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Papier-mâché is a composite material consisting of paper pieces or pulp, sometimes reinforced with textiles, bound with an adhesive, such as glue, starch, or wallpaper paste. The substance has been used since 200 B. C China. Today papier-mâché sculptures are used as an economic building material for a variety of traditional and ceremonial activities, as well as in arts and crafts. Two main methods are used to prepare papier-mâché; the first method makes use of paper strips glued together with adhesive, the other uses paper pulp obtained by soaking or boiling paper to which glue is added. With the first method, a form for support is needed on. With the second method, it is possible to shape the pulp directly inside the desired form. In both methods, reinforcements with wire, chicken wire, lightweight shapes, balloons or textiles may be needed; the traditional method of making papier-mâché adhesive is to use a mixture of water and flour or other starch, mixed to the consistency of heavy cream. Other adhesives can be used if thinned such as polyvinyl acetate-based glues.

Adding oil of cloves or other additives such as salt to the mixture reduces the chances of the product developing mold. For the paper strips method, the paper is cut or torn into strips, soaked in the paste until saturated; the saturated pieces are placed onto the surface and allowed to dry slowly. The strips may be placed on an armature, or skeleton of wire mesh over a structural frame, or they can be placed on an object to create a cast. Oil or grease can be used as a release agent. Once dried, the resulting material can be cut, sanded and/or painted, waterproofed by painting with a suitable water-repelling paint. Before painting any product of papier-mâché, the glue must be dried, otherwise mold will form and the product will rot from the inside out. For the pulp method, the paper is left in water at least overnight to soak, or boiled in abundant water until the paper breaks down to a pulp; the excess water is drained, an adhesive is added and the papier-mâché applied to a form or for smaller or simpler objects, sculpted to shape.

The Chinese under the ruling of the Han dynasty appeared to first use papier-mâché around 200 B. C. not long after they learned. They employed the technique to make items such as warrior helmets, mirror cases, snuff boxes, or ceremonial masks. In ancient Egypt and death masks were made from cartonnage—layers of papyrus or linen covered with plaster. In Persia, papier-mâché has been used to manufacture trays, étagères and cases. Japan and China produced laminated paper articles using papier-mâché. In Japan and India, papier-mâché was used to add decorative elements to armor and shields. In Kashmir as in Persia, papier-mâché has been used to manufacture small painted boxes, bowls lined with metals, trays, étagères and cases, it remains marketed in India and is a part of the luxury ornamental handicraft market. Starting around 1725 in Europe, gilded papier-mâché began to appear as a low-cost alternative to treated plaster or carved wood in architecture. Henry Clay of Birmingham, patented a process for treating laminated sheets of paper with linseed oil to produce waterproof panels in 1772.

These sheets were used for building coach door panels as well as other structural uses. Theodore Jennens patented a process in 1847 for steaming and pressing these laminated sheets into various shapes, which were used to manufacture trays, chair backs, structural panels laid over a wood or metal armature for strength; the papier-mâché finished with a pearl shell finish. The industry lasted through the 19th century. Russia had a thriving industry in ornamental papier-mâché. A large assortment of painted Russian papier-mâché items appear in a Tiffany & Co. catalog from 1893. Martin Travers the English ecclesiastical designer made much use of papier-mâché for his church furnishings in the 1930s. Papier-mâché has been used for doll heads starting as early as 1540, molded in two parts from a mixture of paper pulp and plaster, glued together, with the head smoothed and varnished. Cartonería or papier-mâché sculptures are a traditional handcraft in Mexico; the papier-mâché works are called "carton piedra" for the rigidness of the final product.

These sculptures today are made for certain yearly celebrations for the Burning of Judas during Holy Week and various decorative items for Day of the Dead. However, they include piñatas, masks and more made for various other occasions. There is a significant market for collectors as well. Papier-mâché was introduced into Mexico during the colonial period to make items for church. Since the craft has developed in central Mexico. In the 20th century, the creation of works by Mexico City artisans Pedro Linares and Carmen Caballo Sevilla were recognized as works of art with patrons such as Diego Rivera; the craft has become less popular with more recent generations, but various government and cultural institutions work to preserve it. One common item made in the 19th century in America was the paper canoe, most famously made by Waters & Sons of Troy, New York; the invention of the continuous sheet paper machine allows paper sheets to be made of any length, this made an ideal material for building a seamless boat hull.

