Papal tiara

The papal tiara is a crown, worn by popes of the Catholic Church from as early as the 8th century to the mid-20th. It was last used by Pope Paul VI in 1963 and only at the beginning of his reign; the name "tiara" refers to the entire headpiece, no matter how many crowns, circlets or diadems have adorned it through the ages, while the three-tiered form that it took in the 14th century is called the triregnum, triple tiara, or triple crown. From 1143 to 1963, the papal tiara was solemnly placed on the pope's head during a papal coronation; the surviving papal tiaras are all in the triple form, the oldest being of 1572. A representation of the triregnum combined with two crossed keys of Saint Peter continues to be used as a symbol of the papacy and appears on papal documents and insignia; the papal tiara originated from frigium. Shaped like a candle-extinguisher, the papal tiara and the episcopal mitre were identical in their early forms. Names used for the papal tiara in the 8th and 9th centuries include camelaucum, pileus and pileum phrygium.

A circlet of linen or cloth of gold at the base of the tiara developed into a metal crown, which by about 1300 became two crowns. The first of these appeared at the base of the traditional white papal headgear in the 9th century; when the popes assumed temporal power in the Papal States, the base crown became decorated with jewels to resemble the crowns of princes. The second crown is said to have been added by Pope Innocent III as signifying both his spiritual and temporal power, since he declared that God had set him over kings and kingdoms, or by Pope Boniface VIII. However, a fresco in the Chapel of Saint Sylvester in the church of the Santi Quattro Coronati in Rome seems to represent the Pope wearing a tiara with two bands and with lappets; the addition of a third crown is attributed to Pope Benedict XI or Pope Clement V, one such tiara was listed in an inventory of the papal treasury in 1316. The first years of the 16th century cross to top the tiara; the third crown was added to the papal tiara during the Avignon Papacy, giving rise to the form called the triregnum.

After Pope Clement V at Avignon, various versions of the three-crown tiara have been worn by popes in Rome down to Pope Paul VI, crowned with one in 1963. Lord Twining wrote of a tiara of Pope Boniface VIII that became known as the Tiara of Saint Sylvester: Under Boniface VIII the hood of the regnum was lengthened and the circlet was enriched with precious stones, while toward the end of his papacy a second circlet was added; the increased length had the symbolical meaning of dominion of the una sancta ecclesia over the earth, demonstrated the meaning of the papal unam sanctum. In the inventory of 1295 the second year of Boniface's papacy the head-dress, now referred to as a tiara, is described as enriched with 48 rubies balas, 72 sapphires, 45 praxini or emeralds, numerous little balas rubies and emeralds and 66 large pearls. At the summit was a large ruby. Boniface VIII was succeeded in 1303 by Benedict XI. After his death in 1304 there was a period of eleven months; the Archbishop of Bordeaux was chosen and took the title of Clement V.

He removed the papal seat from Rome to Avignon and the tiara was brought to Lyons from Perugia for his coronation on 14 November 1305. In the inventory, taken in 1315–16 Boniface VIII's tiara is again described and can be identified by the mention of the large ruby, recorded as missing, it is described as having three circlets corona quae vocatur, regnum cum tribus circuitis aureis. It therefore must have been between the taking of the two inventories in 1295 and 1315 that the second and third circlets were added to the tiara, it was during this period. The tiara was kept in the Papal Treasury at Avignon until Gregory XI took it back to Rome, which he entered on 17 January 1377. In 1378 Robert of Geneva was elected anti-Pope taking the style Clement VII, he removed the tiara from Avignon; when the Spaniard, Pedro de Luna, was elected anti-Pope in 1394 styling himself Benedict XIII, he took the tiara from Avignon to Spain, where it remained until Aphonso V of Aragon failed in his attempt to renew the schism, on his withdrawal of support from the anti-Pope Clement VII in 1419, the tiara was returned to Rome.

In the 14th century, the tiara of Boniface VIII began to be called the Tiara of St. Sylvester, became venerated and considered as a relic; this was no doubt suggested by the Donation of Constantine, but it now came to be used only at the coronation of Popes, starting with Gregory XI in 1370 and his successor Urban VI in 1378. It was kept in the Lateran Treasury, it was last used at the coronation of Nicholas V, in 1485 it was stolen and no more is heard of it". Twining notes the various allegorical meanings attributed to the three crowns of the papal tiara, but concludes that "it seems more that the symbolism is suggested by the idea that took shape in the 13th and 14th centuries that the Emperor was crowned with three crowns--the silver crown of Germany at Aix-la-Chapelle, the iron crown of Lombardy at Milan or Monza and the golden imperial crown at Rome and therefore the Pope, should wear three crowns." Like a bishop's mitre, a papal tiara has attached to it two lappets, a pair of streamers or pendants that in Latin are called caudae or infulae.

These are attached at the rear of the tiara, again as on a bishop's mitre, although the mosaic of Pope

Peto's paradox

Peto's paradox is the observation, named after English statistician and epidemiologist Richard Peto, that at the species level, the incidence of cancer does not appear to correlate with the number of cells in an organism. For example, the incidence of cancer in humans is much higher than the incidence of cancer in whales; this is despite the fact. If the probability of carcinogenesis were constant across cells, one would expect whales to have a higher incidence of cancer than humans. Peto, a statistical epidemiologist at the University of Oxford, first formulated the paradox in 1977. Writing an overview of the multistage model of cancer, Peto noted that, on a cell-for-cell basis, humans were much less susceptible to cancer than mice: A man has 1000 times as many cells as a mouse... and we live at least 30 times as long as mice. Exposure of two similar organisms to risk of carcinoma, one for 30 times as long as the other, would give 304 or 306 times the risk of carcinoma induction per epithelial cell.

