a major part of the Vaishnavism tradition starting with the Alvars of Sri Vaishnavism sub-tradition between the 7th to 10th century CE. After the 13th-century, two subgenres of kirtan emerged in Vaishnavism, namely the Nama-kirtana wherein the different names or aspects of god are extolled, the Lila- kirtana wherein the deity's life and legends are narrated; the Marathi Varkari saint Namdev used the kirtan
Namdev transliterated as Nam Dayv, Namadeva, was an Indian poet and saint from Maharashtra, India, significant to the Varkari sect of Hinduism. Bhagat Namdev's writings were recognized by the "Gurus" of Sikhism and are included in the holy book of Sikhism, the Sri Guru Granth Sahib. Namdev worship lord Vitthal, one of the name of lord Vishnu. Other Hindu warrior-ascetic traditions such as the Dadupanthis and the Niranjani Sampraday that emerged in north India during the Islamic rule; the details of Namdev's life are unclear. He is the subject of many miracle-filled hagiographies composed centuries. Scholars find these biographies to be contradictory. Namdev was influenced by Vaishnavism, became known in India for his devotional songs set to music, his philosophy contains saguna Brahman elements, with monistic themes. Namdev's legacy is remembered in modern times in the Varkari tradition, along with those of other gurus, with masses of people walking together in biannual pilgrimages to Pandharpur in south Maharashtra.
Details of the life of Namdev are vague. He is traditionally believed to have lived between 1270 and 1350 but S. B. Kulkarni — according to Christian Novetzke, "one of the most prominent voices in the historical study of Maharashtrian sant figures" — has suggested that 1207-1287 is more based on textual analysis; some scholars date him to around 1425 and another, R. Bharadvaj, proposes 1309-1372. Namdev was married to Rajai and had a son, both of whom wrote about him, as did his mother, Gonai. Contemporary references to him by a disciple, a potter, a guru and other close associates exist. There are no references to him in the records and inscriptions of the then-ruling family and the first non-Varkari noting of him appears to be in the Lilacaritra, a Mahanubhava-sect biography dating from 1278. Smrtisthala, a Mahanubhava text from around 1310, may possibly refer to him. According to Mahipati, a hagiographer of the 18th century, Namdev's parents were Damashet and Gonai, a childless elderly couple whose prayers for parenthood were answered and involved him being found floating down a river.
As with various other details of his life, elements such as this may have been invented to sidestep issues that might have caused controversy. In this instance, the potential controversy was that of caste or, more his position in the Hindu varna system of ritual ranking, he was born into what is recognised as a Shudra caste, variously recorded as shimpi in the Marathi language and as Chhipa, Chhimpa,Chhimba,chimpi in northern India. Shudra is the lowest-ranked of the four varnas and those of his followers in Maharashtra and northern India who are from those communities prefer to consider their place, thus his, as the higher-status Kshatriya rank. There are contrary traditions concerning his birthplace, with some people believing that he was born at Narsi Bahmani, on the Krishna River in Marathwada, others preferring somewhere near to Pandharpur on the Bhima river; that he was himself tailor and that he spent much of his life in Punjab. The Lilacaritra suggests, that Namdev was a cattle-thief, devoted to and assisted Vithoba.
A friendship between Namdev and Jñāneśvar, a yogi-saint, has been posited at least as far back as circa 1600 CE when Nabhadas, a hagiographer, noted it in his Bhaktamal. Jñāneśvar known as Jñāndev, never referred to Namdev in his writings but had no cause to do so; such men, who comprised both Hindus and Muslims, traditionally wrote devotional poetry in a style, acceptable to the Sikh belief system. A tradition in Maharashtra is that Namdev died at the age of eighty in 1350 CE. Sikh tradition maintains that his death place was the Punjabi village of Ghuman, although this is not universally accepted. Aside from a shrine there that marks his death, there are monuments at the other claimant places, being Pandharpur and the nearby Narsi Bahmani. Scholars note that many miracles and specifics about Namdev's life appear only in manuscripts written centuries after Namdev's death; the birth theory with Namdev floating down a river, is first found in Mahipati's Bhaktavijay composed around 1762, is absent in all earlier biographies of Namdev.