The paper of the time was stretchier than modern paper when damp, this was used to good effect in the manufacture o

Magdalena Wor

Magdalena Wor is an award-winning Polish opera singer. Wor was born in Poland, the daughter of Andrzej and Teresa Wor, grew up in Lądek Zdrój in the south-west of the country, she relocated to the United States along with her family in 1991 when her father, a physiotherapist, accepted a job in Maine. The family moved to Georgia in 1996, she sang in church as a child, but did not consider pursuing a career in music until the age of 18. She attended Georgia State University where she received her bachelor's and master's degrees in music. Wor is a mezzo-soprano, she participated in the San Francisco Opera’s Merola Summer Opera Program in 2003, during which she sang Rosina in The Barber of Seville. In 2006, she participated in the Opera Theatre of Saint Louis’s Gerdine Young Artists Program and the Washington National Opera's Domingo-Cafritz Young Artist Program. With the latter, she appeared in a short version of The Ballad of Baby Doe. In 2006, she appeared with the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra in performances of Handel’s Messiah and Bach’s Magnificat.

An Atlanta music critic wrote of the performance of the Magnificat, "The standout voice belonged to mezzo-soprano Wór … she brought unexpected warmth to Esurientes implevit bonis, a darling little aria accompanied by two flutes. She garbled a few words, but it was otherwise a pleasure to hear the plush textures and dark, chocolatey timbre of her voice."Her first professional appearance was in November 2008, singing Tisbe, one of the ugly stepsisters in La Cenerentola with the Atlanta Opera. She had sung with In 2010, she sang the title role in Carmen with the Palm Beach Opera. After a 2016 performance with pianist Brian Ganz, a review in The Washington Post stated that Wor "has that kind of velvety rich mezzo that makes you want to follow her anywhere." 2010 - First Prize, Kosciuszko Foundation Marcella Sembrich Voice Competition Finalist and Prize Winner of the Moniuszko International Voice Competition 2002 - Finalist, Metropolitan Opera National Council Auditions

Matthew 5:41

Matthew 5:41 is the forty-first verse of the fifth chapter of the Gospel of Matthew in the New Testament and is part of the Sermon on the Mount. This is the third verse of the antithesis on the commandment: "Eye for an eye". In the King James Version of the Bible the text reads: And whosoever shall compel thee to go a mile, go with him twain; the World English Bible translates the passage as: Whoever compels you to go one mile, go with him two. For additional translations see Matthew 5:41; the word here translated as compel, angareuo, is a Persian loan word, a technical term for the Roman practice of requisitioning local goods or labour. Schweizer notes that it refers to the power of the Romans to demand that a local serve as a guide or porter. At Matthew 27:32 Simon of Cyrene will be forced by such rules to carry Jesus' cross, the only other time in the New Testament the word translated as compel is used; the Zealots loathed this practice, their refusal to participate in such tasks was an important part of their philosophy and a cause of the Great Jewish Revolt.

According to R. T. France, these commands would have shocked the Jewish audience as Jesus' response to the Roman occupation was starkly different from the other Jewish activists of the period. Jesus says nothing about the propriety of such demands, Schweizer notes that Jesus accepts it as fact. Thomas Aquinas wrote that this verse implies that it is reasonable to follow laws that are unjust, but argued that laws that are unconscionable must not be obeyed; the word here translated as mile refers to the Roman definition of 1000 paces shorter than a modern mile. The mile was a Roman unit of measure, locally the stadion was used to measure length. Miles would only have been used by the imperial government and the local occupying forces, which further links this verse with imperial repression; this verse is the origin of the English phrase "going the extra mile," which means to do more than is needed. See The Extra Mile for its usage in popular culture

Possession (Byatt novel)

Possession: A Romance is a 1990 best-selling novel by British writer A. S. Byatt that won the 1990 Booker Prize; the novel explores the postmodern concerns of similar novels, which are categorised as historiographic metafiction, a genre that blends approaches from both historical fiction and metafiction. The novel follows two modern-day academics as they research the paper trail around the unknown love life between famous fictional poets Randolph Henry Ash and Christabel LaMotte. Possession is set both in the present day and the Victorian era, contrasting the two time periods, as well as echoing similarities and satirising modern academia and mating rituals; the structure of the novel incorporates many different styles, including fictional diary entries and poetry, uses these styles and other devices to explore the postmodern concerns of the authority of textual narratives. The title Possession highlights many of the major themes in the novel: questions of ownership and independence between lovers.

