Takht Sri Damdama Sahib
The Takht Sri Darbar Sahib Damdama Sahib, one of the five Takhts or Seat of Temporal Authority of Sikhism, Takht Sri Damdama Sahib is in Bathinda in Punjab, India and is the place where Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Sikh Guru, prepared the full version of the Sikh scriptures called Sri Guru Granth Sahib in 1705. The other four Takhts are the Akal Takht, Takht Sri Keshgarh Sahib, Takht Sri Patna Sahib and Takht Sri Huzur or hazur Sahib; the Takht is in 28 km southeast of Bathinda. Damdama means breathing place. Guru Gobind Singh stayed here. A combination of Mughals and hillmen besieged Anandpur Sahib on the orders of emperor Aurangzeb; the stock of food in the town ran out. The Mughals promised safe passage to Punjab for the Sikhs if they would hand over the fortress of Anandpur. At first Guru Gobind tested their promise of safe passage by staging a test which the attackers failed miserably. With promises written in the margins of the Muslims' Holy Qur'an and some of the sacred writings of the Hindu elements of the army that had all but starved his small contingent of family and Sikhs and a personal promise of safety by Aurangzeb sent by an agent of the Emperor, fighting in the distant Deccan, the Guru was persuaded to agree to their offer, leaving Anandpur with his family and a small band of retainers.
During the flight from Anandpur when the Sikhs were promised safe passage to Punjab, Sahibzada Fateh Singh was, with his elder brother Zorawar Singh, put under the care of his grandmother, Mata Gujari Kaur ji. In the confusion of the rain-swollen Sarsa and an attack by Muslim pursuers, the Guru's two youngest sons and their grandmother were separated from the main body of Sikhs. Managing to get across, they were befriended by one of the Guru's former cooks. Betrayed and handed off by the authorities of the small village where they had been given sanctuary, they were handed over to agents of Wazir Khan, carted off to Sirhind, placed under arrest in the Khan's Thanda Burj; the Thanda Burj was built to capture the cool night breezes of air drawn over water channels in the hot summers, during the dead of winter the unheated burj offered no comfort for the Guru's mother and sons. On 26 December 1705, his elder brother Zorawar were martyred at Sirhind. Fateh Singh is the youngest recorded martyr in history: He knowingly laid down his life at the age of six years.
Brothers Sahibzada Fateh Singh and Sahibzada Zorawar Singh are among the most hallowed martyrs in Sikhism. Today, the place is known as Fatehgarh Sahib. An unequal but grim battle commenced with the sunrise on 7 December 1705 in the words of Guru Gobind Singh's Zafarnamah, a mere forty defying a hundred thousand; the besieged, after they had exhausted the meagre stock of ammunition and arrows, made sallies in batches of five each to engage the encircling host with sword and spear. Sahibzada Ajit Singh led one of the sallies and laid down his life fighting in the thick of the battle, he was 18 years old at the time of his supreme sacrifice for his faith. Gurdwara Qatalgarh now marks the spot where he fell, followed by Sahibzada Jujhar Singh, 14, who led the next sally; the valour displayed by the young sons of Guru Gobind Singh has been poignantly narrated by a modern Muslim poet Allahyar Khan Jogi who used to recite his Urdu poem, "ShahidaniWafa." From Sikh pulpits during the third decades of the twentieth century.
By nightfall Guru Gobind Singh was left with only five Sikhs in the fortress. These five urged him to escape so that he could rally his followers again and continue the struggle against oppression; the Guru agreed. He gave his own attire to Sangat Singh, who resembled him somewhat in physical stature. Under cover of darkness, he made his way through the encircling host slackened by the fatigue of the day's battle. Daya Singh, Dharam Singh and Man Singh escaped leaving behind only two Sikhs: Sangat Singh and Sant Singh; the next morning as the attack was resumed, the imperial troops entered the garhi without much resistance and were surprised to find only two occupants who, determined to die rather than give in, gave battle till the last. Having reached safety Gobind wrote a letter in Persian prose, called the Zafarnamah, to the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb calling him to task as he had guaranteed safe passage to the Punjab for the Sikhs who had abandoned the city of Anandpur and its forts only to be attacked.
