click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Papeete

Papeete is the capital city of French Polynesia, an overseas collectivity of the French Republic in the Pacific Ocean. The commune of Papeete is located on the island of Tahiti, in the administrative subdivision of the Windward Islands, of which Papeete is the administrative capital; the French High Commissioner resides in Papeete. It is the primary center of Tahitian and French Polynesian public and private governmental, commercial and financial services, the hub of French Polynesian tourism and a used port of call; the Windward Islands are themselves part of the Society Islands. The name Papeete, sometimes spelled Pape’ete in Tahitian, means "water from a basket"; the urban area of Papeete had a total population of 136,771 inhabitants at the August 2017 census, 26,926 of whom lived in the commune of Papeete proper. The commune of Papeete is subdivided into eleven quartiers: Manu Hoe – Fare Ute – Motu Uta Patutoa Taunoa Fari'ipiti Titioro Tepapa Faiere Pic Rouge Tipaerui Paofai Mamao At the outbreak of World War I Papeete was shelled by German vessels, causing loss of life and significant damage.

The growth of the city was boosted by the decision to move the nuclear weapon test range from Algeria to the atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa, some 1,500 km to the east of Tahiti. In 1983, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints built the Papeete Tahiti Temple here because of the large number of members in the region. On 5 September 1995 the government of Jacques Chirac conducted the first of the last series of nuclear test detonations off the shores of Moruroa. A resulting riot in Papeete lasted for two days and damaged the international airport, injured 40 people, scared away tourism for some time. Similar rioting occurred after another French nuclear test in the same area in 1987. There are busy streets in the town center, sometimes traffic can be a problem since the streets are small. There is a freeway that starts close to the town center starting with Pomare Boulevard, named after the Tahitian Royal Family dynasty of the 19th century. By air, the people would use the Faaa International Airport.

From there they could either take Air Tahiti to go to another island of the territory or take a plane like Air Tahiti Nui to go international. By sea, they would either take Moorea ferries to go to Moorea or the Bora Bora cruiseline to go to Bora Bora; the urban area of Papeete had a total population of 136,771 inhabitants at the August 2017 census, 26,926 of whom lived in the commune of Papeete proper. The urban area of Papeete is made up of seven communes, they are listed from northeast to southwest: Mahina Arue Pirae Papeete Faaa Punaauia Paea Average population growth of the Papeete urban area: 1956-1962: +1,107 people per year 1962-1971: +3,597 people per year 1971-1977: +2,025 people per year 1977-1983: +2,400 people per year 1983-1988: +2,158 people per year 1988-1996: +1,489 people per year 1996-2002: +1,873 people per year 2002-2007: +913 people per year 2007-2012: +386 people per year 2012-2017: +631 people per year The places of birth of the 136,771 residents in the Papeete urban area at the 2017 census were the following: 72.5% were born in Tahiti 11.3% in Metropolitan France 6.2% in the Society Islands 2.9% in the Tuamotu-Gambier 1.9% in the Marquesas Islands 1.6% in the Austral Islands 1.3% in the overseas departments and territories of France other than French Polynesia 0.6% in Southeast Asia and East Asia 0.4% in North Africa 1.3% in other foreign countries At the 2017 census, 98.4% of the population in the urban area of Papeete whose age was 15 years and older reported that they could speak French.

96.7% reported that they could read and write it. Only 0.7% of the population whose age was 15 years and older had no knowledge of French. At the same census, 83.9% of the population in the urban area of Papeete whose age was 15 years and older reported that the language they spoke the most at home was French. 13.5 % reported. 1.2% reported another Polynesian language, 0.9% reported a Chinese dialect, half of whom speak Hakka, 0.5% reported another language.19.8% of the population in the urban area of Papeete whose age was 15 years and older reported that they had no knowledge of any Polynesian language at the 2017 census, whereas 80.2% reported that they had some form of knowledge of at least one Polynesian language. Traveling tourists arrive and depart Papeete via cruise ship at Papeete Harbor

