Papakura District was a local council territory in New Zealand's Auckland Region, governed by the Papakura District Council from 1989 until 2010. The area makes up the southernmost part of the Auckland metropolitan area; the area was a small independent city, until it became Papakura District in the 1989 reorganisation of New Zealand's local governments, has now been overtaken by Auckland's urban sprawl. The district is flanked by beaches on the Manukau Harbour to the west, Manukau City to the north and east, had Franklin District to the south. In 2010, Papakura District boundaries covered 123 square kilometres and the centre of the district was located 32 km from downtown Auckland; the geography of the district encompasses fertile plains, the inlets and foreshores of the Manukau Harbour, the rolling foothills of the Hunua Range. Much of the district – in the west – is flat to rolling land. There is extensive peat soil in the Takanini area, once a vast wetland and peat bog. In the east, low-to-medium-sized foothills lead out into the Hunua range.
Keri Hill has pastoral lifestyle blocks overlooking Ardmore. Drury is the first genuine country town south of Auckland, Takanini is Papakura's main industrial zone; the district was arranged into four wards during the existence of the Papakura District Council, now the entire area makes up a Papakura Local Board in the new Auckland city territory. In the major reformation of local government in 1989, Papakura became a district. Prior to that time, a smaller area was known as Papakura City, a small city of New Zealand, but the new area included parts of the surrounding rural countryside, part of Manukau City. After the major change Papakura City became part of the Auckland Region; the whole district counted as part of the Auckland urban area for statistical purposes, forming part of its southern boundary. On 1 November 2010, the Papakura District Council was merged into the new Auckland Council. All council facilities and services were handed over to the new council. Papakura District's population is estimated to be growing at three times the rate of New Zealand as a whole and is predominantly European.
Over 60% residents living in Papakura District belong to the European ethnic group and 36% belong to Maori and Pacific Islander group. The city council is planning for Papakura's population to more than double by 2050. In addition to the local council chambers, Papakura is served by a large Police Department. In 2004, the Papakura Courthouse acted as the Supreme Court for Pitcairn Island; the Papakura District Court was opened by the Hon. Geoffrey Palmer Minister of Justice, on 19 May 1986. At present, it is home to two Resident District Court Judges, it has 2 main court rooms used for criminal hearings, a smaller court room used for Family Court hearings, a disputes hearing room and Registrar's hearing room for all criminal first appearances. One of the criminal court rooms is fitted out to hold jury trials, but is no longer used for that purpose, with all trials arising out of local incidents being held at the much larger Manukau District Court. Papakura once served a significant military population, but now only the SAS special forces are based at Papakura.
Nearby houses were Army Homes, but are now owned homes. A significant war memorial is located on the corner of Great South Road and Opaheke Road, where Anzac Day commemorations and other commemorative occasions take place, such as the Armistice Day Centenary on Sunday 11 November 2018. Auckland's southern motorway and the North Island Main Trunk railway run through the Papakura District and a large airfield is located nearby at Ardmore. Train and bus services provide the bulk of public transport, with frequent trains on the Southern Line between Papakura and the CBD. Recent investment has focused on upgrading and refurbishing the region's trains and suburban railway stations, most with the opening of a modern station facility at the town centre. Papakura is the final stop for most southbound public transport in Auckland, Papakura is the third busiest station on the rail network. Drawn by frequent services into and out of the city, rail commuters come from Papakura itself, Franklin County and the northern Waikato.