Mahipati's biography of Namdev adds numerous other miracles, such as buildings rotating and sun rising in the west to show respect to Namdev. The earliest surviving Hindi and Rajasthani biographies from about 1600 only mention a few miracles performed by Namdev. In Namdev biographies published after 1600 through the end of the 20th century, new life details and more miracles appear with the passage of time; the earliest biographies never mention the caste of Namdev, his caste appears for the first time in manuscripts with statements from Ravidas and Dhana in early 17th century. Namdev's Immaculate Conception miracle mentioned in era manuscripts, adds Novetzke, is a story found for other sants in India; the Namdev biographies in medieval manuscripts are inconsistent and contradictory, feeding questions of their reliability. The literary works of Namdev were influenced by a belief in Vithoba. Along with the Jñānēśvarī, a sacred wor
Guru Ram Das
Guru Ram Das was the fourth of the ten Gurus of Sikhism. He was born on 24 September 1534 in a poor Hindu family based in Lahore, part of what is now Pakistan, his birth name was Jetha, he was orphaned at age 7, thereafter grew up with his maternal grandmother in a village. At age 12, Bhai Jetha and his grandmother moved to Goindval; the boy thereafter served him. The daughter of Guru Amar Das got married to Bhai Jetha, he thus became part of Guru Amar Das's family; as with the first two Gurus of Sikhism, Guru Amar Das instead of choosing his own sons, chose Bhai Jetha as his successor and renamed him as Ram Das or "servant or slave of god ". Ram Das became the Guru of Sikhism in 1574 and served as the Sikh leader until his death in 1581, he faced hostilities from the sons of Amar Das, shifted his official base to lands identified by Amar Das as Guru-ka-Chak. This newly founded town was eponymous Ramdaspur to evolve and get renamed as Amritsar – the holiest city of Sikhism, he is remembered in the Sikh tradition for expanding the manji organization for clerical appointments and donation collections to theologically and economically support the Sikh movement.
He appointed his own son as his successor, unlike the first four Gurus who were not related through descent, the fifth through tenth Sikh Gurus were the direct descendants of Ram Das. Guru Ram Das was born in a Sodhi Khatri family in Lahore, his father was mother Daya Kaurboth of whom died when he was aged seven. He was brought up by his grandmother, he married the younger daughter of Amar Das. They had three sons: Prithi Chand and Guru Arjan. Guru Ram Das died on 1 September 1581, in Goindval town of Punjab. Of his three sons, Ram Das chose the youngest, to succeed him as the fifth Sikh Guru; the choice of successor, as throughout most of the history of Sikh Guru successions, led to disputes and internal divisions among the Sikhs. The elder son of Ram Das named Prithi Chand is remembered in the Sikh tradition as vehemently opposing Arjan, creating a faction Sikh community which the Sikhs following Arjan called as Minas, is alleged to have attempted to assassinate young Hargobind. However, alternate competing texts written by the Prithi Chand led Sikh faction offer a different story, contradict this explanation on Hargobind's life, present the elder son of Ram Das as devoted to his younger brother Arjan.
The competing texts do acknowledge disagreement and describe Prithi Chand as having become the Sahib Guru after the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev and disputing the succession of Guru Hargobind, the grandson of Ram Das. Ram Das is credited with founding the holy city of Amritsar in the Sikh tradition. Two versions of stories exist regarding the land. In one based on a Gazetteer record, the land was purchased with Sikh donations, for 700 rupees from the owners of the village of Tung. According to the Sikh historical records, the site was chosen by Guru Amar Das and called Guru Da Chakk, after he had asked Ram Das to find land to start a new town with a man made pool as its central point. After his coronation in 1574, the hostile opposition he faced from the sons of Amar Das, Ram Das founded the town named after him as "Ramdaspur", he started by completing the pool, building his new official Guru centre and home next to it. He invited artisans from other parts of India to settle into the new town with him.
