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A pantry is a room where beverages and sometimes dishes, household cleaning chemicals, linens, or provisions are stored. Food and beverage pantries serve in an ancillary capacity to the kitchen; the word "pantry" derives from the same source as the Old French term paneterie. In a late medieval hall, there were separate rooms for the various service functions and food storage. A pantry was where bread was kept and food preparation associated with it was done; the head of the office responsible for this room was referred to as a pantler. There were similar rooms for storage of bacon and other meats, alcoholic beverages, cooking. In the United States, pantries evolved from early Colonial American "butteries", built in a cold north corner of a Colonial home, into a variety of pantries in self-sufficient farmsteads. Butler's pantries, or china pantries, were built between the dining room and kitchen of a middle class English or American home in the latter part of the 19th into the early 20th centuries.

Great estates, such as the Biltmore Estate in Asheville, North Carolina or Stan Hywet Hall in Akron, had large warrens of pantries and other domestic "offices", echoing their British "Great House" counterparts. By the Victorian era, large houses and estates in Britain maintained the use of separate rooms, each one dedicated to a distinct stages of food preparation and cleanup; the kitchen was for cooking, while food was stored in a pantry or cellar. Meat preparation before cooking was done in a larder, vegetable cleaning and preparation would be done in the scullery. Dishwashing was done in a scullery or butler's pantry, "depending on the type of dish and level of dirt". Since the scullery was the room with running water, it had a sink, it was where the messiest food preparation took place, such as cleaning fish and cutting raw meat; the pantry was where tableware was stored, such as china and silverware. If the pantry had a sink for washing tableware, it was a wooden sink lined with lead, to prevent chipping the china and glassware while they were washed.

In some middle-class houses, the larder and storeroom might be large wooden cupboards, each with its exclusive purpose. Traditionally, kitchens in Asia have been more open format than those of the West; the function of the pantry was served by wooden cabinetry. For example, in Japan, a kitchen cabinet is called a "Mizuya Tansu". A substantial tradition around woodworking and cabinetry in general developed in Japan throughout the Tokugawa period. A huge number of designs for tansu were made, each tailored towards another; the idea is similar to that of the Hoosier cabinet, with a wide variety of functions being served by specific design innovations. A butler's pantry or serving pantry is a utility room in a large house used to store serving items, rather than food. Traditionally, a butler's pantry was used for cleaning and storage of silver; the merchant's account books and wine log may have been kept in there. The room would be used by other domestic staff. In modern homes, butler's pantries are located in transitional spaces between kitchens and dining rooms, used as staging areas for serving meals.

They contain countertops, storage for candles, serving pieces, table linens, tableware and other dining room articles. More elaborate versions may include refrigerators, or sinks. Butler's pantries have become popular in recent times; some food, such as butter, eggs and such need to be kept cool. Before modern refrigeration was available, iceboxes were popular. However, the problem with an icebox was that the cabinet housing it was large, but the actual refrigerated space was quite small, so a clever and innovative solution was invented, the "cold pantry", sometimes called a "California cooler"; the cold pantry consisted of a cabinet or cupboard with wooden-slat shelves. An opening near the top vented to the outside, either high out the wall. A second opening near the bottom vented to the outside, but low near the ground and on the north side of the house where the air was cooler; as the air in the pantry warmed, it rose. This in turn drew cooler air in from the lower vent. In the summertime, the temperatures in the cold pantry would hover several degrees lower than the ambient temperature in the house, while in the wintertime, the temperature in the cold pantry would be lower than that in the house.