Guru Gobind Singh fought a successful battle at Muktsar and moved towards Talwandi Sabo. Before leaving to visit Sikh Sangats in the Deccan, Guruji blessed Talwandi Sabo, as Guru Ki Kashi. Now known better as Damdama Sahib after the Gurdwara became one of the five temporal Takhats of the Sikh religion. Another great Shaheed of Sikhi, Baba Deep Singh ji was installed as the first Jathedar of this temporal seat, he penned additional copies of the Adi Sri Granth Sahib ji and sent them to the other four temporal seats. This title was given because of the intense literary activities that Guru Gobind Singh engaged in during his stay here, it is said that one day Guru Gobind flung a handful of reed pens over the heads of the congregation, saying: "Here we will create a pool of literature. No one of my Sikhs should remain illiterate." The Damdama Wali Bir as the Guru Granth Sahib is sometimes called was completed here, being dictated by the Guru to one of his disciples Bhai Mani Singh. It was at this time when the hymns of Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib, the ninth Guru and father of Guru Gobind Singh were added to the Bir.
This Takht was recognized as the fourth Takht of Sikhism on 18 November 1966. On a demand
Nanded is a city in Maharashtra state, India. It is the eighth largest urban agglomeration of the state and the seventy-ninth most populous city in India, it is the second largest city in Marathwada subdivision. Nanded is the centre of governance of Nanded district. Nanded is a major destination for Sikh pilgrims, because the 10th Sikh Guru made Nanded his permanent abode and passed his guruship to the Guru Granth Sahib before his death in 1708. Nanded is located on the banks of Godavari river in central west India, it is closer to Hyderabad in the state of Telangana than it is to the capital of Maharashtra state, Mumbai. Nanded district borders Latur district and Parbhani district to the west and Yavatmal district to the north; the district is bounded by the Nizamabad and Adilabad districts of Telangana state to the east. Nanded has two parts: Old Nanded 20.62 square kilometres occupies the north bank of the Godavari river. From a copper plate inscription found at Washim, a town 150 kilometres north of Nanded, archaeologists deduce the city was known as Nanditaṭa.
Another name was Nandigrāma. Folklore suggests. Shiva was said to have performed penance on the banks of the Godavari river; this "Nandi-taṭa" became "Nanded". Nanded is an historic centre. Local irrigation practices and Nanded itself are recorded in Leela Charitra. In the 5th and 4th centuries BCE, Nanded was ruled by the Nanda dynasty. In the 3rd century BCE, it was part of the Maurya Empire under Ashoka. In the 1st century CE, power in the area lay with the Satvahanas. From 1636, Nanded was the centre of governance of Nizam State now Telangana, Karnataka, an imperial province of the Mughal Badshah Shah Jahan. In 1657, Nanded merged into Bidah Subah. In 1725, Nanded became part of Hyderabad State, it continued to be part of the Nizam of Hyderabad's dominions until 1948. After India gained independence in 1947, the Indian Armed Forces annexed Hyderabad and ended the rule of the Nizam in Operation Polo, making Nanded part of the new Hyderabad State. Nanded remained part of the annexed Hyderabad state until 1956 when it was included in the Bombay Presidency.
On 1 May 1960, Maharashtra state was created on a linguistic basis and the Marathi dominant Nanded district became part of Maharashtra. Nanded is associated with some important Sikh gurus. For example, Guru Nanak passed through Nanded on his way to Sri Lanka. Guru Gobind Singh arrived in Nanded with the mughal emperor Bahadur Shah I near the end of August in 1707 CE; when Bahadur moved on to Golconda Singh remained in Nanded. Singh proclaimed he was the last living guru and established the sacred text, the Guru Granth Sahib as an eternal "living" leader. Guru Gobind Singh died without a lineal descendant due to the martyrdom of his four sons. In about 1835, Maharaja Ranjit Singh commissioned the construction of a gurdwara at Nanded, it was built on the site of Guru Gobind Singh's cremation. The gurdwara is part of the Hazur Sahib. In 2008, the tercentenary of the passing of the guruship to Guru Granth Sahib, Guru-ta-Gaddi celebrations were held in Nanded. Nanded is the second largest city in Marathawada after Aurangabad.
Its area is 63.22 square kilometres. Regarding cities in Maharashtra state, Pune, Nasik, Aurangabad and Amravati are larger. Nanded is built on the Deccan Traps lava flows of the upper cretaceous to lower eocene eras; the lava flows are overlain by thin alluvial deposits. The lava flows are horizontal and each flow has two distinct units; the weathered vesicular trap and underlying weathered jointed and fractured massive trap constitutes the main water-yielding zones. The soil is formed from igneous rocks and are black, medium black and calcareous types having different depths and profiles; the city of Nanded is managed by the Nanded-Waghala Municipal Corporation. The corporation consists of 81 democratically elected members; the Municipal Commissioner is the Chief Executive of the Corporation. As of the 2011 census, Nanded had a population of 550,564; the municipality had a gender ratio of 924 females per 1,000 males. 12.4 percent of the population were under six years old. Effective literacy was 87.40 percent.