The town expanded during the time of Arjan constructed by voluntary work. The town grew to become the city of Amritsar, the pool area grew into a temple complex after his son built the gurdwara Harmandir Sahib, installed the scripture of Sikhism inside the new temple in 1604; the construction activity between 1574 and 1604 is described in Mahima Prakash Vartak, a semi-historical Sikh hagiography text composed in 1741, the earliest known document dealing with the lives of all the ten Gurus. Ram Das composed about ten percent of hymns in the Guru Granth Sahib, he was a celebrated poet, composed his work in 30 ancient ragas of Indian classical music. These cover a range of topics: One who calls himself to be a disciple of the Guru should rise before dawn and meditate on the Lord's Name. During the early hours, he should rise and bathe, cleansing his soul in a tank of nectar, while he repeats the Name the Guru has spoken to him. By this procedure he washes away the sins of his soul. – GGS 305 The Name of God fills my heart with joy.
My great fortune is to meditate on God's name. The miracle of God's name is attained through the perfect Guru, but only a rare soul walks in the light of the Guru's wisdom. – GGS 94 O man! The poison of pride is killing you. Your body, the colour of gold, has been discoloured by selfishness. Illusions of gradeur turn black. – GGS 776 Guru's Bani is part of Nanakshahi calendar and Kirtan Sohila, the daily prayers of Sikhs. His compositions continue to be sung daily in Harimandir Sahib of Sikhism. Ram Das, along with Amar Das, are credited with various parts of the Anand and Laavan composition in Suhi mode, it is a part of the ritual of four clockwise circumambulation of the Sikh scripture by the bride and groom to solemnize the marriage in Sikh tradition. This was intermittently used, its use lapsed in late 18th century. However, sometime in 19th or 20th century by conflicting accounts, the composition of Ram Das came back in use along with Anand Karaj ceremony, replacing the Hindu ritual of circumambulation around the fire.
The composition of Ram
Kabir was a 15th-century Indian mystic poet and saint, whose writings, according to some scholars, influenced Hinduism's Bhakti movement. Kabir's verses are found in Sikhism's scripture Guru Granth Sahib, his most famous writings include his couplets. Kabir is known for being critical of both Hinduism and Islam, stating that the former was misguided by the Vedas, questioning their meaningless rites of initiation such as the sacred thread and circumcision respectively. During his lifetime, he was threatened by both Muslims for his views; when he died, both Hindus and Muslims had claimed him as theirs. Kabir suggested that True God is with the person, on the path of righteousness, thus considered all creatures on earth as his own self, was passively detached from the affairs of the world. Kabir's legacy survives and continues through the Kabir panth, a religious community that recognises him as its founder and is one of the Sant Mat sects, its members are known as Kabir panthis. The years of Kabir's birth and death are unclear.
Some historians favor 1398–1448 as the period Kabir lived, while others favor 1440–1518. Many legends, inconsistent in their details, exist about early life. Kabir was picked up and raised by a Muslim family. However, modern scholarship has abandoned these legends for lack of historical evidence, Kabir is accepted to have brought up in a family of Muslim weavers; some scholars state that Kabir's parents may have been recent converts to Islam and Kabir were unaware of Islamic orthodox tradition, are to have been following the Nath school of Hinduism. This view, while contested by other scholars, has been summarized by Charlotte Vaudeville as follows: Circumcised or not, Kabir was a musalman, though it appears that some form of Nathism was his ancestral tradition; this alone would explain his relative ignorance of Islamic tenets, his remarkable acquaintance with Tantric-yoga practices and his lavish use of its esoteric jargon. He appears far more conversant with Nath-panthi basic attitudes and philosophy than with the Islamic orthodox tradition.
Kabir is believed to have become the first disciple of the Bhakti poet-saint Swami Ramananda in Varanasi, known for devotional Vaishnavism with a strong bent to monist Advaita philosophy teaching that God was inside every person, everything. It is believed that the Hindu saint Ramananda had refused to accept him as his disciple but Kabir cleverly accepted his disciplehood by covering himself in a rag and lying on the steps that led the Ganges where Ramananda was bound to go for a holy dip in the river before dawn: the saint accidentally touched him with his foot and habitually cried "Rama,Rama!", having touched him with feet and quoting Hinduism's most holy words were enough for the orthodox Ramananda to accept him as his disciple. Some legends assert that Kabir never led a celibate's life. Most scholars conclude from historical literature that this legend is untrue, that Kabir was married, his wife was named Dhania, they had at least one son named Kamal and a daughter named Kamali. Kabir's family is believed to have lived in the locality of Kabir Chaura in Varanasi.