The novel was adapted as a feature film by the same name in 2002, a serialised radio play that ran from 2011 to 2012 on BBC Radio 4. In 2005 Time Magazine included the novel in its list of 100 Best English-language Novels from 1923 to 2005. In 2003 the novel was listed on the BBC's survey The Big Read; the novel concerns the relationship between two fictional Victorian poets, Randolph Henry Ash and Christabel LaMotte, as uncovered by present-day academics Roland Michell and Maud Bailey. Following a trail of clues from letters and journals, they collaborate to uncover the truth about Ash and LaMotte's relationship, before it is discovered by rival colleagues. Byatt provides extensive letters and diaries by major characters in addition to the narrative, including poetry attributed to the fictional Ash and LaMotte. A. S. Byatt, in part, wrote Possession in response to John Fowles' novel The French Lieutenant's Woman. In an essay in Byatt's nonfiction book, On Histories and Stories, she wrote: Fowles has said that the nineteenth-century narrator was assuming the omniscience of a god.

I think rather the opposite is the case—this kind of fictive narrator can creep closer to the feelings and inner life of characters—as well as providing a Greek chorus—than any first-person mimicry. In'Possession' I used this kind of narrator deliberately three times in the historical narrative—always to tell what the historians and biographers of my fiction never discovered, always to heighten the reader's imaginative entry into the world of the text. Obscure scholar Roland Michell, researching in the London Library, discovers handwritten drafts of a letter by the eminent Victorian poet Randolph Henry Ash, which lead him to suspect that the married Ash had a hitherto unknown romance, he secretly takes away the documents – a unprofessional act for a scholar – and begins to investigate. The trail leads him to Christabel LaMotte, a minor poet and contemporary of Ash, to Dr. Maud Bailey, an established modern LaMotte scholar and distant relative of LaMotte. Protective of LaMotte, Bailey is drawn into helping Michell with the unfolding mystery.

The two scholars find more letters and evidence of a love affair between the poets. At the same time, their own personal romantic lives – neither of, satisfactory – develop, they become entwined in an echo of Ash and LaMotte; the stories of the two couples are told in parallel, include letters and poetry by the poets. The revelation of an affair between Ash and LaMotte would make headlines and reputations in academia because of the prominence of the poets, colleagues of Roland and Maud become competitors in the race to discover the truth, for all manner of motives. Ash's marriage is revealed to have been unconsummated, although he loved and remained devoted to his wife, he and LaMotte had a passionate affair. LaMotte passed off as her own. Ash was never informed; as the Great Storm of 1987 strikes England, the interested modern characters come together at Ash's grave, where they intend to exhume documents buried with Ash by his wife, which they believe hold the final key to the mystery. They uncover a lock of hair.

Reading the documents, Maud Bailey learns that rather than being related to LaMotte's sister, as she has always believed, she is directly descended from LaMotte and Ash's illegitimate daughter. Maud is thus heir to the correspondence by the poets. Now that the original letters are in her possession, Roland Michell escapes the potential dire consequences of having stolen the original drafts from the library, he sees an academic career open up before him. Bailey, who has spent her adult life untouchable, sees possible future happiness with Michell. In an epilogue, Ash has an encounter with his daughter Maia in the countryside. Maia talks with Ash for a brief time. Ash makes her a crown of flowers, asks for a lock of her hair; this lock of hair is the one buried with Ash, discovered by the scholars, who believed it to be LaMotte’s. Thus it is revealed

Newbold Quarry Park

Newbold Quarry Park is a nature reserve in Newbold-on-Avon, around 1½ miles north-west of Rugby town centre, England. It consists of a former water-filled quarry surrounded by woodlands and covers an area of 10.50 hectares. It is managed by the Warwickshire Wildlife Trust on behalf of Rugby Borough Council; the site was used to quarry for Blue Lias limestone, in connection with the local cement industry. Quarrying at the site was initiated in 1877 by the Newbold Lime & Cement Co. Ltd, several cement kilns operated alongside the quarry. Production ended in 1910, started again in 1920, was abandoned permanently by 1923 after the quarry flooded; the plant was dismantled in 1927. The derelict quarry was the scene of a tragedy in October 1990 when two local boys aged ten and six drowned after falling into the water, following this, the site was taken over by Rugby Borough Council in 1991 and turned into a nature reserve with improved access and warning signs. Newbold Quarry Park attracts many water birds, such as great crested grebes, moorhens and a variety of ducks.

The clean, limey water support native crayfish, which resemble small lobsters. Other species have been found living in the water including smooth newts, frog tadpoles and perch fish species, invertebrates living in the soft quarry walls. Bat boxes have been provided. There are viewing platforms along the blue lime-rich clay spoilbanks, picnic sites. A number of paths have been constructed around the site, some of which are accessible to wheelchairs and pushchairs. In addition, a fishing pier has been constructed to allow physically disabled people to safely reach the water's edge, a disabled-user toilet and car park has been provided. Entry is free of charge; the quarry is up to 15 metres deep in places. Divers exploring it in 2018 discovered, among other things the remains of two cars dating from the 1970s and 80s, a motorbike, vertical metal beams and an old pram frame. Swift Valley Nature Reserve - another nature reserve nearby Newbold Quarry - Warwickshire Wildlife Trust