However, it seems that, in the wild, the probabilities of carcinoma induction in mice and in men are not vastly different. Are our stem cells then, a billion or a trillion times more "cancerproof" than murine stem cells? This is biologically pretty implausible. Peto went on to suggest that evolutionary considerations were responsible for varying per-cell carcinogenesis rates across species. Within members of the same species, cancer risk and body size appear to be positively correlated once other risk factors are controlled for. A 25-year longitudinal study of 17,738 male British civil servants, published in 1998, showed a positive correlation between height and cancer incidence with a high degree of statistical confidence after risk factors like smoking were controlled for. A similar 2011 study of more than one million British women found strong statistical evidence of a relationship between cancer and height after controlling for a number of socioeconomic and behavioral risk factors. A 2011 analysis of the causes of death of 74,556 domesticated North American dogs found that cancer incidence was lowest in the smaller breeds, confirming the results of earlier studies.

Across species, the relationship breaks down. A 2015 study, using data from necropsies performed by the San Diego Zoo, surveyed results from 36 different mammalian species, ranging in size from the 51-gram striped grass mouse to the 4,800-kilogram elephant, nearly 100,000 times larger; the study found no relationship between body size and cancer incidence, offering empirical support for Peto's initial observation. The evolution of multicellularity has required the suppression of cancer to some extent, connections have been found between the origins of multicellularity and cancer. In order to build larger and longer-lived bodies, organisms required greater cancer suppression. Evidence suggests that large organisms such as elephants have more adaptations that allow them to evade cancer; the reason that intermediate-sized organisms have few of these genes may be because the advantage of preventing cancer these genes conferred was, for moderately-sized organisms, outweighed by their disadvantages—particularly reduced fertility.

Various species have evolved different mechanisms for suppressing cancer. A paper in Cell Reports in January 2015 claimed to have found genes in the bowhead whale that may be associated with longevity. Around the same time, a second team of researchers identified a polysaccharide in the naked mole-rat that appeared to block the development of tumors. In October 2015, two independent studies showed that elephants have 20 copies of tumor suppressor gene TP53 in their genome, where humans and other mammals have only one. Additional research showed 14 copies of the gene present in the DNA of preserved mammoths, but only one copy of the gene in the DNA of manatees and hyraxes, the elephant's closest living relatives; the results suggest an evolutionary relationship between animal size and tumor suppression, as Peto had theorized. A 2014 paper in Evolutionary Applications by Maciak and Michalak emphasized what they termed "a underappreciated relation of cell size to both metabolism and cell-division rates across species" as key factors underlying the paradox, concluded that "larger organisms have bigger and dividing cells with lower energy turnover, all reducing the risk of cancer initiation."Maciak and Michalak argue that cell size is not uniform across mammalian species, making body size an imperfect proxy for the number of cells in an organism..

Furthermore, larger cells divide more than smaller ones, a difference which compounds exponentially over the life-span of the organism. Fewer cell divisions means fewer opportunities for cancer mutations, mathematical models of cancer incidence are sensitive to cell-division rates. Additionally, larger animals have lower basal metabolic rates, following a well-defined inverse logarithmic relationship, their cells will incur less damage over time per unit of body mass. Combined, these factors may explain much of the apparent paradox; the apparent ability of bigger animals to suppress cancer across large numbers of cells has spurred an active field of medical research. In one experiment, laboratory mice were genetically altered to express "always-on" active TP53 tumor antigens, similar to the ones found in elephants; the mutated mice exhibited increased tumor suppress

The 2nd V Chart Awards

The 2nd V Chart Awards is a music awards hosted by YinYueTai on April 15, 2014 at Cadillac Arena, Beijing. The emcee for the award were Bowie Tsang. 1. The "data-based category" award nominees are artists who released an official MV in between January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2014 and the artist must be ranked in the chart throughout the whole year.2. "The Most Popular Artists" series in the "voting category" of shortlisted nominees are the top 30 artists in the TOP150 list in all five regions.3. "Jury category" nominees are shortlisted artists based on the year-long results of the China Billboard V Chart and the nominees will go through a panel of senior musicians. On the main section of the official website for The 2nd V Chart Awards, the official website of the award ceremony added the review section of the festival, news commentary and the video canvassing area for fans. Users can not only express their opinions, but interact through games and interactions. Exchanges and interaction among various fandoms and other forums are set to understand the festival's dynamics and voting process, the official website facilitates various fandoms to canvassing support to their singer.

YinYueTai YinYueTai Mobile App, YinYueTai PC App, YinYueTai Official Website, Baidu Billboard, Gaon Charts On March 1, 2014, The 2nd V Chart Awards was launched. Promotional posters were released online on March 11. On March 17, the first phase of the "Favourite Artist of the Year" series of polls began and ended on the 26th; the second phase of the "Favourite Artist of the Year" series of polls commenced from March 30 till April 8. A complete list of the attendees was announced on April 5