Panzer IV

The Panzerkampfwagen IV known as the Panzer IV, was a German medium tank developed in the late 1930s and used extensively during the Second World War. Its ordnance inventory designation was Sd. Kfz. 161. The Panzer IV was the most numerous German tank and the second-most numerous German armored fighting vehicle of the Second World War, with some 8,500 built; the Panzer IV chassis was used as the base for many other fighting vehicles, including the Sturmgeschütz IV assault gun, the Jagdpanzer IV tank destroyer, the Wirbelwind self-propelled anti-aircraft gun, the Brummbär self-propelled gun. The Panzer IV saw service in all combat theaters involving Germany and was the only German tank to remain in continuous production throughout the war, it received various upgrades and design modifications, intended to counter new threats, extending its service life. These involved increasing the Panzer IV's armor protection or upgrading its weapons, although during the last months of the war, with Germany's pressing need for rapid replacement of losses, design changes included simplifications to speed up the manufacturing process.

The Panzer IV was succeeded by the Panther medium tank, introduced to counter the Soviet T-34, although the Panzer IV continued as a significant component of German armoured formations to the end of the war. The Panzer IV was the most exported tank in German service, with around 300 sold to Finland, Romania and Bulgaria. After the war, Syria procured Panzer IVs from France and Czechoslovakia, which saw combat in the 1967 Six-Day War. 8,553 Panzer IVs of all versions were built during World War II, a production run in Axis forces only exceeded by the StuG III assault gun with 10,086 vehicles. The Panzer IV was the brainchild of the German general and innovative armored warfare theorist Heinz Guderian. In concept, it was intended to be a support tank for use against enemy anti-tank guns and fortifications. Ideally, each tank battalion in a panzer division was to have three medium companies of Panzer IIIs and one heavy company of Panzer IVs. On 11 January 1934, the German army wrote the specifications for a "medium tractor", issued them to a number of defense companies.

To support the Panzer III, which would be armed with a 37-millimetre anti-tank gun, the new vehicle would have a short-barreled, howitzer-like 75-millimetre as its main gun, was allotted a weight limit of 24 tonnes. Development was carried out under the name Begleitwagen, or BW, to disguise its actual purpose, given that Germany was still theoretically bound by the Treaty of Versailles ban on tanks. MAN, Rheinmetall-Borsig each developed prototypes, with Krupp's being selected for further development; the chassis had been designed with a six-wheeled Schachtellaufwerk interleaved-roadwheel suspension, but the German Army amended this to a torsion bar system. Permitting greater vertical deflection of the roadwheels, this was intended to improve performance and crew comfort both on- and off-road. However, due to the urgent requirement for the new tank, neither proposal was adopted, Krupp instead equipped it with a simple leaf spring double-bogie suspension, with eight rubber-rimmed roadwheels per side.

The prototype required a crew of five men. In the turret, the tank commander sat beneath his roof hatch, while the gunner was situated to the left of the gun breech and the loader to the right; the turret was offset 66.5 mm to the left of the chassis center line, while the engine was moved 152.4 mm to the right. This allowed the torque shaft to clear the rotary base junction, which provided electrical power to turn the turret, while connecting to the transmission box mounted in the hull between the driver and radio operator. Due to the asymmetric layout, the right side of the tank contained the bulk of its stowage volume, taken up by ready-use ammunition lockers. Accepted into service as the Versuchskraftfahrzeug 622, production began in 1936 at Fried. Krupp Grusonwerk AG factory at Magdeburg; the first mass-produced version of the Panzer IV was the Ausführung A, in 1936. It was powered by a Maybach HL108 TR, producing 250 PS, used the SGR 75 transmission with five forward gears and one reverse, achieving a maximum road speed of 31 kilometres per hour.

As main armament, the vehicle mounted the short-barreled, howitzer-like 75 mm Kampfwagenkanone 37 L/24 tank gun, a low-velocity weapon designed to fire high-explosive shells. Against armored targets, firing the Panzergranate at 430 metres per second the KwK 37 could penetrate 43 millimetres, inclined at 30 degrees, at ranges of up to 700 metres. A 7.92 mm MG 34 machine gun was mounted coaxially with the main weapon in the turret, while a second machine gun of the same type was mounted in the front plate of the hull. The main weapon and coaxial machine gun were sighted with a Turmzielfernrohr 5b optic while the hull machine gun was sighted with a Kugelzielfernrohr 2 optic; the Ausf. A was protected by 14.5 mm of steel armor on the front plate of the chassis, 20 mm on the turret. This was only capable of stopping artillery fragments, small-arms fire, light anti-tank projectiles. After manufacturing 35 tanks of the A version, in 1937 production moved to the Ausf. B. Improvements included the replacement of the original engine

Visual pun

A visual pun is a pun involving an image or images based on a rebus. Visual puns in which the image is at odds with the inscription are common in cartoons such as Lost Consonants or The Far Side as well as in Dutch gable stones. For instance the "Batenburg" stone from Prinsengracht, shown here, puns on the words baten and burg which together make up the name of a village near Nijmegen. European heraldry contains the technique of canting arms. Visual puns on the bearer's name are used extensively as forms of heraldic expression, they are called canting arms, they have been used for centuries across Europe and have been used by members of the British Royal Family, such as on the arms of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother and of Princess Beatrice of York. The arms of U. S. Presidents Theodore Roosevelt and Dwight D. Eisenhower are canting. Japanese rebus monogram Slapstick Christian Hempelmann and Andrea C. Samson. “Visual Puns and Verbal Puns: Descriptive Analogy or False Analogy?” In: Diana Popa and Salvatore Attardo, “New Approaches to the Linguistics of Humor.”