Kabīr maṭha, a maṭha located in the back alleys of Kabir Chaura, celebrates his life and times. Accompanying the property is a house named Nīrūṭīlā which houses Niru and Nima's graves. Kabir's poems were in vernacular Hindi, borrowing from various dialects including Braj, they cover various aspects of call for a loving devotion for God. Kabir composed his verses with simple Hindi words. Most of his work were concerned with devotion and discipline. Kabir and his followers named his verbally composed poems of wisdom as "bāņīs"; these include songs and couplets, called variously dohe, śalokā, or sākhī. The latter term means "witness", implying the poems to be evidence of the Truth. Literary works with compositions attributed to Kabir include Kabir Bijak, Kabir Parachai, Sakhi Granth, Adi Granth, Kabir Granthawali. However, except for Adi Granth different versions of these texts exist and it is unclear which one is more original; the most in depth scholarly analysis of various versions and translations are credited to Charlotte Vaudeville, the 20th century French scholar on Kabir.
Kabir's poems were verbally composed in the 15th century and transmitted viva voce through the 17th century. Kabir Bijak was written down for the first time in the 17th century. Scholars state that this form of transmission, over geography and across generations bred change and corruption of the poems. Furthermore, whole songs were creatively fabricated and new couplets inserted by unknown authors and attributed to Kabir, not because of dishonesty but out of respect for him and the creative exuberance of anonymous oral tradition found in Indian literary works. Scholars have sought to establish poetry that came from Kabir and its historicity value. Numerous poems are attributed to Kabir, but scholars now doubt the authenticity of many songs credited to him. Rabindranath Tagore's English translation and compilation One Hundred Poems of Kabir was first published in 1915, has been a classic reprinted and circulated in the West. Scholars believe only six of its hundred poems are authentic, they have questioned whether Tagore introduced prevalent theological perspectives onto Kabir, as he translated poems in early 20th century that he presumed to be of Kabir's
Sikhism, or Sikhi Sikkhī, from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", "seeker," or "learner") is a religion that originated in the Punjab region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent around the end of the 15th century, has variously been defined as monotheistic and panentheistic. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions, the world's fifth largest organized religion, as well as being the world's ninth-largest overall religion; the fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them living in Punjab, according to the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru, the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him.
The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs. The Guru Granth Sahib is notable for being written by the founders of the religion, for including works by members of other religions. Sikhism rejects claims; the Sikh scripture opens with Ik Onkar, its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being. Sikhism emphasizes simran, that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo as a means to feel God's presence, it teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves". Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life. Guru Nanak taught that living an "active and practical life" of "truthfulness, self-control and purity" is above the metaphysical truth, that the ideal man is one who "establishes union with God, knows His Will, carries out that Will". Guru Hargobind, the sixth Sikh Guru, established the political/temporal and spiritual realms to be mutually coexistent.
Sikhism evolved in times of religious persecution. Two of the Sikh gurus – Guru Arjan and Guru Tegh Bahadur – were tortured and executed by the Mughal rulers after they refused to convert to Islam; the persecution of Sikhs triggered the founding of the Khalsa as an order to protect the freedom of conscience and religion, with qualities of a "Sant-Sipāhī" – a saint-soldier. The Khalsa was founded by Guru Gobind Singh; the majority of Sikh scriptures were written in the Gurmukhī alphabet, a script standardised by Guru Angad out of Laṇḍā scripts used in North India. Adherents of Sikhism are known as Sikhs, which means disciples of the Guru; the anglicised word'Sikhism' is derived from the Punjabi verb Sikhi, with roots in Sikhana, Sikhi connotes the "temporal path of learning". The basis of Sikhism lies in the teachings of his successors. Many sources call Sikhism a monotheistic religion, while others call it a monistic and panentheistic religion. According to Eleanor Nesbitt, English renderings of Sikhism as a monotheistic religion "tend misleadingly to reinforce a Semitic understanding of monotheism, rather than Guru Nanak's mystical awareness of the one, expressed through the many.
