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Pantera was an American heavy metal band from Arlington, Texas formed in 1981. The group's best-known lineup consisted of the Abbott brothers—drummer Vinnie Paul and guitarist Dimebag Darrell—along with vocalist Phil Anselmo and bassist Rex Brown. In addition to their development and popularization of the groove metal subgenre, Pantera is credited for being part of the second wave of thrash metal scene from the late 1980s to early-to-mid 1990s. Having started as a glam metal band, Pantera released three albums in the mid-1980s with founding member Terry Glaze as lead vocalist. Looking for a new and heavier sound, Pantera replaced Glaze with Anselmo in late 1986 and released Power Metal in 1988; the band secured a record deal with the major label Atco the following year. With its fifth album, 1990's Cowboys from Hell, Pantera popularized the groove metal genre, while its 1992 follow-up Vulgar Display of Power exhibited an heavier sound. Far Beyond Driven debuted at number one on the Billboard 200.

Tensions began to surface among the band members when Anselmo became addicted to heroin in 1995. These tensions resulted in the recording sessions for The Great Southern Trendkill being held separately; the ongoing tension lasted for another seven years, during which only one studio album, Reinventing the Steel, was recorded. Pantera went on hiatus in 2001 but was disbanded by the Abbott brothers in 2003 amid communication problems and their conclusion that Anselmo would not return to the band; the Abbott brothers went on to form Damageplan, while Anselmo continued work on several side projects, including Down, which Brown joined as well. On December 8, 2004, Darrell was shot and killed on stage by a mentally unstable fan during a Damageplan concert in Columbus, Ohio. Vinnie Paul went on to form Hellyeah after his brother's death, died of heart failure in 2018, leaving Brown and Anselmo as the only surviving members of the band's best-known lineup; the band was named Gemini to Eternity, before settling on to Pantera and consisted of Vinnie Paul Abbott on drums, Dimebag Darrell Abbott on lead guitar, Terry Glaze on rhythm guitar.

In 1982, Hart left Glaze became the group's lead vocalist. Glaze stopped playing rhythm guitar, leaving Darrell as the sole guitarist, doing both lead and rhythm duties; that year, Bradford departed and was replaced by Rex Brown on bass. Pantera became an underground favorite, though its regional tours in this era never took them beyond Texas and Louisiana; the band began supporting fellow heavy metal/glam metal acts such as Stryper and Quiet Riot. Pantera released their first studio album, Metal Magic, in 1983. Metal Magic was released on the band's record label of the same name and produced by the Abbott brothers' father, Jerry Abbott, at Pantego Studios. In 1984, Pantera released Projects in the Jungle. Although still much a glam metal album, the band members crafted songs that had less overbearing melodic influences than songs from the previous album. Another change was Terry Glaze's name, as he was henceforth credited as "Terrence Lee". In addition, a music video for the album's lead track, "All Over Tonight", was created.

Projects in the Jungle was released on the band's independent Metal Magic Records label and produced by Jerry Abbott. In 1985, Pantera released their third studio album, titled I Am the Night; as with Projects in the Jungle, this album saw Pantera's sound becoming heavier, the heavy metal press took more notice of the band. Because of poor distribution, I Am. Around 25,000 copies of the album were sold. Pantera's second music video was produced for the track "Hot and Heavy"; the years 1986 and 1987 saw the release of several landmark thrash metal albums that would prove influential to Pantera's developing musical style. Among the most prominent of these were Metallica's Master of Puppets, Slayer's Reign in Blood, Anthrax's Among the Living and Megadeth's Peace Sells... but Who's Buying? Terrence Lee's glam approach did not fit the band's developing style and he and the other members parted ways, beginning a search for his replacement. Pantera auditioned Matt L'Amour, a David Coverdale lookalike.

He sang a number of shows with Pantera in Los Angeles during the winter of 1986, but it became somewhat apparent that L'Amour could not hit the high notes Glaze was capable of. Together, with his lack of stage presence, this meant that Pantera could only play cover songs, leading to L'Amour's departure. Pantera next auditioned El Paso native Rick Mythiasin to sing for Steel Prophet and Agent Steel. A former schoolmate of the Abbott brothers, David Peacock of the band Forced Entry, joined the band as lead vocalist in the spring of 1986, but despite Pantera doing most of the work for their fourth album during the summer with Peacock and the Abbotts found Peacock's voice to be unsuited to the musical direction Pantera wished for. By the end of the year, Pantera revisited original frontman Donny Hart, but Hart himself knew that he was not the right man Pantera were seeking and Jerry Abbott was to fire him. During 1986, New Orleans native Phil Anselmo had heard Pantera