A cold pantry was the perfect place to keep foodstocks that did not need to be kept refrigerated. Breads, cheesecakes, eggs and pie were common foodstocks kept in a cold pantry. Vegetables could be brought up from the root cellar in smaller amounts and stored in the cold pantry until ready to use. With space in the icebox at a premium, the cold pantry was a great place to store fresh berries and fruit. First developed in the early 1900s by the Hoosier Manufacturing Company in New Castle and popular into the 1930s, the Hoosier cabinet and its many imitators soon became an essential fixture in American k

Gmina Leśna Podlaska

Gmina Leśna Podlaska is a rural gmina in Biała Podlaska County, Lublin Voivodeship, in eastern Poland. Its seat is the village of Leśna Podlaska, which lies 13 kilometres north-west of Biała Podlaska and 104 km north of the regional capital Lublin; the gmina covers an area of 97.69 square kilometres, as of 2006 its total population is 4,494. Gmina Leśna Podlaska contains the villages and settlements of Bukowice, Bukowice-Kolonia, Jagodnica, Klukowszczyzna, Leśna Podlaska, Ludwinów, Nosów, Nosów-Kolonia, Nowa Bordziłówka, Ossówka, Ossówka-Kolonia, Stara Bordziłówka, Witulin-Kolonia and Zaberbecze. Gmina Leśna Podlaska is bordered by the gminas of Biała Podlaska, Janów Podlaski, Konstantynów and Stara Kornica. Polish official population figures 2006

Baltimore County Circuit Courthouses

The Baltimore County Courthouses is located in Towson, the county seat. The older, original Baltimore County Courthouse of 1854-1856 houses many of the offices of the County government, including both the executive branch and the legislative branch; the County Courts Building lies to the west, separated by a plaza. Built in 1970-1971, it houses the civil, criminal and juvenile divisions of the Circuit Court of Maryland for Baltimore County, as well as the Baltimore County Sheriff's Office; the latter office protects the Courthouse and its judicial personnel, as well as having countywide law enforcement functions. The historic Baltimore County Courthouse is an edifice of limestone and marble, two stories in height and nine bays in length, surrounded by a modest park and square on the east sides. Several small memorials and historical objects are displayed; the east original facade of 1855-1856 is of Greek Revival-styled architecture, with a portico/porte-cochère that has a pediment supported by fluted Doric columns.

The structure is one twelve feet in length in front, by fifty-six feet in depth. A shallow A-frame roof of the main block is crowned with a centered, eight-windowed, frame cupola bearing a domed copper roof. Constructed in 1854–55, at a cost of thirty thousand dollars, the building is one of the few H-plan buildings, public or private, remaining in the State. All of the original exterior treatments are preserved intact; the Towsontown Courthouse was begun in 1854. It replaced the earlier City/County Courthouses, shared since 1768 by both Baltimore Town and the surrounding County; the first one was located in old "Courthouse Square", now in downtown. Construction began in the port town of Baltimore in 1768, a year after it was newly designated as the county seat; this had been at old Joppa, a village near the mouth of the Gunpowder River at Chesapeake Bay along the mid-eastern boundaries of the County. Without the court functions, the village declined. Baltimore is located on the Northwest Branch of the Patapsco River and had been founded in 1730.

This second City/County Courthouse was constructed in 1768 across the street from the old public square in downtown Baltimore. It is to the west at the northwestern corner facing North Calvert Street. For several years, it faced the empty square of the razed earlier colonial-era courthouse; this center city site was considered for the proposed first monument to honor George Washington, commanding General of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War and first President of the United States. The town lay a cornerstone for the new planned Washington column on "Independence Day", July 4, 1814, 15 years after the president's death and during the War of 1812; this was a few months before the massive military attack by British sea and land forces that September, when they burned the Capitol in Washington, DC. Local home owners feared that the unusually tall column proposed might threaten their houses, the proposed Washington memorial was moved north of the town to "Howard's Woods" on land donated by Col. John Eager Howard, to the west of his mansion on his estate of "Belvidere".

It is now at the center of Baltimore's Washington Square. The old Courthouse Square had always been a gathering place for news and protests, along with mass meetings and assemblies of the citizenry, it became the site of a memorial for the soldiers and officers in the Battle of North Point with the British Army, which took place southeast of the city on the Patapsco Neck, as well as honoring those in the bombardment at Fort McHenry during the recent Battle of Baltimore. It was renamed as Battle Monument Square; the second courthouse was built during 1815 to 1822, its east side faced this square. The east side of the second courthouse faced the new adjoining Across from the City/County Courthouse was the Battle Monument which replaced the previous first County and Town Courts known as the "Courthouse on Stilts" as the 1768 building was temporarily saved from razing when it became necessary to extend Calvert Street further north, so in 1784, local town builder Leonard Harbaugh erected a new brick/stone foundation under the building resting on arches supporting the building and cut away ground around it enabling the street passage beneath, in the Square at the edge of the cliffs overlooking the bend of the Jones Falls flowing south to the harbor.

