Government of Singapore
The Government of Singapore is defined by the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore to mean the Executive branch of government, made up of the President and the Cabinet of Singapore. Although the President acts in his/her personal discretion in the exercise of certain functions as a check on the Cabinet and Parliament of Singapore, his/her role is ceremonial, it is the Cabinet, composed of the Prime Minister and other Ministers appointed on his/her advice by the President, that directs and controls the Government. The Cabinet is formed by the political party. A statutory board is an autonomous agency of the Government, established by an Act of Parliament and overseen by a government ministry. Unlike ministries and government departments that are subdivisions of ministries, statutory boards are not staffed by civil servants and have greater independence and flexibility in their operations. There are five Community Development Councils appointed by the board of management of the People's Association for districts in Singapore.
Where there are not less than 150,000 residents in a district, the PA's board of management may designate the chairman of a CDC to be the mayor for the district that the CDC is appointed for. As it is the practice for MPs to be appointed as Chairmen of CDCs, these MPs have been designated as mayors. From the founding of modern Singapore in 1819 until 1826, Singapore was headed by two residents in succession. Following Singapore's amalgamation into the Straits Settlements in 1826, it was governed by a governor together with a legislative council. An executive council of the Straits Settlements was introduced in 1877 to advise the Governor but wielded no executive power. In 1955, a Council of Ministers was created, appointed by the Governor on the recommendation of the Leader of the House. Constitutional talks between Legislative Assembly representatives and the Colonial Office were held from 1956 to 1958, Singapore gained full internal self-government in 1959; the governor was replaced by the Yang di-Pertuan Negara, who had power to appoint to the post of prime minister the person most to command the authority of the assembly, other ministers of the Cabinet on the prime minister's advice.
In the 1959 general elections, the People's Action Party swept to power with 43 out of the 51 seats in the assembly, Lee Kuan Yew became the first prime minister of Singapore. The executive branch of the Singapore Government remained unchanged following Singapore's merger with Malaysia in 1963, subsequent independence in 1965; the PAP has been returned to power in every general election and has thus formed the Cabinet since 1959. The government is perceived to be competent in managing the country's economy and free from political corruption. On the other hand, it has been criticized for using unfair election tactics, violating freedom of speech and its excessive use of the death penalty for non-violent crimes; the term Government of Singapore can have a number of different meanings. At its widest, it can refer collectively to the three traditional branches of government – the Executive branch, Legislative branch and Judicial branch; the term is used colloquially to mean the Executive and Legislature together, as these are the branches of government responsible for day-to-day governance of the nation and lawmaking.
At its narrowest, the term is used to refer to the Members of Parliament belonging to a particular political party holding a majority of seats in Parliament sufficient to enable the party to form the Cabinet of Singapore – this is the sense intended when it is said that a political party "forms the Government". The Constitution of the Republic of Singapore uses the word Government to mean the Executive branch, made up of the President and the Cabinet; this article describes the Government of Singapore in this technical sense, as well as selected aspects of the Executive branch of the Government. On 30 January 1819 Sir Stamford Raffles, an Englishman, the Governor of Bencoolen, entered into a preliminary agreement with the Temenggung of Johor, Abdul Rahman Sri Maharajah, for the British East India Company to establish a "factory" or trading post on the island of Singapore; this was confirmed by another agreement signed by Raffles, the Temenggung and Sultan Hussein Shah on 6 February. In June 1823 Singapore ceased to be a dependency of Bencoolen and was placed under the control of the Presidency City of Calcutta in the Bengal Presidency.