Royal free city

Royal free city or free royal city was the official term for the most important cities in the Kingdom of Hungary from the 15th century until the early 20th century. These cities were granted certain privileges by the king to limit the control of the Hungarian nobility, hence "royal", exercised some self-government in relation to their internal affairs, hence "free"; the term "royal free city" in the languages of the kingdom is: Latin: Libera regia civitas Hungarian: Szabad királyi város German: Königliche Freistadt Romanian: Oraș liber regesc Slovak: Slobodné kráľovské mesto Croatian: Slobodni kraljevski gradThe status was similar to the Free Cities in the Holy Roman Empire. List of free royal cities of Croatia Administrative divisions of the Kingdom of Hungary Free city Free Royal Cities Act Royal city in Poland

Holy water

Holy water is water, blessed by a member of the clergy or a religious figure. The use for cleansing prior to a baptism and spiritual cleansing is common in several religions, from Christianity to Sikhism; the use of holy water as a sacramental for protection against evil is common among Lutherans, Roman Catholics, Eastern Christians. In Catholicism, Anglicanism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy and some other churches, holy water is water, sanctified by a priest for the purpose of baptism, the blessing of persons and objects, or as a means of repelling evil; the use of holy water used by various sects of Christianity is a practice only attested to in Catholic documents. The Apostolic Constitutions, which goes back to about the year 400, attribute the precept of using holy water to the Apostle Matthew, it is plausible that in earliest Christian times water was used for expiatory and purificatory purposes in a way analogous to its employment in Jewish Law. Yet, in many cases, the water used for the Sacrament of Baptism was flowing water, sea or river water, it could not receive the same blessing as that contained in the baptisteries in the view of the Roman Catholic church.

However, Eastern Orthodox do perform the same blessing, whether in a baptistry or an outdoor body of water. Sprinkling with holy water is used as a sacramental that recalls baptism. Holy water is kept in the holy water font, located at the entrance to the church. Smaller vessels, called stoups, are placed at the entrances of the church, to enable people to sprinkle themselves with it on entering. In recent years, with the concerns over influenza, new holy water machines that work like an automatic soap dispenser have become popular. In the Middle Ages the power of holy water was considered so great that in some places fonts had locked covers to prevent the theft of holy water for unauthorized magic practices; the Constitutions of Archbishop Edmund Rich prescribe that "Fonts are to be kept under lock and key, because of witchcraft. The chrism and sacred oil are kept locked up." In Catholicism, holy water, as well as water used during the washing of the priest's hands at Mass, is not allowed to be disposed of in regular plumbing.

Roman Catholic churches will have a special basin that leads directly into the ground for the purpose of proper disposal. A hinged lid is kept over the holy water basin to distinguish it from a regular sink basin, just beside it. Items that contained holy water are separated, drained of the holy water, washed in a regular manner in the adjacent sink. Holy water fonts have been identified as a potential source of viral infection. In the late 19th century, bacteriologists found staphylococci, coli bacilli, Loeffler's bacillus, other bacteria in samples of holy water taken from a church in Sassari, Italy. In a study performed in 1995, 13 samples were taken when a burn patient acquired a bacterial infection after exposure to holy water; the samples in that study were shown to have a "wide range of bacterial species", some of which could cause infection in humans. During the swine flu epidemic of 2009, Bishop John Steinbock of Fresno, recommended that "holy water should not be in the fonts" due to fear of spreading infections.

In response to the swine flu, an automatic, motion-detecting holy water dispenser was invented and installed in an Italian church in 2009. A blessing is, as a prayer, a sacramental. By blessing water, Catholic priests ask him for his grace; as a reminder of baptism, Catholic Christians dip their fingers in the holy water and make the sign of the cross when entering the church. The liturgy may begin on Sundays with the Rite of Blessing and Sprinkling Holy Water, in which holy water is sprinkled upon the congregation; this ceremony dates back to the ninth century. An aspergill or aspergillum is a branch used to sprinkle the water. An aspersorium is the vessel which holds the holy water and into which the aspergillum is dipped, though elaborate Ottonian examples are known as situlae. Blessed salt may be added to the water "where it is customary." This use of holy water and making a sign of the cross when entering a church reflects a renewal of baptism, a cleansing of venial sin, as well as providing protection against evil.