Galati: Dunarea de Jos. 2007. 180-196. Heller, Steven. "The Object Poster, the Visual Pun, 3 Other Ideas That Changed Design". The Atlantic. Retrieved 10 March 2018. Shnidman, Ronen. "Dror Karta's Play With Visual Pun". Algemeiner Journal. Retrieved 10 March 2018. Mendoza, Manuel. "Bridgman|Packer creates visual puns, evokes sensuous mystery by blending dance with video imagery". Dallas News. Retrieved 10 March 2018. Mufson, Beckett. "Korean Artist Makes Visual Puns from Pop Culture | Monday Insta Illustrator". Creators. Vice Media LLC. Retrieved 10 March 2018. Wilson, P. F.. "Can you guess Matthew Broussard's visual puns?". City Pages. Retrieved 10 March 2018. Trask, Steven. "Ridiculous visual puns that will make you laugh or make you groan". Mail Online. Retrieved 10 March 2018. Boyd, Chris. "La Vie Dans Une Marionette: visual puns, no strings attached". The Australian. Retrieved 10 March 2018. Abed, Farough. "Visual Puns as Interactive Illustrations: Their Effects on Recognition Memory". Metaphor and Symbolic Activity.

9: 45–60. Doi:10.1207/s15327868ms0901_3. Another large collection of visual puns on TV Tropes

2005 All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship Final

The 2005 All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship Final was a hurling match that took place on Sunday, 11 September 2005. The match was played at Croke Park in Dublin, Ireland, to determine the winner of the 2005 All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship; the final was contested by Cork and Galway, with Cork winning on a score line of 1-21 to 1-16. It was their second consecutive All-Ireland title; this was the 29th championship meeting between Cork and Galway in over one hundred years of competitive games. Cork had won the previous twenty-four encounters while Galway had only put Cork to the sword four times. Furthermore, Cork had a 100% record over Galway in All-Ireland finals, their last meeting at this stage of the championship was in 1990, when Cork staged a great comeback to take the title. Galway's four victories over Cork, on the other hand, came in games when Cork were expected to win easily; the All-Ireland semi-finals of 1975, 1979 and 1985 saw Galway catch Cork on the hop, while their most recent victory over'the Rebels' came in an All-Ireland qualifier in 2002.

The game was shown live in Ireland on RTÉ Two as part of the Sunday game live with match commentary provided by Ger Canning and analysis by Michael Duignan. Cork, as reigning All-Ireland champions, began the game in confident mood, their defence stood up to the Galway attack with Ronan Curran producing his best game of the year. It was 0-4 to 0-1 after just ten minutes, during which time Brian Corcoran looked threatening in full-forward line. All of the Cork players settled much better than their Galway counterparts, with Timmy McCarthy, Tom Kenny and Jerry O'Connor all winning the most of the possession in the centre of the field. Cork were totally in control by the half-way stage of the opening thirty-five minutes, it wasn’t a surprise to see them produce a goal in the sixteenth minute, coming from Ben O'Connor’s clinical finishing. Cork were now six points in front and there were still no signs of Galway repeating their semi-final performance and springing an ambush. Derek Hardiman and Alan Kerins launched the Galway attack.

The latter scored three points against John Gardiner, resulting in the Cork number five being moved to the opposite wing. Kerins might have had a goal after O’Connor’s strike, only for Donal Óg Cusack bringing off a terrific save. Niall Healy was unable to trouble full-back Diarmuid O'Sullivan, while Damien Hayes didn’t get enough ball to trouble corner-back Pat Mulcahy. There was no appreciable change in the direction of the game until about 15 minutes from half time, by which time Galway had begun to make real progress, it started with a tightening of the defence, which saw former captain Ollie Canning excel in the left corner, Tony Óg Regan starting to come to terms with the threat from Corcoran and David Collins coming into his own at left-half. Cork gave away frees which presented Ger Farragher with two scores and saw the two midfielders each put over a score. For the first time, Cork were beginning to struggle as a result of their lack of penetration in the half-forward line, the inability of Joe Deane to make any headway against Damien Joyce and Corcoran’s struggle to make space for himself at full-forward.

Inaccuracy was another factor which lessened their influence and Galway finished the half trailing by only two points - 1-9 to 0-10. On the restart Cork recovered their form with three points in a seven-minute period, it meant that Cork’s ability to pick off scores more than Galway gave them the confidence to hurl comfortably within themselves, without being put under serious pressure. That self-belief came through after Hayes put the ball in the net following another excellent save by Cusack, from Richie Murray; the margin was now down to just a single point. The game was now at its most critical stage, when Galway were either going to continue their revival or the champions were going to draw on their reserves of confidence and craft; the latter happened. Once again, they came out on top in defence - John Gardiner’s move to left wing-back benefiting him, while captrain Seán Óg Ó hAilpín was inspirational in everything he did. Galway contributed to their own downfall through poor shooting and a disappointing response from Murray and David Forde in the half-forward line.

The advantage from the back moved forward, eliciting excellent play once more from Kenny and Jerry O’Connor, who put valuable scores on the board. Cork scored six points to Galway’s two over the last 10 minutes. With Ronan Curran finishing as as he started the game and Ben O’Connor picking off some great scores, Cork eased their way to victory - 1-21 to 1-16. MATCH RULES 70 minutes. Replay if scores level. Maximum of five substitutions. 2005 All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship Final at Hurling Stats Match Video