On 24 June 1824, Singapore and Malacca were formally transferred to the East India Company, with the result that they came under the control of Fort William. Full cession of Singapore to the Company by the Sultan and Temenggung was effected by a treaty of 19 November 1824, ratified by Calcutta on 4 March 1825. Between 1819 and 1826, Singapore was headed by two Residents of Singapore in Maj.-Gen. William Farquhar and Dr. John Crawfurd. In 1826, Malacca and Singapore were amalgamated into the Straits Settlements, which were made a Crown colony with effect from 1 April 1867; the Colony was governed by a governor together with a legislative council. An executive council was introduced in 1877 by letters patent issued by the Crown, Composed of "such persons and constituted in such manner as may be directed" by royal instructions, it existed to advise the Governor and wielded no executive power; the Governor was required to consult the Executive Council on all affairs of importance unless they were too urgent to be laid before it, or if reference to it would pre
A color chart or color reference card is a flat, physical object that has many different color samples present. They can be available in the form of swatchbooks or color-matching fans. There are two different types of color charts: Color reference charts are intended for color comparisons and measurements. Typical tasks for such charts are checking the color reproduction of an imaging system, aiding in color management or visually determining the hue of color. Examples are the ColorChecker charts. Color selection charts present a palette of available colors to aid the selection of spot colors, process colors, pens, so on – the colors are from a manufacturers product range. Examples are the RAL systems. Color reference charts are used for color comparisons and measurements such as checking the color reproduction of an imaging system, calibration and/or profiling of digital input devices such as digital cameras, scanners and output display systems like printers and projectors, they are used by traditional photographers and cinematographers to calibrate cameras that use film and to check the color temperature of the lighting.
Color reference cards can be used to assess light quality, as in the color rendering index, where reflectance from a set of Munsell samples are evaluated. Shirley cards are color reference cards that are used to perform skin-color balance in still photography printing; the industry standard for these cards in North American photography labs in the 1940s and 1950s depicted a solitary "Caucasian" female dressed in brightly colored clothes. Few of these color reference cards showed an adult male as the reference image. Light skin tones therefore served as the recognized skin ideal standard. Stock color film chemistry for still cameras was designed with a positive bias toward "Caucasian" skin tones because of its high level of reflectivity. By the mid-1990s, Japanese companies redesigned their Shirley cards using data from their own color preference tests; the new reference card featured Japanese women with light yellow skin. In 1995, Kodak designed a multiracial norm reference card; this card showed three women with brightly contrasted clothing.
A similar cinematic calibration technique is known as the China Girl. The ColorChecker—first produced as the “Macbeth ColorChecker” in 1976—a cardboard-framed arrangement of twenty-four squares of painted samples based on Munsell colors, its previous maker Gretag–Macbeth was acquired in 2006 by X-Rite. A ColorChecker chart can be used to manually adjust color parameters to achieve a desired color rendition. ColorChecker charts are available in different forms. Standardized IT8 charts are made by several companies including Coloraid.de, FujiFilm, LaserSoft Imaging. Unlike ColorChecker charts, IT8 charts are supplied with measurement values and can be used to create ICC color profiles by software to create reproducible color management. Color charts can take custom forms, as for example the calibration target used by the Curiosity rover for its Mars Hand Lens Imager; because paints and inks depend for their color on pigments and dyes, a reference is needed to match specific combinations of coloring substances in a given matrix against the resulting color.
One of the earliest attempts to achieve this goal was the 1692 manuscript Klaer Lightende Spiegel der Verfkonst. It presented a range of watercolor mixtures, but remained unknown, because only one manuscript was produced. Due to the development of the paint and ink industry, the requirement for this kind of chart intensified, a number of systems are now available, including: "DIC Color System Guide" and "Toyo Color Finder," used for spot color matching in Japan NCS Palette Pantone, used for printing and sometimes for paint and plastics RAL "Classic", "Effect", "Design," used for varnish and powder coating Color calibration Colour Index International Color management Color mapping ICC profile IT8 Lenna the digital equivalent of a Shirley card, but a different woman. List of colors Test film
Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile
The Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile is an association established on 20 June 1904 to represent the interests of motoring organisations and motor car users. To the general public, the FIA is known as the governing body for many auto racing events; the FIA promotes road safety around the world. Headquartered at 8 Place de la Concorde, the FIA consists of 246 member organisations in 145 countries worldwide, its current president is Jean Todt. The FIA is known by its French name or initials in non-French-speaking countries, but is rendered as International Automobile Federation, its most prominent role is in the licensing and sanctioning of Formula One, World Endurance Championship, World Rally Championship and various forms of sports car and touring car racing. The FIA along with the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme certify land speed record attempts; the International Olympic Committee provisionally recognized the federation in 2011, granted full recognition in 2013. The Association Internationale des Automobile Clubs Reconnus was founded in Paris on 20 June 1904, as an association of national motor clubs.