Though the motorway and Great South Road flow freely at peak times, road commuters are affected by the acute traffic congestion as they get closer to metropolitan Auckland. Ardmore Airport serves recreational aviators and commercial flights, it is the busiest airport in New Zealand based on aircraft movements, is home to a wide range of innovative small to medium-sized aerospace businesses and popular among the non-commercial aviation sector. Some notable sports facilities include an indoor-outdoor swimming pool, an international-quality athletics track, a sports stadium, venues for rugby, golf, badminton and many other sports; the council operates a library and a theatre. Papakura has a number of skate parks, a skate bowl and an extensive BMX track that hosts major cycling events. Interactive Maps: zoomin.co.nz, District Plan, Wises 2006 Census results Some histories of Papakura Breakwater against the Tide, by Elsdon Craig ISBN 0-908596-17-0 Papakura Marae Rosehill College Papakura High School P
Rangi and Papa
In Māori mythology the primal couple Rangi and Papa appear in a creation myth explaining the origin of the world. In some South Island dialects, Rangi is called Rakinui. Ranginui and Papatūānuku are the primordial parents, the sky father and the earth mother who lie locked together in a tight embrace, they have many children all of whom are male, who are forced to live in the cramped darkness between them. These children discuss among themselves what it would be like to live in the light. Tūmatauenga, the fiercest of the children, proposes that the best solution to their predicament is to kill their parents, but his brother Tāne disagrees, suggesting that it is better to push them apart, to let Ranginui be as a stranger to them in the sky above while Papatūānuku will remain below to nurture them. The others put their plans into action—Rongo, the god of cultivated food, tries to push his parents apart Tangaroa, the god of the sea, his sibling Haumia-tiketike, the god of wild food, join him. In spite of their joint efforts Rangi and Papa remain close together in their loving embrace.
After many attempts Tāne, god of forests and birds, forces his parents apart. Instead of standing upright and pushing with his hands as his brothers have done, he lies on his back and pushes with his strong legs. Stretching every sinew Tāne pushes and pushes until, with cries of grief and surprise and Papatūānuku were pried apart, and so the children of Ranginui and Papatūanuku have space to move for the first time. While the other children have agreed to the separation Tāwhirimātea, the god of storms and winds, is angered that the parents have been torn apart, he cannot bear to hear the cries of his parents nor see the tears of Ranginui as they are parted, he promises his siblings that from henceforth they will have to deal with his anger. He flies off to join Rangi and there fosters his own many offspring who include the winds, one of whom is sent to each quarter of the compass. To fight his brothers, Tāwhirimātea gathers an army of his children—winds and clouds of different kinds, including fierce squalls, gloomy thick clouds, fiery clouds, hurricane clouds and thunderstorm clouds, rain and fog.
As these winds show their might the dust flies and the great forest trees of Tāne are smashed under the attack and fall to the ground, food for decay and for insects. Tāwhirimātea attacks the oceans and huge waves rise, whirlpools form, Tangaroa, the god of the sea, flees in panic. Punga, a son of Tangaroa, has two children, Ikatere father of fish, Tu-te-wehiwehi the ancestor of reptiles. Terrified by Tāwhirimātea’s onslaught the fish seek shelter in the sea and the reptiles in the forests. Since Tangaroa has been angry with Tāne for giving refuge to his runaway children. So it is that Tāne supplies the descendants of Tūmatauenga with canoes and nets to catch the descendants of Tangaroa. Tangaroa retaliates by swamping canoes and sweeping away houses and trees that are washed out to sea in floods. Tāwhirimātea next attacks his brothers Rongo and Haumia-tiketike, the gods of cultivated and uncultivated foods. Rongo and Haumia are in great fear of Tāwhirimātea but, as he attacks them, Papatūānuku determines to keep these for her other children and hides them so well that Tāwhirimātea cannot find them.
So Tāwhirimātea turns on his brother Tūmatauenga. He uses all his strength but Tūmatauenga stands fast and Tāwhirimatea cannot prevail against him. Tū stands fast and, at last, the anger of the gods subsided and peace prevailed. Tū thought about the actions of Tāne in separating their parents and made snares to catch the birds, the children of Tāne who could no longer fly free, he made nets from forest plants and casts them in the sea so that the children of Tangaroa soon lie in heaps on the shore. He made hoes to dig the ground, capturing his brothers Rongo and Haumia-tiketike where they have hidden from Tāwhirimātea in the bosom of the earth mother and, recognising them by their long hair that remains above the surface of the earth, he drags them forth and heaps them into baskets to be eaten. So Tūmatauenga eats all of his brothers to repay them for their cowardice. There was one more child of Ranginui and Papatūānuku, never born and still lives inside Papatūanuku. Whenever this child is kicking the earth shakes and it causes an earthquake.