Charles William Barkley

Charles William Barkley was a ship captain and maritime fur trader. He was born in Hertford, son of Charles Barkley, his name is sometimes erroneously spelled Barclay due to the misspelling "Barclay Sound" on early Admiralty charts, which arose from a mistake from Land District records. The misspelling originated in 1859 with the government agent William Eddy Banfield who issued certificates identifying the "Barclay Land District." The name was corrected to Barkley Sound in 1904. At the age of 11, Charles Barkley went to sea with his father, the commander of the East India Company ship Pacific, his father drowned in the Hooghly River, India while Charles was still a boy. Charles went on to sail to the West Indies in the merchantman Bestsy, he made seven voyages to the Far East for the East India Company and rose in the company's service. He was married in 1786, he soon after left the East India Company, taking what was his first command, the 400-ton ship Loundon, ready for a trading voyage to the Pacific Northwest coast of North America.

The ship, renamed Imperial Eagle and falsely registered as an Austrian in an attempt to avoid the cost of acquiring a trading licence from the East India Company, was owned by various supercargoes, including several East India Company directors in England, who together called themselves the Austrian East India Company. Daniel Beale organised the voyage of the Imperial Eagle when he returned to London from Canton on the HCS General Coote in August 1786. Beale had been the purser of, the HC ships Walpole and General Coote on voyages between London and Canton in 1783–1786: in 1783 he joined the Canton partnership of John Henry Cox and John Reid in their mercantile ventures. Beale's brother or cousin, John Beale, sailed in the Imperial Eagle as purser, but was killed in an affray with the natives on the North West Coast. Barkley was among the backers. John Meares, attempting to avoid license fees by falsely sailing under the Portuguese flag, was one of the backers. Barkley and his wife, Frances Barkley, left for the Pacific via Cape Horn on 24 November 1786.

They stopped in the Hawaiian Islands. Wynee became "Kanaka", to reach British Columbia. From Hawaii Barkley sailed the Imperial Eagle to Nootka Sound, on the west coast of Vancouver Island, arriving in June 1787. At 400 tons, the Imperial Eagle was the largest ship to enter the main harbour of Friendly Cove in Nootka Sound. Barkley stayed at Nootka Sound for about a month, acquired 700 prime skins, many more of inferior quality. From Nootka he sailed south, trading and naming various parts of the coast between Nootka Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca, including Barkley Sound, Loudoun Channel, Cape Beale, Imperial Eagle Channel. In honour of the indigenous chief Wickaninnish Barkley gave the name Wickinninish Sound to what is now called Clayoquot Sound, he rediscovered the strait described by Juan de Fuca and named the strait as such on his chart. Barkley's Imperial Eagle was the first non-indigenous vessel to enter Neah Bay, in July 1787. John Meares, in the Feliz Aventureira, stopped at Neah Bay in June 1788, Charles Duncan in Princess Royal did so in August 1788.

Robert Gray, in the Lady Washington, entered Neah Bay in April 1789, in July 1789 José María Narváez did so in the Santa Gertrudis la Magna. Within the next few years a number of others visited Neah Bay and it became an important fur trading stop during the maritime fur trading era. After six members of his crew were killed by indigenous people, on 24 July 1787, near the mouth of the Hoh River, Barkley decided to set sail for Guangzhou, China, to sell his sea otter pelts, he arrived in Macau in December 1787. His trading venture resulted in a profit of £10,000. Barkley gave the name Destruction River to what is now called the Hoh River, after his crew members were killed by the indigenous people; the name has since been transferred to nearby Destruction Island. The Native Hawaiian maidservant named, she was found there by John Meares and sailed with him back to her homeland but she died of illness on 5 February 1788 during the voyage and her body was committed to the deep. He left China and sailed with a cargo to Mauritius.

While in Mauritius, Barkley learned that the East India Company was taking legal action against the owners of the Imperial Eagle for trading without a license. The owners, including John Meares, decided to avoid the legal problems by selling the Imperial Eagle and breaking their contract with Barkley. Charles and Frances Barkley stayed in Mauritius for over a year, they sailed to Kolkata, where the Imperial Eagle was confiscated. Barkley received £ 5,000 for the loss of his ten-year contract. At the same time, John Meares gained possession of his journal. Frances Barkley wrote that Meares, "with the greatest effrontery and claimed the merit of my husband's discoveries therein contained, besides inventing lies of the most revolting nature tending to vilify the person he thus pilfered." After this series of events Charles and Frances Barkley found themselves stranded in Mauritius, without a ship and burdened with a newborn. Over the course of two years they managed to make their way to the Netherlands England.