81.74 percent of women were literate. Male literacy was 92.68 percent. Nanded is a market town for its surrounding agricultural region. Tourism is supported by religious pilgrims. There is some industrial development. Crops grown around Nanded include cotton, sugarcane, soya beans, sweet limes, sorghum. Nanded has a regional cotton research center to support the cotton-growing industry. There is an agricultural school operational under the aegis of Krishi Vidyapeeth of Parbhani. On 17 September 1994, the Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University was established in Nanded after a restructuring of the Marathwada University in Aurangabad; the university supervises the educational activities in senior colleges in four districts of Marathwada division. Notable educational institutions in Nanded include the Dr. Shankarrao Chavan Government Medical College and the Shri Guru Gobind Singhji Institute of Engineering and Technology. Vedic rituals are performed on the banks of Godavari River These include Urvashi Ghat, Ram Ghat, Govardhan Ghat.
Hazur Sahib Nanded
Hazūr Sāhib spelled Hazoor Sahib known as Takht Sachkhand Sri Hazur Abchalnagar Sahib and Abchal Nagar, is one of the five takhts in Sikhism. It is located on the banks of the River Godavari at the city of Nanded in the state of Maharashtra, Western India; the gurudwara within the complex is known as Sach-Khand. The structure is built at the place; the inner room of the gurdwara is called the Angitha Sahib and is built over the place where Guru Gobind Singh was cremated in 1708. The gurdwara was built between 1837 by order of Maharaja Ranjit Singh Ji. Hazur Sahib marks the site where Guru Gobind Singh had his camp in 1708; the Guru held his court and congregation here and was convalescing after being attacked by two would-be assassins. One of the attackers stabbed the Guru, was killed by him with a single stroke of his talwar; the other was killed by his followers. The Guru's wound was deep, but healed after being stitched by an English surgeon sent by Bahadur Shah I, who served as his doctor, Dara Shikoh before him.
However the wound re-opened a few days when the Guru was stringing a bow for one of his Sikhs and the Guru Joti Jot after declaring the Guru Granth Sahib as his successor. The Sikhs built a room over the platform where Guru Gobind Singh would sit while holding his court and installed the Guru Granth Sahib on it, they called it Takhat Sahib. Guru Gobind Singh, while conferring Guruship on the holy Book, had himself named Nanded as "Abchalnagar" after the first word of a hymn read at random on the occasion. In October 2008, the 300th anniversary celebration of the Guruship of Guru Granth Sahib took place here; this site is now one of five Takhats. The other four takhats are: Akal Takhat at Amritsar, Takhat Keshgarh Sahib at Anandpur, Takhat Patna Sahib in Bihar and Takhat Damdama Sahib in Talwandi Sabo, Punjab. Sachkhand had been used by Guru Nanak to mean the abode of God. Ranjit Singh had the present building of the Takhat Sahib constructed with money and labor sent from the Punjab during the early 1830s.
Around the same time the Nizam of Hyderabad State a Muslim ruler of the Deccan Region raised a contingent of Northern Sikhs as part of his army. Most of these men settled permanently in Hyderabad State and devout Hindus of the Deccan embraced Sikhism in the 19th century. Hindus have a high regard for the Guru Gobind Singh and gurudwara; the control of Takhat Sachkhand Sri Hazoor Sahib, which had passed into the hands of Udasi Sikh priests was regained by the Sikhs under the influence of the Singh Sabha Movement of the late nineteenth century. Some of the'rituals and ceremonies connected with working' are peculiar to this Takhat Sahib. In 1956 an Act was passed by the legislature of Hyderabad under which the management of the Takhat Sahib and other historical Gurdwaras was placed under a 17-member Gurudwaras Board and a five-member Managing Committee; the Takht houses both the Sri Dasam Granth. This follows the pattern of Takht Sri Patna Sahib. Nanded being the holy city where Baba Banda Singh Bahadur had his ashram and Baba Banda Singh started his journey of Khalsa victory from Nanded only, has a high place in national history of India.