Rūaumoko is his name and he is the God of earthquakes and volcanoes. Tāne searched for heavenly bodies as lights, he threw them up, along with the moon and the sun. At last Ranginui looked handsome. Ranginui and Papatūanuku continue to grieve for each other to this day. Ranginui's tears fall towards Papatūanuku to show. Sometimes Papatūanuku heaves and strains and breaks herself apart to reach her beloved partner again but it is to no avail; when mist rises from the forests, these are Papatūānuku's sighs as the warmth of her body yearns for Ranginui and continues to nurture mankind. Ranginui Rangi Raki in the South Island Ranginui Rangi-pōtiki: another name of Rangi, or a allied deityPapatuanuku Papa Papatūānuku, husband of Papa in Tuamotuan, Rarotongan
Jerome Kaino is a New Zealand rugby union player. He plays flanker and number eight for Stade Toulousain in the Top 14. In 2004, he was named IRB International Under-21 player of the year. In 2011, he was named the New Zealand Rugby player of the year, finishing ahead of Richie McCaw and Ma'a Nonu in the voting, he is a key member of 2011 and 2015 Rugby World Cup winning teams, becoming one of only twenty dual Rugby World Cup winners. Kaino is considered by many to be one of the game's greats. Kaino is the second U. S. national of Samoan descent to play for the All Blacks. The first was Frank Solomon in 1931. Kaino was born on 6 April 1983 at Lyndon B. Johnson Medical Center in Faga'alu, located in the U. S. territory of American Samoa as the third of six children. In 1987 at the age of 4, he and his family relocated from their home village of Leone, Tutuila, to Papakura, Auckland. After settling in Papakura, he played junior rugby league for the Papakura Sea Eagles before switching to rugby union in secondary school at Papakura High School and Saint Kentigern College where he was offered a rugby scholarship.
He attended both schools with former All Black John Afoa. If Kaino had not come to New Zealand following the lead of his uncle, his relatives assumed that he would have enlisted in the United States Army. Kaino made his Auckland debut in 2004 and his Blues debut in 2006. Prior to being signed for the Blues, Kaino came off the bench in Auckland's 13-17 loss to the British and Irish Lions on 5 July 2005. In 2012 it was announced that Kaino would be leaving the Blues for Japanese club Toyota Verblitz on a two-year deal, following the conclusion of the 2011 Rugby World Cup. On 4 October 2013, Kaino announced he had re-signed with New Zealand Rugby Union, North Harbour and Auckland Blues on a two-year contract, he was expected to return to New Zealand in February in time for the beginning of the 2014 Super Rugby season. Kaino made successful return to the Blues in the 2014 season, being named as the team's captain for the 2015 Super Rugby season, taking over from fellow back-rower Luke Braid. Kaino played his 100th match for the Blues on 28 February 2015, but the Blues lost 24-25 to the Cheetahs that day.
Kaino's captaincy at the Blues did not last long, with hooker James Parsons taking over during the 2016 Super Rugby season. On 8 September 2017, Kaino played for Auckland for the first time since 2010. Kaino started at number 8. On 17 February 2018, rumours were released that Kaino would move to France at the conclusion of the 2018 Super Rugby season. A week Kaino confirmed he would leave New Zealand. Stade Toulousain, based in Toulouse, France subsequently announced that Kaino would join their team, containing Kaino's former All Blacks and Blues teammate Charlie Faumuina. Despite being without a Super Rugby contract for the 2005 Super 12 season, Kaino was called into the All Blacks on 2004's end-of-season tour. Kaino made his All Blacks debut on 4 December 2004 when he started at blindside flanker against the Barbarians in an uncapped fixture at Twickenham Stadium in London. Kaino played the full 80 minutes and scored a try on debut, with the All Blacks winning 47-19. Kaino played his first two tests against Ireland in 2006.