Frances was the first woman to sail around the world without deception. Only two women are known to have sailed around t

Bohemianism

Bohemianism is the practice of an unconventional lifestyle in the company of like-minded people and with few permanent ties. It involves musical, literary, or spiritual pursuits. In this context, Bohemians may not be wanderers, adventurers, or vagabonds; this use of the word bohemian first appeared in the English language in the 19th century to describe the non-traditional lifestyles of marginalized and impoverished artists, journalists and actors in major European cities. Bohemians were associated with unorthodox or anti-establishment political or social viewpoints, which were expressed through free love, and—in some cases—simple living or voluntary poverty. A more economically privileged, wealthy, or aristocratic bohemian circle is sometimes referred to as haute bohème; the term bohemianism emerged in France in the early 19th century, when artists and creators began to concentrate in the lower-rent, lower class, Romani neighborhoods. Bohémien was a common term for the Romani people of France, who were mistakenly thought to have reached France in the 15th century via Bohemia.

Literary and artistic bohemians were associated in the French imagination with the roving Romani people. Not only were Romani called bohémiens in French because they were believed to have come to France from Bohemia, but literary bohemians and the Romani were both outsiders, apart from conventional society and untroubled by its disapproval. Use of the French and English terms to refer to the Romani is now old-fashioned and archaic and both the French and English terms carry a connotation of arcane enlightenment and the less intended, pejorative connotation of carelessness about personal hygiene and marital fidelity; the title character in Carmen, a French opera set in the Spanish city of Seville, is referred to as a "bohémienne" in Meilhac and Halévy's libretto. Her signature aria declares love itself to be a "gypsy child", going where it pleases and obeying no laws; the term bohemian has come to be commonly accepted in our day as the description of a certain kind of literary gypsy, no matter in what language he speaks, or what city he inhabits....

A Bohemian is an artist or "littérateur" who, consciously or unconsciously, secedes from conventionality in life and in art. Henri Murger's collection of short stories Scènes de la vie de bohème, published in 1845, was written to glorify and legitimize the bohemian lifestyle. Murger's collection formed the basis of Giacomo Puccini's opera La bohème. In England, bohemian in this sense was popularised in William Makepeace Thackeray's novel, Vanity Fair, published in 1848. Public perceptions of the alternative lifestyles led by artists were further molded by George du Maurier's romanticized best-selling novel of Bohemian culture Trilby; the novel outlines the fortunes of three expatriate English artists, their Irish model, two colourful Central European musicians, in the artist quarter of Paris. In Spanish literature, the Bohemian impulse can be seen in Ramón del Valle-Inclán's play Luces de Bohemia, published in 1920. In his song La Bohème, Charles Aznavour described the Bohemian lifestyle in Montmartre.

The film Moulin Rouge! reflects the Bohemian lifestyle of actors and artists in Montmartre at the turn of the 20th century. In the 1850s, aesthetic bohemians began arriving in the United States. In New York City in 1857, a group of 15 to 20 young, cultured journalists flourished as self-described bohemians until the American Civil War began in 1861; this group gathered at a German bar on Broadway called Pfaff's beer cellar. Members included their leader Henry Clapp, Jr. Ada Clare, Walt Whitman, Fitz Hugh Ludlow, actress Adah Isaacs Menken. Similar groups in other cities were broken up as well by the Civil War and reporters spread out to report on the conflict. During the war, correspondents began to assume the title bohemian, newspapermen in general took up the moniker. Bohemian became synonymous with newspaper writer. In 1866, war correspondent Junius Henri Browne, who wrote for the New York Tribune and Harper's Magazine, described bohemian journalists such as he was, as well as the few carefree women and lighthearted men he encountered during the war years.