However, what is not in doubt is the emphasis on'one'". In Sikhism, the concept of "God" is Waheguru considered Nirankar and Alakh Niranjan; the Sikh scripture begins with Ik Onkar, which refers to the "formless one", understood in the Sikh tradition as monotheistic unity of God. Sikhism is classified as an Indian religion along with Buddhism and Jainism, given its geographical origin and its sharing some concepts with them. Sikh ethics emphasize the congruence between everyday moral conduct, its founder Guru Nanak summarized this perspective with "Truth is the highest virtue, but higher still is truthful living". God in Sikhism is known as the One Supreme Reality or the all-pervading spirit; this spirit has no gender in Sikhism. It is Akaal Purkh and Nirankar. In addition, Nanak wrote; the traditional Mul Mantar goes from Ik Oankar until Nanak Hosee Bhee Sach. The opening line of the Guru Granth Sahib and each subsequent raga, mentions Ik Oankar: ੴ ਸਤਿ ਨਾਮੁ ਕਰਤਾ ਪੁਰਖੁ ਨਿਰਭਉ ਨਿਰਵੈਰੁ ਅਕਾਲ ਮੂਰਤਿ ਅਜੂਨੀ ਸੈਭੰ ਗੁਰ ਪ੍ਰਸਾਦਿ॥Transliteration: ikk ōankār sat-nām karatā purakh nirabha'u niravair akāl mūrat ajūnī saibhan gur prasād.
"There is one supreme being, the eternal reality, the creator, without fear and devoid of enmity, never incarnated, self-existent, known by grace through the true Guru." Māyā, defined as a temporary illusion or "unreality", is one of the core deviations from the pursuit of God and salvation: where worldly attractions which give only illusory temporary satisfaction and pain which distract the process of the devotion of God. However, Nanak emphasised māyā as not a reference of its values. In Sikhism, the influences of ego, greed and lust, known as the Five Thieves, are believed to be distracting and hurtful. Sikhs believe the world is curren
Guru Hargobind, revered as the sixth Nanak, was the sixth of ten Gurus of the Sikh religion. He had become Guru at the young age of eleven, after the execution of his father, Guru Arjan, by the Mughal emperor Jahangir. Guru Hargobind introduced the process of militarization to Sikhism as a response to his father's execution and to protect the Sikh community, he symbolized it by representing the dual concept of miri and piri. In front of the Harmandir Sahib in Amritsar, Guru Hargobind constructed the Akal Takht, as a court for consideration of temporal issues and administration of justice; the Akal Takht represents the highest seat of earthly authority of the Khalsa today. Guru Hargobind had the longest tenure as Guru, lasting 9 months and 3 days. Hargobind was born in 1595 in Wadali Guru, a village 7 km west of Amritsar, the only son of Guru Arjan, the fifth Sikh Guru, he suffered from smallpox as a child and survived a poisoning attempt by an uncle, as well as another attempt on his life, when a cobra was thrown at him.
He studied religious texts with Bhai Gurdas and trained in swordsmanship and archery with Baba Buddha. On 25 May 1606 Guru Arjan selected Hargobind as his successor and instructed his son to start a military tradition to protect the Sikh people and always keep himself surrounded by armed Sikhs for protection. Shortly afterwards, Guru Arjan was arrested and killed by order of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir, Guru Hargobind's succession ceremony took place on 24 June 1606, he put on two swords: one indicated his spiritual authority and the other, his temporal authority. He followed his martyred father's advice and always kept himself surrounded by armed Sikhs for protection; the number fifty two was special in his life, his retinue consisted of fifty two armed men. He thus founded the military tradition in the Sikh faith. Guru Hargobind had three wives: Damodari and Mahadevi, he had children from all three wives. Two of his eldest sons from the first wife died during his lifetime. Tegh Bahadur, his son from Nanaki, became the ninth Sikh Guru.