He did not play for New Zealand again until 2008. In 2008 Kaino, who earned many comparisons with Jerry Collins for his uncompromising physical style, would become a key member of the All Blacks setup. Kaino's return from injury saw. In 2011 Kaino played an important role in the All Blacks winning the Rugby World Cup, he was named in the starting XV for every game. He played every minute of every game except for the final few seconds in the semi-final against Australia, he scored four tries in the World Cup. Kaino returned to the All Blacks from his stint in Japan and during the 2014 three-test series against England, temporarily replaced incumbent number eight Kieran Read, being forced to sit out after suffering a relapse of concussion symptoms. Kaino started at number 8 for the first two tests of the series, the second of which on 14 July 2014, was his 50th test for the All Blacks. Kaino celebrated his milestone with a narrow 28-27 victory for the All Blacks. Kaino returned to blindside flanker in the third test if the series following Read's recovery, pushing Liam Messam out of his starting place.
Kaino finished off his 2014 season in which he made eight appearances for the All Blacks by scoring his only try of the year, allowing the All Blacks to comfortably beat Wales 34-16 on 22 November 2014. Kaino was selected for the 2015 Rugby World Cup as part of New Zealand's 31-man All Blacks squad. Kaino achieved many career milestones in the competition, playing in all seven All Black tests in the competition, his most notable performances in the competition were in the quarter-final on 17 October 2015 where the All Blacks beat France 62-13 and in the semi-final's 20-18 win against South Africa on 24 October 2015. He scored tries in both of those knockout rounds, but was yellow-carded for being offside against South Africa in the 39th minute of the semi-final. Kaino, alongside teammates Sam Whitelock and Sonny Bill Williams played in their record 14th consecutive World Cup wins when New Zealand beat Australia 34-17 on 31 October 2015, to win their third Rugby World Cup. Kaino was replaced by Hurricanes forward Victor Vito with nine minutes left of the World Cup final.
Kaino struggled with injury throughout 2016, but still managed to play for New Zealand 12 All Blacks tests. Kaino scored his final international try for New Zealand on 20 August 2016 as the All Blacks beat the Wallabies by 42-8; this season most notably included the 40-29 defeat to Ireland i
Drury, New Zealand
Drury is a rural town near Auckland, in northern New Zealand. Located 36 kilometres to the south of Auckland CBD, under authority of the Auckland Council. Drury lies at the southern border of the Auckland metropolitan area, 12 kilometres to the northeast of Pukekohe, close to the Papakura Channel, an arm of the Manukau Harbour. Drury is named after Commander Byron Drury, captain of HMS Pandora, who surveyed the Manukau Harbour in 1853. Coal mining was a significant early industry established in Drury during the 1850s, saw the formation of the Waihoihoi Mining and Coal Company in 1859. Continued success with coal mining led to the opening of one of New Zealand's earliest tramways by the company in 1862, consisting of 4ft 8in gauge track with a length of 5.2km, whereby coal was transported to Slippery Creek for shipment to Onehunga. Another early industry seen in Drury was that of an extensive brick and pottery works, linked to a nearby quarry by a tram line at the foot of the Drury Hills; the brick and pottery industry in Drury appears to have operated until at least 1928.
Drury was a significant staging area for British soldiers during the New Zealand land wars, who established a camp in the village under the command of General Duncan Cameron. These soldiers helped to construct an extension to the Great South Road south to the Mangatawhiri Stream. During the major reformation of local government in 1989, Drury was included in the Auckland Region and made up the southern edge of the Papakura District, along with a certain extent of the eastern surrounding rural areas known as Franklin County. Drury was until a small semi-rural area nestling at the foot of the low-lying Bombay Hills. Urban spread of the city has rendered it an extreme southern suburb, close to the junction between State Highways 1 and 22, both of which head south towards the Waikato region. After a review of the Royal Commission on Auckland Governance, the entire Auckland Region was amalgamated into a single city authority; as well as the former Papakura District and Franklin District, all other territorial authorities were abolished and the entire area was dissolved into a single Auckland city council.