This first courthouse in the square, was razed around 1804-1805. It was here on July 29, 1776, that the adopted Declaration of Independence proclaimed three weeks earlier by the Second Continental Congress at the old Pennsylvania State House in Philadelphia, was read to the townfolk along the Patapsco River The second courthouse of Georgian style was constructed on the southwest corner of North Calvert and East Lexington streets, opposite the old "Courthouse Square" in which the Battle Monument was erected; the latter was designed by French architect Maximilian Godefroy, to commemorate "Defenders' Day" of the British attack on Baltimore. The "rockets red glare, the bombs bursting in air" were lines of a poem, titled "The Defence of Fort McHenry", that soon appeared on printed broadsheets and handbills all around town and was soon published in the Baltimore Patriot, it was w

EGF module-containing mucin-like hormone receptor

The EGF module-containing Mucin-like hormone Receptors are related subgroup of G protein-coupled receptors. These receptors have a unique hybrid structure in which an extracellular epidermal growth factor -like domain is fused to a GPCR domain through a mucin-like stalk. There are four variants of EMR labeled 1-4, each encoded by a separate gene; these receptors are predominantly expressed in cells of the immune system and bind ligands such as CD55. EMR1+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings EMR2+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings EMR3+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings EMR4+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings

Woodinville wine country

Woodinville wine country is an area of Western Washington situated around the city of Woodinville 30 minutes to an hour driving time from downtown Seattle. The area is home to more than 130 wineries and tasting rooms, including several of the state's notable wineries, such as Chateau Ste. Michelle, Columbia Winery, Novelty Hill Januik, Silver Lake, Matthews Winery, Tenor Wines. While located within the Puget Sound AVA area, the majority of wineries in Woodinville wine country source their grapes from Eastern Washington American Viticultural Areas like Columbia Valley and Yakima Valley. In addition to making wine, several of the wineries in Woodinville wine country are open for tours and tastings, with Chateau Ste. Michelle having a regular summer concert series at its amphitheater. Woodinville Village under development, will showcase some of the smaller wineries in the area that are not open to the public. State Route 202 runs through the heart of Woodinville wine country; the Woodinville area developed as a farming and logging community along the Sammamish River Valley in the 1880s.

Its close location to the major metropolitan area of Seattle as well as its natural wooded landscape and surroundings made it an inviting area for wineries to develop, with its first winery, Chateau Ste. Michelle, opening up in 1976. In 1988, Columbia Winery opened up across the street. Chateau Ste. Michelle's decision to build in Woodinville was a catalyst for the development of this wine country. Founded in 1934, a group of investors bought the winery in 1974 and wanted to move the bulk of the sales and marketing operation to the western side of the Cascade Range where the majority of the state's population resides; the winery split up its wine making facilities, bringing the white wine production to Woodinville. This decision was facilitated by the difficult commute through the mountain passes to Eastern Washington during the winter months, after the grapes have been harvested and the wine needs to be monitored and observed for the development of wine faults. Today the tasting room host over 200,000 visitors a year.

Woodinville wine country is home to two Masters of Joel Butler and Robert Betz. Within the United States, there are only 25 holders of this title; until his death in 2009, Master of Wine David Lake contributed to Woodinville wines. Although many of the individual wineries host a number of events throughout the year, there are some annual events which involve multiple wineries; the Passport to Woodinville event was held once a year in April, from 2002–2014, provided the public with an opportunity to sample many of the area wineries for a single tasting fee. Participants received a passport filled with labels and information, a glass, the opportunity to tour many local wineries, some of which were not open to the public. 2014 was the last year for Passport, dubbed "Passport: Last Call". Passport was criticized for limiting people to visiting all of the wineries in a single weekend, which led to public intoxication and an under-appreciation of the subtle differences in wine flavors, it put a huge burden on wine tasting rooms, because of the crowds of people swarming the tasting rooms all at once.