The Guru was a martial artist, an avid hunter and, according to Persian records, unlike earlier Gurus, he and the Sikh Gurus that followed him were meat eaters. Guru Hargobind encouraged people to maintain physical fitness and keep their bodies ready for physical combat, he had his own Darbar. The arming and training of some of his devoted followers began; the Guru came to possess seven hundred horses and his Risaldari grew to three hundred horsemen and sixty musketeers. He nominated his grandson to succeed him as the seventh Guru Har Rai, he died in 1644 at Kiratpur Sahib, a town situated on the banks of river Sutlej, was cremated on the banks of River Sutlej, where now stands Gurdwara Patalpuri. Guru Hargobind led the Sikh response against Mughal power after Guru Arjan's execution, he nominally accepted Shah Jahan's authority but resisted the Islamic persecution, fighting four wars against Shah Jahan's armies. His attempts to transform the Sikh community brought him in conflict with the Mughal authority.
Because of the execution of Guru Arjan by Mughal Emperor Jahangir, Guru Hargobind from the start was a dedicated enemy of the Mughal rule. He advised Sikhs to fight the Mughals; the death of his father at the hands of Jahangir prompted him to emphasise the military dimension of the Sikh community. He symbolically wore two swords, which represented piri, he created a formal court, Akal Takht. Jahangir responded by jailing the 14 year old Guru Hargobind at Gwalior Fort in 1609, on the pretext that the fine imposed on Guru Arjan had not been paid by the Sikhs and Guru Hargobind, it is not clear as to. The year of his release appears to have been either 1611 or 1612, when Guru Hargobind was about 16 years old. Persian records, such as Dabistan i Mazahib suggest he was kept in jail for twelve years, including over 1617-1619 in Gwalior, after which he and his camp were kept under Muslim army's surveillance by Jahangir, it is unclear. Scholars suggest that Jahangir had more or less reverted to tolerant policies of Akbar by about 1611 after he felt secure about his throne, the Sunnis and Naqshbandhi court officials at the Mughal court had fallen out of his favour.
Another theory states that Jahangir discovered the circumstances and felt Guru Hargobind was harmless, so he ordered his release. According to Surjit Singh Gandhi, 52 Rajas who were imprisoned in the fort as hostages for "millions of rupees" and for opposing the Mughal empire were dismayed as they were losing a spiritual mentor. Guru Hargobind requested Jehangir to let these Rajas be freed along with him and he stood surety for their loyal behaviour. Jahangir accepted his request but ordered the release of only as many as could hold onto the hem of his cloak when he walked out. So Guru Hargobind got an large cloak made and wore it the day of his release; as Guru Hargobind left the fort, the other 52 captive rajas held the hem of this cloak and thus were permitted to came out along with him. After his release, Guru Hargobind more discreetly strengthened the Sikh army and reconsolidated the Sikh community, his relations with Jahangir remained friendly. He accompanied Jahangir to Kashmir and Rajputana and subdued Tara Chand of Nalagarh, who had continued for a long time in open rebellion and all efforts to subdue him had failed.
During Jahangir's reign, Guru Hargobind fought a battle against the Mughals at Rohilla. The battl
Guru Maneyo Granth
"Guru Maneyo Granth" refers to the historic statement of the 10th Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, shortly before his demise, on affirming the sacred scripture Adi Granth as his successor, thus terminating the line of human Gurus. Installed as the Guru Granth Sahib, it is now the central holy scripture of Sikhism, the eternal living Guru of all Sikhs, it is central to Sikh worship as it is said to imbibe the one light of the creator manifested in the Ten Sikh Gurus - one spirit in ten forms. The event in 1708 at Nanded, when Guru Gobind Singh installed Adi Granth as the Guru of Sikhism, was recorded in a Bhatt Vahi by an eyewitness, Narbud Singh, is now celebrated as Gurgaddi, statement is part of the central chant, Sabh Sikhan ko Hukam Hai, Guru Maneyo Granth. October 2008 marked the Tercentenary year of Guruship of Guru Granth Sahib and was marked by major celebrations by Sikhs worldwide, at Takht Sri Hazur Sahib, Nanded saw year-long celebrations; the composition of the sacred Granth contains renderings of the Hymns of 5 Sikh Gurus of the Sikh faith along with 15 Bhagats, 11 Bhatts and 3 Gursikhs.