San Francisco journalist Bret Harte first wrote as "The Bohemian" in The Golden Era in 1861, with this persona taking part in many satirical doings, the lot published in his book Bohemian Papers in 1867. Harte wrote, "Bohemia has never been located geographically, but any clear day when the sun is going down, if you mount Telegraph Hill, you shall see its pleasant valleys and cloud-capped hills glittering in the West..."Mark Twain included himself and Charles Warren Stoddard in the bohemian category in 1867. By 1872, when a group of journalists and artists who gathered for cultural pursuits in San Francisco were casting about for a name, the term bohemian became the main choice, the Bohemian Club was born. Club members who were established and successful, pillars of their community, respectable family men, redefined their own form of bohemianism to include people like them who were bons vivants and appreciators of the fine arts. Club member and poet George Sterling responded to this redefinition: Any good mixer of convivial habits considers he has a right to be called a bohemian.

But, not a valid claim. There are two elements, at least; the first is addiction to one or more of the Seven Arts. Other factors suggest themselves: for instance, I like to think of my Bohemians as young, as

Zastava M 98/48

The Zastava M98/48 was a refurbished bolt-action rifle, chambered for the 7.92×57mm Mauser, a cartridge, temporary adopted in the years after World War II by the Yugoslav People's Army. This design was a refurbished Mauser Kar98k rifle, left-over by Germans or captured by partisans during World War II. Soon after World War II, the new formed Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was trying to re-arm its military forces; the main problem that the Yugoslav government had to face was the lack of funds and the fear of an imminent conflict. A temporary solution was found in refurbishing the rifles that were captured or left over by the Germans, they were noted for their reliability, great accuracy, effective range and would not require a new mass production plant - thanks to the fact that all the components of the rifles were available. These rifles were never used extensively until they were replaced, in 1948, by the Yugoslav-made Zastava M48; some of these rifles were used in a sniper rifle role during the Yugoslav Wars of 1990s.

The rifles have been adapted, through machining, to accept new locally-made telescopic sights-the ZRAK series. These rifles are Karabiner 98k rifles that were left over by Germany or captured by Marshal Tito's partisan army, or Liberation Army. Despite the name of the rifles, the only difference between a Nazi German K98k and a Zastava M98/48 consists of the markings and the front barrel band, they are identical to each other, since they are still the same rifles at their core. The original German markings were replaced by the Yugoslav ones; the most noticeable markings are the Yugoslav Crest and the "Preduzece 44" present on the receiver's ring. Another noticeable marking is the one present on the left side of the "Mod. 98/48". The "/48" is absent on all the rifles that have been refurbished before 1950

Margarita Cedeño de Fernández

Margarita María Cedeño Lizardo known as Margarita Cedeño de Fernández, is the current Vice-President of the Dominican Republic since August 2012. She is married to former President Leonel Fernández and served as the First Lady of the Dominican Republic from 2004 to 2012. Cedeño was born on 1 May 1965 in Santo Domingo to Luis Emilio Cedeño Matos and Angela Margarita Lizardo Olivares, she worked with local law firms in the Dominican Republic, among which the law firm of Doctor Abel Rodríguez del Orbe and Fernández y Asociados, where she is an associate member. During the years 1996–2000, she assisted as legal counselor to the President nominated as Sub-secretary of State. Besides being ad honorem counselor and director of the Legal and Investment Environment Management of the Office for the Promotion of Foreign Investment of the Dominican Republic, she has a Bachelors in Law from the Autonomous University of Santo Domingo and a Masters in Economic Legislation from the Pontificia Universidad Católica Madre y Maestra.

She has participated in courses and seminars at Georgetown and Harvard University in the United States and Geneva University in Switzerland. On 16 October 2009, Margarita Cedeño de Fernández was named Goodwill Ambassador of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; when she was the First Lady and her staff coordinate social policies for her husband's administration, generating programs of health and education for children, young people, single mothers and the family, in general, as a key element in society. On April 10, 2011 in a meeting of the Central Committee of the Dominican Liberation Party, she registered her pre-candidature for the 2012 presidential elections, she was elected Vice President to Danilo Medina on 20 May 2012. She became the second woman to serve as Vice-President after Milagros Ortiz Bosch was elected under former President Hipólito Mejía in 2000–2004. French biography

Joshua Harmon (playwright)