The town of Drury was included in the Franklin ward, one of the thirteen administrative structures of the new Auckland city. Auckland's largest business park, expected to employ 6900 people, is under development in the south of Drury. An estimated 2500 homes are set to be built in the west of Drury, with development well underway; the Drury population is predominantly European as at 2006, at 75.3 percent. Maori residents make up 11.9 percent of the suburb, 7.0 percent being of Asian ethnicity. According to the 2006 New Zealand census, the most common occupational group in Drury is Managers, the least common group is Machinery operators and drivers, with an unemployment rate of 3.3 percent of the Drury population. Drury railway station Runciman railway station Drury Village Website Papakura District Council New Auckland Council Photographs of Drury held in Auckland Libraries' heritage collections
The Auckland Region is one of the sixteen regions of New Zealand, named for the city of Auckland, the country's largest urban area. The region encompasses the Auckland metropolitan area, smaller towns, rural areas, the islands of the Hauraki Gulf. Containing 35 percent of the nation's residents, it has by far the largest population and economy of any region of New Zealand, but the second-smallest land area. On 1 November 2010, the Auckland Region became a unitary authority controlled by the Auckland Council, replacing the previous regional council and seven local councils. In the process, an area in its southeastern corner was transferred to the neighbouring Waikato Region; the name "Auckland Region" remains present in casual usage. On the mainland, the region extends from the mouth of the Kaipara Harbour in the north across the southern stretches of the Northland Peninsula, past the Waitakere Ranges and the isthmus of Auckland and across the low-lying land surrounding the Manukau Harbour; the region ends within a few kilometres of the mouth of the Waikato River.
It is bordered in the north by the Northland Region, in the south by the Waikato Region. It includes the islands of the Hauraki Gulf; the Hunua Ranges and the adjacent coastline along the Firth of Thames were part of the region until the Auckland Council was formed in late 2010, when they were transferred to the neighbouring Waikato Region. In land area it is smaller than unitary authorities except Nelson, its highest point is the summit of at 722 metres. Auckland Province Media related to Auckland Region at Wikimedia Commons Auckland Region travel guide from Wikivoyage Geographic data related to Auckland Region at OpenStreetMap
Public transport in Auckland
Public transport in Auckland, the largest metropolitan area of New Zealand, consists of three modes: bus and ferry. Services are coordinated by Auckland Transport under the AT Metro brand. Britomart Transport Centre is the main transport hub; until the 1950s Auckland had high levels of ridership. However, the dismantling of an extensive tram system in the 1950s, the decision by William Goosman to not electrify Auckland's rail network, a focus of transport investment into a motorway system led to the collapse in both mode share and total trips. By the 1990s Auckland had experienced one of the sharpest declines in public transport ridership in the world, with only 33 trips per capita per year. Since 2000, a greater focus has been placed on improving Auckland's public transport system through a series of projects and service improvements. Major improvements include the Britomart Transport Centre, the Northern Busway, the upgrade and electrification of the rail network and the introduction of integrated ticketing through the AT Hop Card.
These efforts have led to sustained growth in ridership on the rail network. Between June 2005 and November 2017 total ridership increased from 51.3 million boardings per annum to 90.9 million. Despite those strong gains, the overall share of travel in Auckland by public transport is still quite low. At the 2013 census around 8% of journeys to work were by public transport and per capita ridership in 2017 of around 55 boardings is still well below that of Wellington, Melbourne and most large Canadian cities. Auckland's rapid population growth means that improving the city's public transport system is a priority for Auckland Council and the New Zealand Government. Major improvements planned or underway include the City Rail Link, extending the Northern Busway to Albany, construction of the Eastern Busway between Panmure and Botany, the proposed Auckland Airport Line, a light rail line between the city centre and Auckland Airport. Horse-drawn trams operated in Auckland from 1884 while the Auckland Electric Tram Company's system was opened on 17 November 1902.