The association was designed to represent the interests of motor car users, as well as to oversee the burgeoning international motor sport scene. In 1922, the AIACR delegated the organisation of automobile racing to the Commission Sportive Internationale, which would set the regulations for international Grand Prix motor racing; the European Drivers' Championship was introduced in 1931, a title awarded to the driver with the best results in the selected Grands Prix. Upon the resumption of motor racing after the Second World War, the AIACR was renamed the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile; the FIA established a number of new racing categories, among them Formulas One and Two, created the first World Championship, the Formula One World Drivers' Championship, in 1950. The CSI determined the regulations for holding Grands Prix and selected the races that formed part of the World Championships – a World Sportscar Championship was established in 1953 – but the organisers of the individual races were responsible for accepting entries, paying prize money, the general running of each event.
In Formula One, this led to tension between the teams, which formed themselves into the Formula One Constructors Association founded in 1974, event organisers and the CSI. The FIA and CSI were amateur organisations, FOCA under the control of Bernie Ecclestone began to take charge of various aspects of organising the events, as well as setting terms with race organisers for the arrival of teams and the amount of prize money; this led to the FIA President Prince Metternich attempting to reassert its authority by appointing Jean-Marie Balestre as the head of the CSI, who promptly reformed the committee into the autonomous Fédération Internationale du Sport Automobile. Under Balestre's leadership FISA and the manufacturer-backed teams became involved in a dispute with FOCA; the conflict saw several races being cancelled or boycotted, large-scale disagreement over the technical regulations and their enforcement. The dispute and the Concorde Agreement, written to end it, would have significant ramifications for the FIA.
The agreement led to FOCA acquiring commercial rights over Formula One, while FISA and the FIA would have control over sport's regulations. FOCA chief Bernie Ecclestone became an FIA Vice-President with control over promoting the FIA's World Championships, while FOCA legal advisor and former March Engineering manager Max Mosley would end up becoming FISA President in 1991. Mosley succeeded Balestre as President of the FIA in 1993 and restructured the organisation, dissolving FISA and placing motor racing under the direct management of the FIA. Following the 1994 San Marino Grand Prix, which saw the deaths of Ayrton Senna and Roland Ratzenberger, the FIA formed an Expert Advisory Safety Committee to research and improve safety in motor racing. Chaired by Formula One medical chief Professor Sid Watkins, the committee worked with the Motor Industry Research Association to strengthen the crash resistance of cars and the restraint systems and to improve the drivers personal safety; the recommendations of the committee led to more stringent crash tests for racing vehicles, new safety standards for helmets and race suits, the eventual introduction of the HANS device as compulsory in all international racing series.
The committee worked on improving circuit safety. This led to a number of changes at motor racing circuits around the world, the improvement of crash barriers and trackside medical procedures; the FIA was a founder member of the European New Car Assessment Programme, a car safety programme that crash-tests new models and publishes safety reports on vehicles. Mosley was the first chairman of the organisation; the FIA helped establish the Latin NCAP and Global NCAP. The Competition Directorate of the European Commission and the FIA were involved in a dispute over the commercial administration of motorsport during the 1990s; the Competition Commissioner, Karel Van Miert had received a number of complaints from television companies and motorsport promoters in 1997 that the FIA had been abusing its position as motorsport's governing body. Van Miert's initial inquiry had not concluded by 1999, which resulted in the FIA suing the European Commission, alleging that the delay was causing damaging uncertainty, receiving an apology from the Commission over the leaking of documents relating to the case.
Mario Monti took over as Commissioner in 1999, the European
Shades of green
Varieties of the color green may differ in hue, chroma or lightness, or in two or three of these qualities. Variations in value are called tints and shades, a tint being a green or other hue mixed with white, a shade being mixed with black. A large selection of these various colors is shown below. Green is common in nature in plants. Many plants are green because of a complex chemical known as chlorophyll, involved in photosynthesis. Many shades of green are related to plants. Due to varying ratios of chlorophylls, the plant kingdom exhibits many shades of green in both hue and value; the chlorophylls in living plants have distinctive green colors, while dried or cooked portions of plants are different shades of green due to the chlorophyll molecules losing their inner magnesium ion. Artichoke is a color, a representation of the color of a raw fresh uncooked artichoke. Another name for this color is artichoke green; the first recorded use of "artichoke green" as a color name in English was in 1905.