For the poet born 1971, see Joshua Harmon. Joshua Harmon is a New York City-based playwright, whose works include Bad Jews and Significant Other, both produced Off-Broadway by Roundabout Theatre Company. Harmon has had his plays produced and developed by the Manhattan Theatre Club, Hangar Theatre in Ithaca, New York, Williamstown Theatre Festival, Ars Nova, the O'Neill and Actor's Express, he has been awarded fellowships from MacDowell, Atlantic Center for the Arts and the Eudora Welty Foundation. Harmon was raised in Brooklyn and the suburbs, he is a graduate of Northwestern University, Carnegie Mellon University, Juilliard where he worked with playwrights Christopher Durang and Marsha Norman. Christopher Wallenberg, in The Boston Globe, wrote "...penchant for biting commentary suffuses Harmon’s fiercely funny yet poignant plays." Harmon said "I think I became engaged by plays that are character-driven and that are grappling with some kind of moral question.” Bad Jews was the first play of Harmon's to be performed for longer than three nights.

After its success in 2012 in Roundabout Theatre Company's 63-seat black box theatre, Bad Jews transferred to the company's 420-seat theatre the next year. Bad Jews went on to be the third most-produced play in America in the 2014-2015 season, earned nominations for best play from the Outer Critics Circle and the Lucille Lortel awards, it ran for five months on the West End in London at the Arts Theatre, after sold out runs at London's St. James and Theatre Royal Bath, has had productions in Australia, Germany and South Africa; the Roundabout Theatre Company produced Significant Other Off-Broadway at the Laura Pels Theatre. The play premiered on May 16, 2015 in previews on June 18, closed on August 16, 2015. Directed by Trip Cullman, the cast featured Sas Goldberg, Gideon Glick, Carra Paterson, Lindsay Mendez, Luke Smith, John Behlmann and Barbara Barrie; the play involves their search for relationships. It was included in the New York Times Top Ten Productions of 2015. Significant Other is forthcoming from Samuel French.

The play was produced by the SpeakEasy Stage Company, Boston Massachusetts, in September to October 2016. Harmon explained the premise: “How do you make life work for yourself when you feel that you’re not living the life you’re supposed to be living or want to be living? And how do you deal with that when the changes that you need to make are in some ways outside of your control?” Harmon further noted. “I thought that I’d written the saddest play... I don’t write thinking about the comedy. I am genuinely always surprised when something winds up being funny.”The play began previews on Broadway on February 14, 2017 at the Booth Theatre. Directed by Trip Cullman, the Off-Broadway cast reprised their roles for the Broadway production, with the exception of Patterson, replaced by Rebecca Naomi Jones. Admissions opened Off-Broadway at the Lincoln Center Theater, Mitzi E. Newhouse Theater on February 15, 2018, in previews on March 12. Directed by Daniel Aukin, the cast includes Ben Edelman, Andrew Garman, Jessica Hecht, Ann McDonough and Sally Murphy.

The play involves the values and ambitions of a couple who work in an exclusive school and their son. The play received an Edgerton Foundation New Play Award; the play won the 2018 Outer Critics Circle Award, Outstanding New Off-Broadway Play, the 2018 Drama Desk Award, Outstanding Play. Skintight is a new play commissioned by the Roundabout Theatre Company, it premiered Off-Broadway at the Laura Pels Theatre from May 31, 2018 in previews on June 21, 2018 to August 26, 2018. The play revolves around Jodi and her father, "the nature of love." The play received the Edgerton Foundation New Play Award for 2017. The play stars Idina Menzel as Jodi Isaac, is directed by Daniel Aukin, he was Playwright in Residence at the 2013 National Playwrights Conference of the Eugene O'Neill Theater Center. He was in residence at SPACE at Ryder Farm in New York. While at the MacDowell Colony he started writing Bad Jews, he was the 2010–2011 National New Play Network Playwright-in-Residence at Actor's Express, Georgia.

He worked on Bad Jews while in residence. 2018 Outer Critics Circle Award for Outstanding New Off-Broadway Play for Admissions - winner 2018 Drama Desk Award for Best Play for Admissions - winner 2014 Lucille Lortel Award Nomination for Best Play for Bad Jews 2013 Outer Critics Circle Award Nomination for John Gassner Award for Bad Jews 2013 Outer Critics Circle Award Nomination for Outstanding New Off-Broadway Play for Bad Jews Joshua Harmon at Internet Off-Broadway Database Joshua Harmon at Internet Broadway Database