The Electric Tram Company started as a private company before being acquired by Auckland City Council. The tram network shaped much of Auckland's growth throughout the early 20th century. Auckland's public transport system was well utilised, with usage peaking at over 120 million boardings during the Second World War though Auckland's population was under 500,000 at the time. Auckland's extensive tram network was removed in the 1950s, with the last line closing in late 1956. Although a series of ambitious rail schemes were proposed between the 1940s and 1970s, the focus of transport improvements in Auckland shifted to developing an extensive motorway system. Passionate advocacy from long-time Mayor of Auckland City Council Dove-Myer Robinson for a "rapid rail" scheme was unsuccessful. Removal of the tram system, little investment in Auckland's rail network and growing car ownership in the second half of the 20th century led to a collapse in ridership across all modes of public transport. From a 1954 average level of 290 public transport trips per person per year, patronage decreased rapidly.
1950s ridership levels were only reached again in the 2010s, despite Auckland's population growing four-fold over the same time period. These decisions shaped Auckland's growth patterns in the late 20th century, with the city becoming a low-density dispersed urban area with a population dependent on private vehicles for their travel needs. By the late 1990s ongoing population growth and high levels of car use were leading to the recognition that traffic congestion was one of Auckland's biggest problems, it has been claimed that the city's public transport decline resulted from, "privatisation, a poor regulatory environment and a funding system that favours roads". On the other hand, NZ Bus claim that increasing passengers and cost control began with privatisation in 1991; as concerns over urban sprawl and traffic congestion grew in the 1990s and early 2000s, public transport returned to the spotlight, with growing agreement of the "need for a substantial shift to public transport". Growing recognition that Auckland could no longer "build its way out of congestion" through more roads alone led to the first major improvements to Auckland's public transport system in half a century: The Britomart Transport Centre was opened in 2003, the first major upgrade of Auckland's rail network since World War II.
This project allowed trains to reach into the heart of Auckland's city centre and acted as a catalyst for the regeneration of this part of downtown Auckland. The Northern Busway was opened in 2008, providing Auckland's North Shore with rapid transit that enabled bus riders to avoid congestion on the Northern Motorway and Auckland Harbour Bridge. A core upgrade of Auckland's rail network between 2006 and 2011, known as Project DART, which included double-tracking of the Western Line, the reopening of the Onehunga Branch line to Onehunga, a rail spur to Manukau City and a series of station upgrades. Electrification of the Auckland rail network and the purchase of new electric trains from Spanish manufacturer CAF. Electric train services commenced in 2014. Implementation of an integrated ticketing and fares system, through the AT HOP card, enabling consistent fares and easy transfers between different bus and ferry operators. Despite these improvements, the lack of investment in Auckland's public transport system throughout the latter part of the 20th century means the city still has much lower levels of ridership than other major cities in Canada and Australia.
Great South Road, New Zealand
The Great South Road was the northern section of the earliest highway between Auckland and Wellington, in the North Island of New Zealand. Construction of the Great South Road began in 1861 during the New Zealand Wars under the orders of Governor Grey to improve supply lines through swampy and thickly forested country; the road was constructed by British Army troops, including Dominic Jacotin Gamble, provided a flow of supplies for the Waikato campaign. 12,000 soldiers were involved in the construction over two years. After the wars, more peaceful uses predominated, the road became the main social and commercial link to the growing agricultural areas south of Auckland. Much of the road between Newmarket and Drury is laid in concrete, up to 1 foot thick but is now covered with asphalt; the road was marked by milestones, but these are now all believed lost. The Auckland Southern Motorway has superseded Great South Road as a through route, but many parts of the road are still in use the urban sections.
The road begins in the central Auckland suburb of Epsom passes through the suburbs of Greenlane, Otahuhu, Manukau and Papakura. Leaving the urban sprawl, it heads south through Drury before terminating at Mill Road in Bombay and merging with the Waikato Expressway, it continued, over the Bombay Hills, followed the east bank of the Waikato River until crossing it at Ngaruawahia. A section of State Highway 3 through Ohaupo retains the road's southernmost extension. New Zealand state highway network NZ Geographic article Dominic Gamble Soldier involved in road construction Manukau timeline