This shrine differs from other historical places of Sikh worship, here all ancient customs which were practised at the time of the Guru are still practised for example, sandal-wood tilak is still applied on the foreheads of priests and local devotees. The most important aspect of this holy shrine is. While all the functions are carried out by the priests in the outer room, the inner room is a vault which houses priceless objects and other personal belongings of the Guru. No one except the head priest can enter this holy vault. In 2008, the 300th Gurudomship ceremony of Guru Granth Sahib and 300th Joti Jot anniversary of Guru Gobind Singh were celebrated on a grand scale at Hazoor Sahib, Nanded; the Prime Minister of India, Manmohan Singh addressed to the Sath-Sangat on the main event function. To publicise the event the "Jagriti Yatra" was arranged which travelled through different cities across the country and some places in abroad. A laser-ray show has been started at Gobind Bagh near the main gurudwara.
In this show the lives of the ten Gurus are described. The show became popular in a short period not only among Sikhs but people of other religions, it is the second largest laser show in Asia. Gurdwara Langar Sahib Gurdwara Nagina Ghat abc Gurdwara Banda Ghat Gurdwara Shikaar Ghat Gurdwara Bowli Sahib Gurdwara Heera Ghat Gurdwara Mata Sahib Gurdwara Maal Tekdi Gurdwara Sangat Sahib Gurdwara Damdama Sahib Gurdwara Nanakpur Sahib Gurudwara Bhajangarh Saheb Singh Sahib Giani Kulwant Singh Jathedar Bhai Hajoora Singh Baba Joginder singh Ji Moni Sant Baba Harnaam Singh Bhai Jagat Singh was an eminent Ragi who did Seva at the Takhat from AD 1934 to 1978, he had taken his Vidiya of "Raag" based Kirtana at Chief khalsa diwan's Khalsa Pracharak Vidyalaya aka Taran taran taksal, Punjab. Tourism in Marathwada Nidar Singh Nihang and Parmjit Singh, In the Master's Presence - The Sikhs of Hazoor Sahib, Kashi House, ISBN 978-0-9560168-0-5. Official homepage sgpc.net e
Guru Maneyo Granth
"Guru Maneyo Granth" refers to the historic statement of the 10th Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, shortly before his demise, on affirming the sacred scripture Adi Granth as his successor, thus terminating the line of human Gurus. Installed as the Guru Granth Sahib, it is now the central holy scripture of Sikhism, the eternal living Guru of all Sikhs, it is central to Sikh worship as it is said to imbibe the one light of the creator manifested in the Ten Sikh Gurus - one spirit in ten forms. The event in 1708 at Nanded, when Guru Gobind Singh installed Adi Granth as the Guru of Sikhism, was recorded in a Bhatt Vahi by an eyewitness, Narbud Singh, is now celebrated as Gurgaddi, statement is part of the central chant, Sabh Sikhan ko Hukam Hai, Guru Maneyo Granth. October 2008 marked the Tercentenary year of Guruship of Guru Granth Sahib and was marked by major celebrations by Sikhs worldwide, at Takht Sri Hazur Sahib, Nanded saw year-long celebrations; the composition of the sacred Granth contains renderings of the Hymns of 5 Sikh Gurus of the Sikh faith along with 15 Bhagats, 11 Bhatts and 3 Gursikhs.
It was composed in this form in the year 1604 with the addition of Guru Tegh Bahadur's Bani. Its blessings are sought by the true seeker with a devout heart; the Sikh religion sincerely believes that in each of the succeeding Gurus the spirit, the light of God which manifested in Guru Nanak Dev was operating and passed onto the next Sikh Guru. Guru Ram Das says in the Siri Guru Granth Sahib: Waho Waho Satgur Nirankar Hai, Jis Ant Na Paravar - The Lord descends in this world in the form of The Satguru, but only some rare soul/devotee is able to recognise him; the sacred Granth is installed in all Sikh holy places of worship and treated as the presiding presence of the Guru, an embodiment of Divine Truth. The devotees of the Sangat or congregation gather in solemn assembly to pray and seek the blessings of the Supreme; this comes through in the mystical wisdom contained within the words of Gurbani and it stands for realization of the Truth. The Gurus' word, known as'shabad' is taken as the mystic experience of the Guru.
In the words of Bhai Gurdas, a great scholar of the Guru's time, "In the word is the Guru, the Guru is in the word. In other words, the human body was not the Guru, but the light of the word within the heart was their real personality." When the human mind dives deeper and deeper into the Guru's word, all mental impurities depart and the wisdom of the Guru permeates the human soul. Thereby the devotee attains the divine light and wisdom which leads him to contemplate and meditate on God's name. In the light of the above realities, the Sikh religion makes the holy Granth the living master of the Sikh Panth. Before Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Guru left his human body, he conferred the Guruship to the, he delivered a self-composed hymn: Agya bhai Akal ki tabhi chalayo Panth. Sabh Sikhan ko hukam hai Guru manyo Granth. Guru Granth Ji manyo pargat Guran ki deh. Jo Prabhu ko milo chahe khoj shabad mein le. Raj karega Khalsa aqi rahei na koe, Khwar hoe sabh milange bache sharan jo hoe." Translation:"Under orders of the Immortal Being, the Panth was created.