This is the color called artichoke green in Pantone. The source is Pantone 18-0125 TPX Asparagus is a tone of green, named after the vegetable. Crayola created this color in 1993 as one of the 16 to be named in the Name the Color Contest, it is the color of a wild asparagus plant blowing in the wind of the 1949 classic film Sands of Iwo Jima. Another name for this color is asparagus green; the first recorded use of "asparagus green" as a color name in English was in 1805. Avocado is a color, a representation of the color of the outer surface of an avocado; the color avocado is a dark yellow-green color. Avocado was a common color for metal surfaces, as well as the color harvest gold, during the whole decade of the 1970s, they were both popular colors for shag carpets. Both colors went out of style by the early 1980s. Dark green is a dark shade of green. A different shade of green has been designated as "dark green" for certain computer uses. Fern green is a color. A Crayola crayon named fern was created in 1998, a lighter shade of the top color shown on the right.
The first recorded use of fern green as a color name in English was in 1902. Forest green refers to a green color said to resemble the color of the trees and other plants in a forest; the first recorded use of forest green as the name of a color in the English language was in 1810. Displayed at right is the color green earth. Hooker's green is a dark green color created by mixing Prussian Gamboge, it is displayed on the right. Hooker's green takes its name from botanical artist William Hooker who first created a special pigment for leaves. Displayed at right is the color jungle green. In 1990, Crayola formulated this specific tone of jungle green; the first recorded use of jungle green as a name of a color in the English language was in 1926. Laurel green is a medium light hue of greenish lighter; the first recorded use of laurel green as a name of a color in the English language was in 1705. Light green is a light tint of green. Mantis is a color, a representation of the color of a praying mantis.
The first use of mantis as a color name in English was when it was included as one of the colors on the Xona.com color list, promulgated in 2001. Moss green is a tone of green; the first recorded use of moss green as a color name in English was in 1884. Myrtle green called myrtle, is a color, a representation of the color of the leaves of the myrtle plant; the first recorded use of myrtle green as a color name in English was in 1835. Myrtle is the official designation of the green stripes on Waterloo rugby club's shirts, the green of Hunslet rugby league club, the green stripes of the South Sydney Rabbitohs and the green of the blazers, sports kit and scarf of St. Aloysius' College, Glasgow, it is one of the school colors of Lane Technical College Prep High School in Chicago, the other being old gold. The baggy green, the cricket cap worn by Australian Test cricketers since around the turn of the twentieth century, is myrtle green in color. Pine green is a rich shade of spring green, it is an official Crayola color.
The first recorded use of pine tree as a color name in English was in 1923. Reseda green is a shade of greyish green in the classic range of colors of the German RAL colour standard, in which it is named "RAL 6011"; the name derives from the color of the leaves of Reseda odorata known as mignonette. Sap green is a green pigment, traditionally made of ripe buckthorn berries. However, modern colors marketed under this name are a blend of other pigments with a basis of Phthalocyanine Green G. Sap green paint was used on Bob Ross' TV show, The Joy of Painting. Shamrock green is a tone of green that represents the color of a symbol of Ireland; the first recorded use of shamrock as a color name in English was in the 1820s. This green is defined as Irish green Pantone 347; this green is used as the green on the national flag of the Republic of IrelandIt is customary in Ireland, New Zealand and the United States to wear this or any other tone of green on St. Patrick's Day, March 17; the State of California uses this shade of green of the grass under the bear on their state flag.
The Boston Celtics of the National Basketball Association use this shade for their uniforms and other memorabilia. Tea g
Sephora is a Paris, France-based multinational chain of personal care and beauty stores founded in Limoges in 1969. Featuring nearly 300 brands, along with its own private label, Sephora offers beauty products including cosmetics, body, nail color, haircare. Sephora is owned by luxury conglomerate LVMH as of 1997; the name comes from the Greek spelling of wife of Moses. Sephora first launched in Paris on 14 August 1969, it was acquired by Dominique Mandonnaud in 1993, who merged the purchase with his own perfume chain under the Sephora brand. Mandonnaud is credited for founding and implementing Sephora's "assisted self-service" sales experience, which departed from then-typical retail models for cosmetics by encouraging customers to try products in-store before purchasing. Mandonnaud continued to expand the Sephora brand through the 1990s, opening up its flagship store in Champs Élysées in 1997. In July 1997, Mandonnaud and his partners sold Sephora to LVMH, who expanded the stores globally and bolstered the chain's product offerings to include beauty and cosmetic products.