In 2016, Passport to Woodinville was reinstated as a year-round event, rather than a single event on a particular weekend. For a yearly Passport fee of around $50–60, the buyer is granted a free tasting at all participating wineries listed in a red life-sized Passport book, stamped or signed by each winery to indicate that a free tasting has been redeemed; the new Passport is good at any participating winery during the entire year, except during busy weekends at a small number of select wineries. Because it is distributed year-round instead of concentrated in a single weekend, the new Passport to Woodinville has twice as many participating wineries as the old one; the Saint Nicholas Day Open House is a similar event held during the first weekend in December. Washington wine Wine tourism Redhook Ale Brewery Woodinville Wine Country Passport to Woodinville Wine Country

James L. Stone

James Lamar Stone was a United States Army officer and a recipient of America's highest military decoration—the Medal of Honor—for his actions in the Korean War. He was awarded the medal for his conspicuous leadership during a fight against overwhelming odds, for continuing to lead after being wounded, for choosing to stay behind after ordering others to retreat, a decision which led to his capture by Chinese forces. Stone joined the Army from Houston, Texas, in 1948, by November 21, 1951 was serving as a first lieutenant in Company E of the 2nd Battalion, 8th Cavalry Regiment, 1st Cavalry Division. On that morning, Stone's platoon relieved another American unit, manning a hilltop outpost above the Imjin River near Sokkogae, South Korea). At about 9:00 pm, Chinese forces launched an artillery and mortar attack against the outpost, followed by a series of infantry assaults. Stone led his platoon's defense against the battalion-sized force. Just after midnight, a second battalion joined the Chinese assault, pitting Stone's 48-man platoon against 800 enemy soldiers.

Wounded three times during the battle, Stone continued to lead his men and fight, including in hand-to-hand combat. Realizing the defense was hopeless, Stone ordered those men who could still walk to leave and rejoin the rest of Company E, while he stayed behind with the badly wounded to cover their retreat. Stone lost consciousness and, just before dawn on November 22, he and the six remaining men of his platoon were captured by Chinese forces. After regaining consciousness, Stone was interrogated by the Chinese before being sent to a prison camp on the Yalu River. After 22 months of captivity, he was released in a prisoner exchange on September 3, 1953. Upon his liberation, Stone learned that he was to receive the Medal of Honor for his actions during the battle near Sokkogae. Stone's Medal of Honor was approved on October 20, 1953 and presented to him a week later. At a ceremony in the White House on October 27, President Dwight Eisenhower presented Medals of Honor to Stone and six others.

Stone reached the rank of colonel and served in the Vietnam War before retiring from the Army in 1980. First Lieutenant Stone's official Medal of Honor citation reads: 1st Lt. Stone, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and indomitable courage above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy; when his platoon, holding a vital outpost position, was attacked by overwhelming Chinese forces, 1st Lt. Stone stood erect and exposed to the terrific enemy fire calmly directed his men in the defense. A defensive flame-thrower failing to function, he moved to its location, further exposing himself, repaired the weapon. Throughout a second attack, 1st Lt. Stone. Throughout he continued to direct his depleted platoon in its hopeless defense. Although again wounded, he continued the fight with his carbine, still exposing himself as an example to his men; when this final overwhelming assault swept over the platoon's position his voice could still be heard faintly urging his men to carry on, until he lost consciousness.

Only because of this officer's driving spirit and heroic action was the platoon emboldened to make its brave but hopeless last ditch stand. Stone died in November 2012 at Arlington, aged 89. List of Medal of Honor recipients List of Korean War Medal of Honor recipients This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Army Center of Military History.""JAMES L. STONE" entry". Medal of Honor recipients: Korean War. United States Army Center of Military History. June 8, 2009. Retrieved 2007-12-30. Collier, Peter. "Medal of Honor Spotlight: James L. Stone". Retrieved 2007-02-15