All Sikhs are enjoined to accept the Granth as their Guru. Consider the Guru Granth as an embodiment of the Gurus; those who want to meet God, can find Him in its hymns. The pure Khalsa shall rule, the impures will be left no more, Those separated will unite and all the devotees of the Guru shall be saved." He offered his obeisance to the sacred Granth thus conveying his Light to it. This historic development took place in Oct. 1708 which ensured that the order of the Khalsa brotherhood always remained an abiding force for Sikh Panth unity. The Guru Granth Sahib begins with the Mul Mantar, an iconic verse created by Nanak: Punjabi: ੴਸਤਿਨਾਮੁਕਰਤਾਪੁਰਖੁਨਿਰਭਉਨਿਰਵੈਰੁਅਕਾਲਮੂਰਤਿਅਜੂਨੀਸੈਭੰਗੁਰਪ੍ਰਸਾਦਿ॥ ISO 15919 transliteration: Ika ōaṅkāra sati nāmu karatā purakhu nirabha'u niravairu akāla mūrati ajūnī saibhaṅ gura prasādi jap ade sache jugade sache, haibhi sach, Nanake hosee bhee sache' Simplified transliteration: Ik ōaṅkār sat nām kartā purkh nirbha'u nirvair akāl mūrat ajūnī saibhaṅ gur prasād jap, aad sach, jugad sach, hai bhee sach, Nanak hosi bhee sach.
Historical events have brought out that when Guru Nanak Dev appeared before the Supreme Lord, he himself presented to him a cup of God's name, known as Amrita to propagate in his subjects. Guru Nanak Dev received the Mul Mantar in his divine consciousness which defines the fundamental directive spiritual philosophy of Sikhism, it appears in the beginning of Sri Granth Sahib, ahead of Japji. It is composed of two elements – the figure ek and logo or symbol'onkar'; the term'ekonkar' in full form was meant to describe transcendent formless god as creator and dissoluter. The symbol'onkar' gives mystical interpretation of immanent spirit of god and his becoming aspect which created the universe, it is a well-known fact that this universe was created through a primordial sound, known as first wisdom of god. It acts as an intermediary between his creation. God is spirit and pure light. In Sikh mysticism, while meditating on Mul Mantar and its repetition believed to lead the soul to absorption in the absolute.
The Mul Mantar and the Gurmantra Waheguru - the Name of god in Sikhism, repeated induce a high spiritual state. The Gurmantra Waheguru - Naam unites the individual soul with the God; the Mul Mantar invokes all qualities of
Guru Amar Das
Guru Amar Das was the third of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Sikh Guru on 26 March 1552 at age 73. Before becoming a Sikh, Amar Das had adhered to the Vaishnavism tradition of Hinduism for much of his life. One day he heard his nephew's wife, Bibi Amro, reciting a hymn by Guru Nanak, was moved by it. Bibi Amro was the daughter of Guru Angad, the second and current Guru of the Sikhs. Amar Das persuaded Bibi Amro to introduce him to her father and in 1539, Amar Das, at the age of sixty, met Guru Angad and became a Sikh, devoting himself to the Guru. In 1552, before his death, Guru Angad appointed Amar Das as Guru Amar Das, the third Guru of Sikhism. Guru Amar Das was an important innovator in Sikhism, who introduced a religious organization called the Manji system by appointing trained clergy, a system that expanded and survives into the contemporary era, he wrote and compiled hymns into a Pothi that helped create the Adi Granth. Guru Amar Das helped establish the Sikh rituals relating to baby naming and funeral, as well as the practice of congregation and celebrations of festivals such as Diwali and Vaisakhi.