It is sometimes accompanied by the following prayer: "By this Holy water and by your Precious Blood, wash away all my sins O Lord". Although not holy water since it has not been blessed by a priest, some Catholics believe that water from specific shrines, such as Lourdes, can bring healing; the traditional Latin formula for blessing the water is as follows: Exorcizo te, creatura aquæ, in nomine Dei Patris omnipotentis, et in nomine Jesu Christi, Filii ejus Domini nostri, et in virtute Spiritus Sancti: ut fias aqua exorcizata ad effugandam omnem potestatem inimici, et ipsum inimicum eradicare et explantare valeas cum angelis suis apostaticis, per virtutem ejusdem Domini nostri Jesu Christi: qui venturus est judicare vivos et mortuos et sæculum per ignem. Deus, qui ad salutem humani generis maxima quæque sacramenta in aquarum substantia condidisti: adesto propitius invocationibus nostris, et elemento huic, multimodis purificationibus præparato, virtutem tuæ benedictionis infunde. Non illic resideat spiritus pestilens, non aura corrumpens: discedant omnes insidiæ late

Timeline of Bonn

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. 70 AD - Roman-Batavian conflict. 889 AD - Settlement sacked by Norse. 1151 - Doppelkirche Schwarzrheindorf consecrated. 13th century - Bonn Minster built. 1318 - Minoretenkirche built. 1543 - Printing press in operation. 1597 - Bonn becomes capital of the Electorate of Cologne. 1627 - Kreuzbergkirche built. 1673 - November: Siege of Bonn. 1693 - Jesuiten-kirche built. 1730 - Palace built. 1737 - Town Hall built. 1746 - Poppelsdorf Palace built. 1777 - Kurkölnische Akademie Bonn founded. 1793 - N. Simrock music publisher in business. 1794 - French in power. 1800 - Johann Joseph Eichhoff becomes mayor. 1815 - Town becomes part of Prussia per Congress of Vienna. 1818 - Rhenish Frederic William University and Academic Art Museum established. 1820 - Museum of Antiquities founded. 1822 - Town becomes part of the Rhine Province. 1841 - Society of the Friends of Antiquity founded. 1844 - Railway Station built. 1845 - Beethovenhalle built.

1851 - Leopold Kaufmann becomes mayor. 1859 - Durchmusterung astronomical survey begins at the Bonn Observatory. 1860 - Dieckhoff residence built. 1862 - Herz Jesu-kirche built. 1867 - Population: 63,630. 1871 - Bonn-Beuel station opens. 1882 - Municipal museum active. 1884 - Railway Station rebuilt. 1889 - Beethoven House museum opens. 1890 - Beethovenfest active. 1891 - Provincial Museum of Rhenish and Roman Antiquities opens. 1892 - Marienkirche built. 1898 - Rhine bridge built. 1904 - Photographische Vereinigung Bonn and Amateur-Photographen-Club Bonn active. 1905 - Population: 81,997. 1913 - Stollfuß Verlag in business. 1919 - Population: 91,410. 1922 - Gummy bear candy invented. 1934 - Museum Koenig opens. 1939 - Population: 101,391. 1945 March: Allied forces take city. Allied occupation of Germany begins. 1947 - Kunstmuseum Bonn founded. 1949 May: City designated capital of Federal Republic of Germany. Bundestag begins meeting in the Bundeshaus. Rhine bridge rebuilt. 1950 - Cologne Bonn Airport in operation.

Hammerschmidt Villa designated residence of the President of Germany. 1951 Verein der Ausländischen Presse in Deutschland formed. 1959 - Beethovenhalle rebuilt. 1963 - British Embassy Preparatory School founded. 1967 - Rheinisches Landesmuseum Bonn rebuilt. 1969 Bad Godesberg and Duisdorf become part of city. Central Theater and Youth Theater founded. 1970 - United Nations Volunteers headquartered in Bonn. 1975 Bonn Stadtbahn begins operating. Hans Daniels becomes mayor. 1978 - July: 4th G7 summit held. 1979 - City hosts Bundesgartenschau. 1980 - University of Bonn's Max Planck Institute for Mathematics established. 1981 -Bonn Women's Museum founded. 1982 - 10 June: NATO summit held. 1984 - Bonn Botanical Garden reconstructed. 1985 Rheinisches Malermuseum established. May: 11th G7 summit held. 1986 - Heimatmuseum Beuel established. 1989 - International Paralympic Committee headquartered in city. 1992 - Bundeskunsthalle inaugurated. 1994 Bärbel Dieckmann becomes mayor. Haus der Geschichte opens. 1995 - Deutsches Museum Bonn, University of Bonn's Center of Advanced European Studies and Research and Center for European Integration Studies established.

