The art and technology of papermaking addresses the methods and materials used to make paper and cardboard, these being used for printing and packaging, among many other purposes and useful products. Today all paper is manufactured using industrial machinery, while handmade paper survives as a specialized craft and a medium for artistic expression. In papermaking, a dilute suspension consisting of separate cellulose fibres in water is drained through a sieve-like screen, so that a mat of randomly interwoven fibres is laid down. Water is further removed from this sheet by pressing, sometimes aided by suction or vacuum, or heating. Once dry, a flat and strong sheet of paper is achieved. Before the invention and current widespread adoption of automated machinery, all paper was made by hand, formed or laid one sheet at a time by specialized laborers. Today those who make paper by hand use tools and technologies quite similar to those existing hundreds of years ago, as developed in China and Asia, or those further modified in Europe.
Handmade paper is still appreciated for its distinctive uniqueness and the skilled craft involved in making each sheet, in contrast with the higher degree of uniformity and perfection at lower prices achieved among industrial products. While monitoring and action by concerned citizens, as well as improvements within the industry itself are limiting the worst abuses, papermaking continues to be of concern from an environmental perspective, due to its use of harsh chemicals, its need for large amounts of water, the resulting contamination risks, as well as trees being used as the primary source of wood pulp. Paper made from other fibers, cotton being the most common, tends to be valued higher than wood-based paper. Hemp paper had been used in China for wrapping and padding since the eighth century BCE. Paper with legible Chinese writings on it has been dated to 8 BCE; the traditional inventor attribution is of Cai Lun, an official attached to the Imperial court during the Han Dynasty, said to have invented paper about 105 CE using mulberry and other bast fibres along with fishnets, old rags, hemp waste.
Paper used as a writing medium had become widespread by the 3rd century and, by the 6th century, toilet paper was starting to be used in China as well. During the Tang Dynasty paper was folded and sewn into square bags to preserve the flavour of tea, while the Song Dynasty was the first government to issue paper-printed money. In the 8th century, papermaking spread to the Islamic world, where the process was refined, machinery was designed for bulk manufacturing. Production began in Samarkand, Damascus, Cairo and Muslim Spain. In Baghdad, papermaking was under the supervision of the Grand Vizier Ja'far ibn Yahya. Muslims invented a method to make a thicker sheet of paper; this innovation helped transform papermaking from an art into a major industry. The earliest use of water-powered mills in paper production the use of pulp mills for preparing the pulp for papermaking, dates back to Samarkand in the 8th century; the earliest references to paper mills come from the medieval Islamic world, where they were first noted in the 9th century by Arabic geographers in Damascus.
Traditional papermaking in Asia uses the inner bark fibers of plants. This fiber is soaked, cooked and traditionally hand-beaten to form the paper pulp; the long fibers are layered to form translucent sheets of paper. In Eastern Asia, three traditional fibers are abaca and gampi. In the Himalayas, paper is made from the lokta plant. Today, this paper is used for calligraphy, book arts, three-dimensional work, including origami. In other Southeast Asian countries, elephants are fed with large amount of starch food so that their feces can be used to make paper as well; this can be found in elephant preservation camps in Myanmar where the paper are sold to fund the operations. In Europe, papermaking moulds using metallic wire were developed, features like the watermark were well established by 1300 CE, while hemp and linen rags were the main source of pulp, cotton taking over after Southern plantations made that product in large quantities. Papermaking was not popular in Europe due to not having many advantages over papyrus and parchment.
It wasn't until the 15th century with the invention of the movable type printing and its demand for paper that many paper mills entered production, papermaking became an industry. Modern papermaking began in the early 19th century in Europe with the development of the Fourdrinier machine; this machine produces a continuous roll of paper rather than individual sheets. These machines are large; some produce paper 150 meters in length and 10 meters wide. They can produce paper at a rate of 100 km/h. In 1844, Canadian Charles Fenerty and German F. G. Keller had associated process to make use of wood pulp in papermaking; this innovation ended the nearly 2,000-year use of pulped rags and start a new era for the production of newsprint and almost all paper was made out of pulped wood. Papermaking, regardless of the scale on which it is done, involves making a dilute suspension of fibres in water, called "furnish", forcing this suspension to drain through a screen, to produce a mat of interwoven fibres.
Water is removed from this mat of fibres using a press. The method of manual papermaking changed little over time, despite advances in technologies; the process of manufacturing handmade paper can be generalized into five steps: Separating the useful fibre from the rest of raw materials. Beating down the fibre into pulp Adjus
The 2014–15 VCU Rams men's basketball team represented Virginia Commonwealth University during the 2014–15 NCAA Division I men's basketball season. It was the 47th season of the University fielding a men's basketball program. Led by sixth-year head coach Shaka Smart, they continued to play their home games at the Stuart C. Siegel Center, they were a member of the Atlantic 10 Conference. They finished the season 26 -- 12 -- 6 in A-10 play to finish in a tie for fourth place, they defeated Fordham, Richmond and Dayton to become champions of the Atlantic 10 Tournament. They received an automatic bid to the NCAA Tournament where they lost in the second round to Ohio State; the 2013–14 VCU Rams finished the season with an overall record of 26–9, with a record of 12–4 in the Atlantic 10 regular season for second-place finish. In the 2014 Atlantic 10 Tournament, the Rams were defeated by Saint Joseph's, 65–61 in the championship game, they were invited to the 2014 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament which they lost in the second round to Stephen F. Austin
KBIZ is a radio station licensed to serve the community of Ottumwa, Iowa. The station broadcasts a news/talk format. KBIZ is owned by Greg List, through licensee O-Town Communications, Inc; the application for a U. S. Federal Communications Commission construction permit. Before the license was issued in May, 1941 all stations on 1210 kHz had moved to 1240 kHz due to the NARBA agreement. KBIZ was granted a translator licence by the FCC for a FM simulcast of the AM signal; the FM signal began broadcasting in September 2016 at 102.7 FM. KBIZ carries a mix of local and national programming including the following: *All times Central Standard Time. Ottumwa Radio - O-Town Communications, Inc. Query the FCC's AM station database for KBIZ Radio-Locator Information on KBIZ Query Nielsen Audio's AM station database for KBIZQuery the FCC's FM station database for K274CV Radio-Locator information on K274CV FCC History Cards for KBIZ