He founded centres of Sikh pilgrimage, picked the site for the Golden Temple. Guru Amar Das remained the leader of the Sikhs till age 95, named his son-in-law Bhai Jetha remembered by the name Guru Ram Das as his successor. Guru Amar Das was born to mother Bakht Kaur and father Tej Bhan Bhalla on 5 May 1479 in Basarke village in what is now called Amritsar district of Punjab, he married Mansa Devi and they had four children which they named as Mohri, Mohan and Bhani. Amar Das was a religious Hindu, reputed to have gone on some twenty pilgrimages into the Himalayas, to Haridwar on river Ganges. About 1539, on one such Hindu pilgrimage, he met a Hindu monk who asked him why he did not have a guru and Amar Das decided to get one. On his return, he heard Bibi Amro, the daughter of the Sikh Guru Angad, singing a hymn by Guru Nanak, he learnt from her about Guru Angad, with her help met the second Guru of Sikhism and adopted him as his spiritual Guru, much younger than his own age. He is famous in the Sikh tradition for his relentless service to Guru Angad, with legends about waking up in the early hours and fetching water for his Guru's bath and cooking for the volunteers with the Guru, as well devoting much time to meditation and prayers in the morning and evening.
Guru Angad named Amar Das his successor instead of naming of his surviving son Shri Chand. After Amar Das became the third Guru, he continued his pilgrimages to religious sites, one of, authenticated in a hymn of the Guru Granth Sahib as being to Kurukshetra in January 1553, he died in 1574, like other Sikh Gurus he was cremated, with the "flowers" immersed into harisar. The use of fire being most appropriate way was explained by Guru Nanak in religious terms of god Agni burning the trap of death, Guru Amar Das was consigned to the same tradition. Guru Amar Das emphasised both spiritual pursuits as well an ethical daily life, he encouraged his followers to wake up before dawn, do their ablutions and meditate in silent seclusion. A good devotee, taught Amar Das, should be truthful, keep his mind in control, eat only when hungry, seek company of pious men, worship the Lord, make an honest living, serve holy men, not covet another's wealth and never slander others, he recommended holy devotion with Guru image in his follower's heart.
He was a reformer, discouraged veiling of women's faces as well as sati. He encouraged the Kshatriya people to fight in order to protect people and for the sake of justice, stating this is Dharma. Guru Amar Das started the tradition of appointing manji, introduced the dasvandh system of revenue collection in the name of Guru and as pooled community religious resource, the famed langar tradition of Sikhism where anyone, without discrimination of any kind, could get a free meal in a communal seating, he started and inaugurated the 84-level step well called baoli at Goindval with a resting place, modeled along the lines of the Indian tradition of dharmsala, which became a Sikh pilgrimage center. He met the Mughal Emperor Akbar. According to the Sikh legend, he neither received Akbar nor was Akbar directly ushered to him, rather the Guru suggested that Akbar like everyone sit on the floor and eat in the langar with everyone before their first meeting. Akbar, who sought to encourage tolerance and acceptance across religious lines accepted the suggestion.
The Sikh hagiographies called janam-sakhis mention that Guru Amar Das persuaded Akbar to repeal the tax on Hindu pilgrims going to Haridwar. Guru Amar Das composed the rapturous hymn called Anand and made it a part of the ritual of Sikh marriage called "Anand Karaj", which means "blissful event"; the Anand hymn is sung, in contemporary times, not only during Sikh weddings but at major celebrations. Parts of the "Anand hymn" are recited in Sikh temples every evening, at the naming of a Sikh baby, as well as during a Sikh funeral, it is a section of the Anand Sahib composition of Guru Amar Das, printed on pages 917 to 922 of the Adi Granth and set to the "Ramkali" raga. Guru Amar Das's entire Anand Sahib composition is a linguistic mix of Panjabi and Hindi languages, reflecting Guru Amar Das' upbringing and background; the hymn celebrates the freedom from suffering and anxiety, the union of the soul with t
Guru Ram Das
Guru Ram Das was the fourth of the ten Gurus of Sikhism. He was born on 24 September 1534 in a poor Hindu family based in Lahore, part of what is now Pakistan, his birth name was Jetha, he was orphaned at age 7, thereafter grew up with his maternal grandmother in a village. At age 12, Bhai Jetha and his grandmother moved to Goindval; the boy thereafter served him. The daughter of Guru Amar Das got married to Bhai Jetha, he thus became part of Guru Amar Das's family; as with the first two Gurus of Sikhism, Guru Amar Das instead of choosing his own sons, chose Bhai Jetha as his successor and renamed him as Ram Das or "servant or slave of god ". Ram Das became the Guru of Sikhism in 1574 and served as the Sikh leader until his death in 1581, he faced hostilities from the sons of Amar Das, shifted his official base to lands identified by Amar Das as Guru-ka-Chak. This newly founded town was eponymous Ramdaspur to evolve and get renamed as Amritsar – the holiest city of Sikhism, he is remembered in the Sikh tradition for expanding the manji organization for clerical appointments and donation collections to theologically and economically support the Sikh movement.