1996 - United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change secretariat headquartered in Bonn. 1997 - Bonn International School and Gesellschaft für Arabisches und Islamisches Recht established. 1998 - Institute for the Study of Labor founded. 1999 German Bundestag relocated from Bonn to Berlin per Berlin-Bonn Act. Federal Court of Auditors and Federal Cartel Office relocated to Bonn. 2001 - University of Bonn's Egyptian Museum founded. 2002 Post Tower and Schürmann-Bau constructed. UNESCO-UNEVOC International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training inaugurated. 2009 Jürgen Nimptsch becomes mayor. Student protests. 2011 The celebrations for the Day of German Unity take place in Bonn 2015 After 9 years of construction, the World Conference Center Bonn was opened Ashok Sridharan becomes mayor 2017 Meeting of the ministers of Foreign Affairs of the Group of 20 2017 United Nations Climate Change Conference under the Presidency of the Republic of Fiji in Bonn 2019 University of Bonn becomes excellence university Bonn history List of mayors of Bonn History of the city of Bonn Bonna, settlement in the Roman province of Germania Inferior Timelines of other cities in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia: Aachen, Dortmund, Duisburg, Düsseldorf, Essen, Münster This article incorporates information from the German Wikipedia.

"History of the City". City of Bonn. Europeana. Items related to Bonn, various dates

United States Army Air Forces in the South West Pacific Theatre

During World War II, the United States Army Air Forces engaged in combat against the air and naval forces of the Empire of Japan in the South West Pacific Theatre. As defined by the United States Department of War, the South West Pacific theatre included the Philippines, the Dutch East Indies, Australia, the Australian Territory of New Guinea, the western part of the Solomon Islands and some neighbouring territories; the theatre took its name from the major Allied command, known as the "South West Pacific Area". The major USAAF combat organizations in the region was Fifth Air Force, based in Australia after the Battle of the Philippines. From Australia, the Allied forces, led by General Douglas MacArthur, first moved north into New Guinea in 1942 into the Netherlands East Indies in 1943, returning to the Philippines in 1944 and 1945. Moving with the Allied ground forces, the USAAF Fifth Air Force established a series of airfields, some at existing facilities, but most were carved out of the jungle to provide tactical air support of the ground forces.

In addition to the Fifth Air Force units, elements of Seventh and Thirteenth Air Force advanced into the theatre as Japanese land and naval forces were driven out of the Central and South Pacific Areas. These airfields, the headquarters of major units assigned were

Global Energy Network Institute

The Global Energy Network Institute is a research and education organization founded by Peter Meisen in 1986 and registered as a 501 non-profit organization in 1991. GENI's focus is on the interconnection of electric power transmission networks between nations and continents, emphasizing tapping abundant renewable energy resources, utilizing the efficiencies of seasonal, time of day, load differences around the world. GENI's goal is to educate world leaders and policy makers on the benefits of this global strategy; the concept of an interconnected global grid linked to renewable resources was first suggested by Buckminster Fuller in the World Game simulation in the 1970s. Fuller concluded that this strategy is the highest priority of the World Game simulation, (see page 206 of Fuller's book Critical Path. GENI has organized international workshops on international electricity transmission grids and coordinated workshops on renewable energy generation, the latter hosted by the IEEE Power Engineering Society.

GENI is one of the original members of American Council on Renewable Energy and has been a regular presence at the World Energy Congress, held internationally every 3 years. GENI has stated that one reason technologies to accelerate the use of renewable energy and to avert climate change were not making headway in the marketplace has been the lack of ways for investors to track and invest in these technologies; because of this, in 2004, GENI partnered with KLD, who creates conscious investing stock indexes in the US, to create the KLD Global Climate 100 stock index. The index became available for investment in Japan in 2005 and in the U. S. on April 24, 2007. GENI's research includes information about national electricity power grids. Numerous articles have been published on and about the organization, the concept, its personnel in the following publications; some are in academic and professional publications: Simulation,. A. Bolonkin and R. B. Cathcart, "Antarctica: a southern hemisphere wind power station?", INT.

J. GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES 8: 262-273; some are in general one: The Globe and Mail,. Peter Meisen and President Paul-Michael Dekker, IT Director Patricia Stevens, Chief of Operations Nyhl Henson, Board of Director; the Global Energy Network Institute is a research and education organization founded in 1986. It was registered as a 501 non-profit Corporation in 1991. Coal phase out www.