Pantheism is the belief that reality is identical with divinity, or that all-things compose an all-encompassing, transcendent god. Pantheist belief does not recognize a distinct personal god, anthropomorphic or otherwise, instead characterizes a broad range of doctrines differing in forms of relationships between reality and divinity. Pantheistic concepts date back thousands of years, pantheistic elements have been identified in various religious traditions; the term pantheism was coined by mathematician Joseph Raphson in 1697 and has since been used to describe the beliefs of a variety of people and organizations. Pantheism was popularized in Western culture as a theology and philosophy based on the work of the 17th-century philosopher Baruch Spinoza his book Ethics. A pantheistic stance was taken in the 16th century by philosopher and cosmologist Giordano Bruno. Pantheism derives from θεός theos; the first known combination of these roots appears in Latin, in Joseph Raphson's 1697 book De Spatio Reali seu Ente Infinito, where he refers to the "pantheismus" of Spinoza and others.
It was subsequently translated into English as "pantheism" in 1702. There are a variety of definitions of pantheism; some consider it a philosophical position concerning God. Pantheism is the view that everything is part of an transcendent God. All forms of reality may be considered either modes of that Being, or identical with it; some hold. To them, pantheism is the view that the God are identical. Early traces of pantheist thought can be found within the theology of the ancient Greek religion of Orphism, where pan is made cognate with the creator God Phanes, with Zeus, after the swallowing of Phanes. Pantheistic tendencies existed in a number of early Gnostic groups, with pantheistic thought appearing throughout the Middle Ages; these included a section of Johannes Scotus Eriugena's 9th-century work De divisione naturae and the beliefs of mystics such as Amalric of Bena and Eckhart. The Catholic Church has long regarded pantheistic ideas as heresy. Giordano Bruno, an Italian monk who evangelized about a transcendent and infinite God, was burned at the stake in 1600 by the Roman Inquisition.
He has since become known as a celebrated pantheist and martyr of science, an influence on many thinkers. In the West, pantheism was formalized as a separate theology and philosophy based on the work of the 17th-century philosopher Baruch Spinoza. Spinoza was a Dutch philosopher of Portuguese descent raised in the Sephardi Jewish community in Amsterdam, he developed controversial ideas regarding the authenticity of the Hebrew Bible and the nature of the Divine, was excluded from Jewish society at age 23, when the local synagogue issued a herem against him. A number of his books were published posthumously, shortly thereafter included in the Catholic Church's Index of Forbidden Books; the breadth and importance of Spinoza's work would not be realized for many years - as the groundwork for the 18th-century Enlightenment and modern biblical criticism, including modern conceptions of the self and the universe. In the posthumous Ethics, "Spinoza wrote the last indisputable Latin masterpiece, one in which the refined conceptions of medieval philosophy are turned against themselves and destroyed entirely.".
In particular, he opposed René Descartes' famous mind–body dualism, the theory that the body and spirit are separate. Spinoza held the monist view that the two are the same, monism is a fundamental part of his philosophy, he was described as a "God-intoxicated man," and used the word God to describe the unity of all substance. This view influenced philosophers such as Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, who said, "You are either a Spinozist or not a philosopher at all." Spinoza earned praise as one of the great rationalists of 17th-century philosophy and one of Western philosophy's most important thinkers. Although the term "pantheism" was not coined until after his death, he is regarded as the most celebrated advocate of the concept. Ethics was the major source. Heinrich Heine, in his Concerning the History of Religion and Philosophy in Germany, remarked that "I don't remember now where I read that Herder once exploded peevishly at the constant preoccupation with Spinoza, "If Goethe would only for once pick up some other Latin book than Spinoza!"
But this applies not only to Goethe. In their The Holy Family Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels notes, "Spinozism dominated the eighteenth century both in its French variety, which made matter into substance, in deism, which conferred on matter a more spiritual name.... Spinoza's French school and the supporters of deism were but two sects disputing over the true meaning of his system...." In George Henry Lewes's words, "Pantheism is as old as philosophy. It was taught in the old Greek schools — by Plato, by St. Augustine, by the Jews. Indeed, one may say that Pantheism, under one of its various shapes, is the necessary consequence of all metaphysical inquiry, when pushed to its logical limits; the dreamy contemplative Indian, the quick versatile Greek, the practical Roman, the quibbling
2 Hype is the debut album by rap duo, Kid'n Play. The album was released in 1988 for Select Records, distributed by Landmark Distributors owned by Jeffrey Collins, was produced by Hurby Luv Bug and The Invincibles. 2 Hype was a success for the duo, reaching #96 on the Billboard 200 and #9 on the Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums and being certified Gold by the RIAA. Three singles found success on the Hot Rap Singles chart, "Rollin' with Kid'n Play", "2 Hype" and "Gittin' Funky". In 2008, "Rollin' with Kid'n Play" was ranked number 63 on VH1's 100 Greatest Songs of Hip Hop. "Rollin' with Kid'n Play" – 4:01 "Brother Man Get Hip" – 3:43 "Gittin' Funky" – 4:41 "Soul Man" – 3:31 "Damn That DJ" – 3:28 "Last Night" – 4:23 "2 Hype" – 3:57 "Can You Dig That" – 3:27 "Undercover" – 3:38 "Do the Kid'n Play Kick Step" – 4:02 "Do This My Way" – 4:46 Do This My Way "Think by Lyn Collins "'Cross the Tracks" by Maceo & the MacksGittin' Funky "Reggins" by The Blackbyrds "Runaway" by The Blackbyrds "Holy Ghost" by Bar-Kays "Now That We Found Love" by Third WorldLast Night "Funky President" by James Brown "Last Night Changed It All" by Esther Williams "Theme From the Planets" by Dexter Wansel "Ain't We Funkin' Now" by The Brothers Johnson "Ain't Nobody" by Rufus and Chaka KhanRollin' With Kid'N Play "I Don't Know What It Is, but It Sure Is Funky" by Ripple "Crazy" by Slug-GoUndercover "My Jamaican Guy" by Grace JonesDamn That DJ "Let a Woman Be a Woman - Let a Man Be a Man" by Dyke and the Blazers
Bailey Matthews is a British schoolboy, from Worksop, who has won awards for his sporting achievements in the face of his cerebral palsy. These include completing his first junior triathlon, at Castle Howard in July 2015, after throwing away his walking frame to complete the last 18 metres of the final section on his own, despite stumbling twice. A video of the moment, captured by a spectator, went viral, being viewed more than 27 million times on Facebook. Bailey Matthews received a Pride of Britain Award and numerous other awards, in December the same year, he was presented with the BBC Sports Personality of the Year Helen Rollason Award at a ceremony in Belfast. Video of Matthews finishing his triathlon - on YouTube