Sephora extended its operation to the Middle Eastern markets in 2007 and has opened over 44 Sephora UAE and KSA stores as well as an eCommerce store. It extends its partnership with its exclusive brands in the region. On 1 January 2014, Calvin McDonald replaced David Suliteanu as president and chief executive officer of Sephora Americas. Suliteanu was named CEO of another business in the LVMH portfolio. Sephora opened its first United States store in New York City in 1998 and its first Canadian store in Toronto in 2004, its North American headquarters is located in San Francisco, with corporate offices in New York City and Montréal. Sephora operates over 430 stores across North America. In 26 August 2016, Sephora opened its 400th location in North America on the Magnificent Mile in Chicago; the store is the city's new flagship location. On 31 March 2017, Sephora opened its largest retail location in North America near Herald Square; the store is 11,380 square feet and features over 13,000 products.
It's one of six Sephora TIP Workshop locations, with interactive services and tools, in North America. On 19 November 2018, Sephora signed a long-term lease at Thor Equities’ Town Square Metepec, a new retail and entertainment center in Mexico totaling 1.7 million square feet. Sephora launched its online store to the U. S. in 1999 and into Canada in 2003. The Canadian head office was opened in February 2007 by Marie-Christine Marchives, a former Sephora U. S. and Sephora France employee. Marie-Christine Marchives returned to France in July 2010 to become the general manager of Sephora France, she was replaced in Canada by Klaus Ryum-Larsen. Sephora operates over 2,300 stores in 33 countries worldwide generating over an estimated $4 billion in revenue as of 2013; as of September 2013, the Sephora at Champs Élysées in Paris, attracts over six million people a year. Sephora features a variety of beauty products from more than 300 brands, including NARS Cosmetics, Make Up For Ever, Too Faced Cosmetics, Anastasia Beverly Hills, Urban Decay, Benefit Cosmetics, Amazing Cosmetics, First Aid Beauty, Lancôme Cosmetics, Sunday Riley Skincare, philosophy, Jo Malone London, Atelier Cologne, YSL Beauty by Yves Saint Laurent, Huda Beauty, Kat Von D, Bobbi Brown Cosmetics.
Sephora features its own make-up, beauty tools and accessories. Packaging for the line features the company's elongated flame logo in standard black print. In 2010, the company debuted fragrance collections with Mary-Kate and Ashley Olsen, known as Elizabeth and James, a makeup line with Marc Jacobs. In October 2006, Sephora began opening stores inside JCPenney. Sephora inside JCPenney features some of the same makeup and fragrance brands as well as its own product line found in stand alone stores nationwide. Sephora inside JCPenney stores are much smaller than a normal store 1,500 sq ft in size. There are more than 600 Sephora locations in JCPenney stores across the US. In 2017, JC Penney announced the closing of 138 stores nationwide. In August 2015 it was announced that Sephora would launch a subscription service: Play! By Sephora; the monthly subscription service offers boxes containing sample size products for a monthly fee. Boston and Cincinnati were the only three cities to test the initial service launch in September 2015.
The service launched throughout the US in 2016. As of 2018, the subscription service is still only available in the US. For $10 USD billed monthly, each month’s box is a collectible bag that changes each month with five deluxe skin care, makeup, or hair care samples; each box includes a selection of products based on answers provided by customer in PLAY! profile. Sephora UAE and KSA are regional subdivisions of Sephora; the Middle East head office was opened in February 2006 by Pierre Fayard. Since 2007, over 30 separate Sephora stores have opened across the Middle East region. Sephora UAE and KSA provide make up and skincare products from notable brands such as Christian Dior, Laura Mercier and Kat Von D in a high tech contemporary retail environment. Sephora’s first Middle East store opened at Seef Mall in Bahrain on 7th January 2007 followed by Festival City, UAE on 1 March 2007 with a further 30 stores opening across the region since; the Sephora store in the Dubai Mall opened in December 2008 and is now ranked as the company’s number two store worldwide after the Paris Flagship store.