He appointed his own son as his successor, unlike the first four Gurus who were not related through descent, the fifth through tenth Sikh Gurus were the direct descendants of Ram Das. Guru Ram Das was born in a Sodhi Khatri family in Lahore, his father was mother Daya Kaurboth of whom died when he was aged seven. He was brought up by his grandmother, he married the younger daughter of Amar Das. They had three sons: Prithi Chand and Guru Arjan. Guru Ram Das died on 1 September 1581, in Goindval town of Punjab. Of his three sons, Ram Das chose the youngest, to succeed him as the fifth Sikh Guru; the choice of successor, as throughout most of the history of Sikh Guru successions, led to disputes and internal divisions among the Sikhs. The elder son of Ram Das named Prithi Chand is remembered in the Sikh tradition as vehemently opposing Arjan, creating a faction Sikh community which the Sikhs following Arjan called as Minas, is alleged to have attempted to assassinate young Hargobind. However, alternate competing texts written by the Prithi Chand led Sikh faction offer a different story, contradict this explanation on Hargobind's life, present the elder son of Ram Das as devoted to his younger brother Arjan.
The competing texts do acknowledge disagreement and describe Prithi Chand as having become the Sahib Guru after the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev and disputing the succession of Guru Hargobind, the grandson of Ram Das. Ram Das is credited with founding the holy city of Amritsar in the Sikh tradition. Two versions of stories exist regarding the land. In one based on a Gazetteer record, the land was purchased with Sikh donations, for 700 rupees from the owners of the village of Tung. According to the Sikh historical records, the site was chosen by Guru Amar Das and called Guru Da Chakk, after he had asked Ram Das to find land to start a new town with a man made pool as its central point. After his coronation in 1574, the hostile opposition he faced from the sons of Amar Das, Ram Das founded the town named after him as "Ramdaspur", he started by completing the pool, building his new official Guru centre and home next to it. He invited artisans from other parts of India to settle into the new town with him.
The town expanded during the time of Arjan constructed by voluntary work. The town grew to become the city of Amritsar, the pool area grew into a temple complex after his son built the gurdwara Harmandir Sahib, installed the scripture of Sikhism inside the new temple in 1604; the construction activity between 1574 and 1604 is described in Mahima Prakash Vartak, a semi-historical Sikh hagiography text composed in 1741, the earliest known document dealing with the lives of all the ten Gurus. Ram Das composed about ten percent of hymns in the Guru Granth Sahib, he was a celebrated poet, composed his work in 30 ancient ragas of Indian classical music. These cover a range of topics: One who calls himself to be a disciple of the Guru should rise before dawn and meditate on the Lord's Name. During the early hours, he should rise and bathe, cleansing his soul in a tank of nectar, while he repeats the Name the Guru has spoken to him. By this procedure he washes away the sins of his soul. – GGS 305 The Name of God fills my heart with joy.
My great fortune is to meditate on God's name. The miracle of God's name is attained through the perfect Guru, but only a rare soul walks in the light of the Guru's wisdom. – GGS 94 O man! The poison of pride is killing you. Your body, the colour of gold, has been discoloured by selfishness. Illusions of gradeur turn black. – GGS 776 Guru's Bani is part of Nanakshahi calendar and Kirtan Sohila, the daily prayers of Sikhs. His compositions continue to be sung daily in Harimandir Sahib of Sikhism. Ram Das, along with Amar Das, are credited with various parts of the Anand and Laavan composition in Suhi mode, it is a part of the ritual of four clockwise circumambulation of the Sikh scripture by the bride and groom to solemnize the marriage in Sikh tradition. This was intermittently used, its use lapsed in late 18th century. However, sometime in 19th or 20th century by conflicting accounts, the composition of Ram Das came back in use along with Anand Karaj ceremony, replacing the Hindu ritual of circumambulation around the fire.
The composition of Ram
Guru Granth Sahib
Sri Guru Granth Sahib is the Sikh scriptures. It was compiled by the ten gurus of Sikhism and is itself regarded by Sikhs as the final and eternal living guru. Adi Granth, the first rendition, was compiled by Guru Arjan; the tenth guru, Guru Gobind Singh, added one shloka, dohra mahala 9 ang, 1429 and all 115 hymns of his father, Guru Tegh Bahadur. This second rendition came to be known as Sri Guru Granth Sahib. After Guru Gobind Singh's death in 1708, Baba Deep Singh and Bhai Mani Singh prepared many copies of the Sri Guru Granth Sahib for distribution; the text consists of 1,430 angs and 6,000 śabads, which are poetically rendered and set to a rhythmic ancient north Indian classical form of music. The bulk of the scripture is divided into sixty rāags, with each Granth rāga subdivided according to length and author; the hymns in the scripture are arranged by the rāgas in which they are read. The Guru Granth Sahib is written in the Gurmukhī script, in various languages, including Lahnda, Braj Bhasha, Sanskrit and Persian.