It was composed in this form in the year 1604 with the addition of Guru Tegh Bahadur's Bani. Its blessings are sought by the true seeker with a devout heart; the Sikh religion sincerely believes that in each of the succeeding Gurus the spirit, the light of God which manifested in Guru Nanak Dev was operating and passed onto the next Sikh Guru. Guru Ram Das says in the Siri Guru Granth Sahib: Waho Waho Satgur Nirankar Hai, Jis Ant Na Paravar - The Lord descends in this world in the form of The Satguru, but only some rare soul/devotee is able to recognise him; the sacred Granth is installed in all Sikh holy places of worship and treated as the presiding presence of the Guru, an embodiment of Divine Truth. The devotees of the Sangat or congregation gather in solemn assembly to pray and seek the blessings of the Supreme; this comes through in the mystical wisdom contained within the words of Gurbani and it stands for realization of the Truth. The Gurus' word, known as'shabad' is taken as the mystic experience of the Guru.
In the words of Bhai Gurdas, a great scholar of the Guru's time, "In the word is the Guru, the Guru is in the word. In other words, the human body was not the Guru, but the light of the word within the heart was their real personality." When the human mind dives deeper and deeper into the Guru's word, all mental impurities depart and the wisdom of the Guru permeates the human soul. Thereby the devotee attains the divine light and wisdom which leads him to contemplate and meditate on God's name. In the light of the above realities, the Sikh religion makes the holy Granth the living master of the Sikh Panth. Before Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Guru left his human body, he conferred the Guruship to the, he delivered a self-composed hymn: Agya bhai Akal ki tabhi chalayo Panth. Sabh Sikhan ko hukam hai Guru manyo Granth. Guru Granth Ji manyo pargat Guran ki deh. Jo Prabhu ko milo chahe khoj shabad mein le. Raj karega Khalsa aqi rahei na koe, Khwar hoe sabh milange bache sharan jo hoe." Translation:"Under orders of the Immortal Being, the Panth was created.
All Sikhs are enjoined to accept the Granth as their Guru. Consider the Guru Granth as an embodiment of the Gurus; those who want to meet God, can find Him in its hymns. The pure Khalsa shall rule, the impures will be left no more, Those separated will unite and all the devotees of the Guru shall be saved." He offered his obeisance to the sacred Granth thus conveying his Light to it. This historic development took place in Oct. 1708 which ensured that the order of the Khalsa brotherhood always remained an abiding force for Sikh Panth unity. The Guru Granth Sahib begins with the Mul Mantar, an iconic verse created by Nanak: Punjabi: ੴਸਤਿਨਾਮੁਕਰਤਾਪੁਰਖੁਨਿਰਭਉਨਿਰਵੈਰੁਅਕਾਲਮੂਰਤਿਅਜੂਨੀਸੈਭੰਗੁਰਪ੍ਰਸਾਦਿ॥ ISO 15919 transliteration: Ika ōaṅkāra sati nāmu karatā purakhu nirabha'u niravairu akāla mūrati ajūnī saibhaṅ gura prasādi jap ade sache jugade sache, haibhi sach, Nanake hosee bhee sache' Simplified transliteration: Ik ōaṅkār sat nām kartā purkh nirbha'u nirvair akāl mūrat ajūnī saibhaṅ gur prasād jap, aad sach, jugad sach, hai bhee sach, Nanak hosi bhee sach.
Historical events have brought out that when Guru Nanak Dev appeared before the Supreme Lord, he himself presented to him a cup of God's name, known as Amrita to propagate in his subjects. Guru Nanak Dev received the Mul Mantar in his divine consciousness which defines the fundamental directive spiritual philosophy of Sikhism, it appears in the beginning of Sri Granth Sahib, ahead of Japji. It is composed of two elements – the figure ek and logo or symbol'onkar'; the term'ekonkar' in full form was meant to describe transcendent formless god as creator and dissoluter. The symbol'onkar' gives mystical interpretation of immanent spirit of god and his becoming aspect which created the universe, it is a well-known fact that this universe was created through a primordial sound, known as first wisdom of god. It acts as an intermediary between his creation. God is spirit and pure light. In Sikh mysticism, while meditating on Mul Mantar and its repetition believed to lead the soul to absorption in the absolute.
The Mul Mantar and the Gurmantra Waheguru - the Name of god in Sikhism, repeated induce a high spiritual state. The Gurmantra Waheguru - Naam unites the individual soul with the God; the Mul Mantar invokes all qualities of