In 2007 the late Sephora CEO, Jacques Levy expressed a desire to have 100 stores open across the region by 2010
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Ink is a liquid or paste that contains pigments or dyes and is used to color a surface to produce an image, text, or design. Ink is used for writing with a pen, brush, or quill. Thicker inks, in paste form, are used extensively in lithographic printing. Ink can be a complex medium, composed of solvents, dyes, lubricants, surfactants, particulate matter and other materials; the components of inks serve many purposes. In 2011 worldwide consumption of printing inks generated revenues of more than 20 billion US dollars. Demand by traditional print media is shrinking, on the other hand more and more printing inks are consumed for packagings. Many ancient cultures around the world have independently discovered and formulated inks for the purposes of writing and drawing; the knowledge of the inks, their recipes and the techniques for their production comes from archaeological analysis or from written text itself. Ink was used in Ancient Egypt for writing and drawing on papyrus from at least the 26th century BC.
The history of Chinese inks can be traced to the 23rd century BC, with the utilization of natural plant and mineral inks based on such materials as graphite that were ground with water and applied with ink brushes. Evidence for the earliest Chinese inks, similar to modern inksticks, is around 256 BC in the end of the Warring States period and produced from soot and animal glue; the best inks for drawing or painting on paper or silk are produced from the resin of the pine tree. They must be between 100 years old; the Chinese inkstick is produced with a fish glue, whereas Japanese glue is from stag. The process of making India ink was known in China as early as the middle of the 3rd millennium BC, during Neolithic China. India ink was first invented in China, although the source of materials to make the carbon pigment in India ink was often traded from India, thus the term India ink was coined; the traditional Chinese method of making the ink was to grind a mixture of hide glue, carbon black and bone black pigment with a pestle and mortar pouring it into a ceramic dish where it could dry.
To use the dry mixture, a wet brush would be applied. The manufacture of India ink was well-established by the Cao Wei Dynasty. Indian documents written in Kharosthi with ink have been unearthed in Chinese Turkestan; the practice of writing with ink and a sharp pointed needle was common in early South India. Several Buddhist and Jain sutras in India were compiled in ink. In ancient Rome, atramentum was used; the recipe was used for centuries. Iron salts, such as ferrous sulfate, were mixed with tannin from a thickener; when first put to paper, this ink is bluish-black. Over time it fades to a dull brown. Scribes in medieval Europe wrote principally on vellum. One 12th century ink recipe called for hawthorn branches to be left to dry; the bark was pounded from the branches and soaked in water for eight days. The water was boiled until it turned black. Wine was added during boiling; the ink was hung in the sun. Once dried, the mixture was mixed with iron salt over a fire to make the final ink; the reservoir pen, which may have been the first fountain pen, dates back to 953, when Ma'ād al-Mu'izz, the caliph of Egypt, demanded a pen that would not stain his hands or clothes, was provided with a pen that held ink in a reservoir.
In the 15th century, a new type of ink had to be developed in Europe for the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg. According to Martyn Lyons in his book Books: A Living History, Gutenberg's dye was indelible, oil-based, made from the soot of lamps mixed with varnish and egg white. Two types of ink were prevalent at the time: the Greek and Roman writing ink and the 12th century variety composed of ferrous sulfate, gall and water. Neither of these handwriting inks could adhere to printing surfaces without creating blurs. An oily, varnish-like ink made of soot and walnut oil was created for the printing press. Ink formulas vary, but involve two components: Colorants Vehicles Inks fall into four classes: Aqueous Liquid Paste Powder Pigment inks are used more than dyes because they are more color-fast, but they are more expensive, less consistent in color, have less of a color range than dyes. Pigments are solid, opaque particles suspended in ink to provide color. Pigment molecules link together in crystalline structures that are 0.1–2 µm in size and comprise 5–30 percent of the ink volume.
Qualities such as hue and lightness vary depending on the source and type of pigment. Dye-based inks are much stronger than pigment-based inks and can produce much more color of a given density per unit of mass. However, because dyes are dissolved in the liquid phase, they have a tendency to soak into paper, making the ink less efficient and allowing the ink to bleed at the edges of an image. To circumvent this problem, dye-based inks are made with solvents that dry or are used with quick-drying methods of printing, such as blowing hot air on the fresh print. Other methods include more specialized paper coatings; the latter is suited to inks us