Copies in these languages have the generic title of Sant Bhasha. Guru Granth Sahib was composed by the Sikh Gurus: Guru Nanak Dev, Guru Angad Dev, Guru Amar Das, Guru Ram Das, Guru Arjan Dev, Guru Tegh Bahadur and Guru Gobind Singh added 1 sloakh in mahala 9 Ang 1429, it contains the traditions and teachings of Indian sants, such as Ravidas, Ramananda and Namdev among others, two Muslim Sufi saints Bhagat Bhikan and: Sheikh Farid. The vision in the Guru Granth Sahib is of a society based on divine justice without oppression of any kind. While the Granth acknowledges and respects the scriptures of Hinduism and Islam, it does not imply a moral reconciliation with either of these religions, it is installed in a Sikh gurdwara. The Granth is revered as the spiritual authority in Sikhism. During the guruship of Guru Nanak Dev, collections of his holy hymns were compiled and sent to distant Sikh communities for use in morning and evening prayers, his successor Guru Angad Dev began collecting his predecessor's writings.
This tradition was continued by the fifth gurus as well. When the fifth guru Guru Arjan Dev was collecting religious writings of his predecessor, he discovered that pretenders to the guruship were releasing what he considered as forged anthologies of writings of the previous guru and including their own writings with them. In order to prevent spurious scriptures from gaining legitimacy, Guru Arjan Dev began compiling a sacred scripture for the Sikh community, he finished collecting the religious writings of Guru Ram Das, his immediate predecessor, convinced Mohan, the son of Guru Amar Das, to give him the collection of the religious writings of the first three gurus. In addition, he sent disciples to go across the country to find and bring back any unknown religious writings of theirs, he invited members of other religions and contemporary religious writers to submit writings for possible inclusion. Guru Arjan pitched a tent by the side of Ramsar tank in Amritsar and started the task of compiling the holy Granth.
He selected hymns for inclusion in the Adi Bhai Gurdas acted as his scribe. While the holy hymns and verses were being put together Akbar, the Mughal Emperor, received a report that the Adi Granth contained passages vilifying Islam. Therefore, while travelling north, he asked to inspect it. Baba Buddha and Bhai Gurdas brought him a copy of the Adi Granth. After choosing three random passages to be read, Akbar decided. In 1604, Adi Granth was completed and installed at the Harmandir Sahib, with Baba Buddha as the first granthi, or reader. Since communities of Sikh disciples were scattered all over northern India, copies of the holy scripture needed to be made for them; the sixth guru added the tunes of 9 out of 22 Vars. Seventh and eighth guru did not have writings of their own added to the holy scripture; the tenth guru, Guru Gobind Singh, included writings of his father Guru Tegh Bahadur in the Guru Granth Sahib, included 1 salokh in mahala 9 Ang 1429. In 1704 at Damdama Sahib, during a one-year respite from the heavy fighting with Aurangzeb which the Khalsa was engaged in at the time, Guru Gobind Singh and Bhai Mani Singh added the religious compositions of Guru Tegh Bahadur to Adi Granth to create a definitive compilation.
Religious verses of Guru Gobind Singh were not included in Guru Granth Sahib, but he added 1 sloak in mahala 9 Ang 1429. His banis are found in the Sri Dasam Granth, they are part in the daily prayers of Sikhs During this period, Bhai Mani Singh collected Guru Gobind Singh's religious writings, as well as his court poems, included them in a secondary religious volume, today known as the Dasam Granth Sahib. Sikhs consider the Guru Granth Sahib as the eternal living guru, the highest religious and spiritual guide for Sikhs and inspire all of humanity, its place in Sikh devotional life is based on two fundamental principles: on the "Gurbani", received by the Sikh gurus in their divine consciousness from God and revealed to mankind. The Guru Granth Sahib answers all questions regarding religion and that morality can be discovered within it; the word is the guru and the guru is the word. Thus, in Sikh theology, the revealed divine word was written by past gurus. Numerous holy men, aside from the Sikh gurus, are collectively referred to as Bhagats or "devotees."
In 1708 Guru Gobin