Beirut River

Beirut River is a river in Lebanon. The river runs east to west curves north, separating the city of Beirut from its eastern suburbs Bourj Hammoud and Sin el Fil. According to popular legend, St. George slew the dragon in a spot near the mouth of the river; the river flows from snow drains and springs on the western slopes of Mount Kneisseh and the southern end of Mount Sannine near the towns of Hammana and Falougha, emptying at Beirut's northern Mediterranean coast, east of the Port of Beirut. During the Stone Age, Beirut was two islands in the delta of the Beirut River, but over the centuries, the river silted up, the two islands were connected into one land mass; the right bank of the Beirut River, southwest of the mountain resort town of Beit Mery at an altitude of 125 metres above sea level is an archeological site, "Beit Mery I,", found by Jesuit Father Dillenseger who determined it to be an Acheulean site. In antiquity, the river was known as Magoras, it was the site of the worship of the god of Heliopolis.

The Romans built an aqueduct, which had a 240-meter bridge crossing the river, to supply Beirut with water. It is believed that Fakhreddine, Lebanon's Renaissance prince, built or repaired a bridge of seven arches on the river, a streamlet in summer but swelled into a raging torrent in winter. In the Industrial Age, the banks of the river, marshy lands that flooded each winter season in Bourj Hammoud, became home to warehouses and shipping services due to the close proximity of the river to the port. By the mid-1800s, Beirut had expanded to within 10 kilometers of the river, which continued to supply the city with water via the Roman aqueduct. According to environmentalists, the 20-kilometer valley of the Beirut River the upper valley, is one of the most important areas for bird migration in Lebanon, including birds of 33 different species, such as the European Honey-buzzard, Levant Sparrowhawk Accipiter brevipes, Common Buzzard Buteo buteo, White Stork, White Pelican, European Nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus, European Bee-eater Merops a piaster, Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica and the Lesser Spotted Eagle.

The river valley stretches across several municipalities that do not formally protect it from hunting, urban development, water pollution and overgrazing. Once the river reaches the city limits of the Greater Beirut metropolitan area, it becomes polluted with the major source of pollution being industrial waste from various factories along the bank as well as sewage and refuse from the slaughterhouse in Karantina. In 2004, Cedar Environmental built a composter, aiming to prevent the slaughterhouse from directly dumping waste into the Beirut River; the river was transformed from a riparian river to a concrete canal in 1968. In 1970, extensive work was done along the river bank to protect the eastern suburb of Bourj Hammoud from floods. In 1974, ETEC Consulting Engineers were hired to design a flood control system that included a channel 32 meters wide, with capacity of 800 m3/s. Environmentalists warned in 2003 that some construction companies were dumping illegally in the river that prompted the passing of Law 148 which stipulated that all construction projects should be located at least 500 meters away from the main rivers in Lebanon.

In 2005, storms caused flood damage in the suburbs of Bourj Hammoud and Karantina, a bridge adjacent to the Port of Beiurt collapsed due to water pressure. In 2005, the City of Bourj Hammoud in conjunction with CETE Méditerranée with logistical support from the City of Marseille, initiated a risks diagnosis that revealed seismic and technological risks for the suburb. There is great interest among Lebanese to rehabilitate the Beirut River and turn it into a sustainable, green public space, an environmentally friendly transportation and water reserve system. In 2009, Sandra Frem proposed in her dissertation at Massachusetts Institute of Technology "measures for restoring the river, creating public space and enhancing the quality and management of water". In 2010, Phillipe Skaff, head of Green Party of Lebanon, proposed a 10-year plan, envisioned by ERGA Architecture House of Elie and Randa Gebrayel, to turn the Beirut River into a conservation area containing parks, nature reserves, bike-paths, sports facilities and verdant boulevards as well as a high-speed electric train.

In 2010, a studio course, An Alternative Guide to Beirut: A Studio on Infrastructure & Tourism, offered at the American University of Beirut's Department of Architecture and Design and facilitated by Carla Aramouny & J. Matthew Thomas encouraged students to propose sustainable solutions for the Greater Beirut metropolitan area, including the rehabilitation of the river. Carl Gerges' "Beirut River in Sin el Fil", Ralph Gebara's "Hybrid Beirut", Nathalie Saleh's "The Beirut Thermal Baths" were among the creative ideas proposed. Sabbag Assi Architects proposed a 210,000 m2 urban-master plan in 2010 for the development of the former agricultural lands that existed between Beirut River and Beirut-Damascus highway; the plan included vehicular and pedestrian streets, combined with landscaped, public space and cultural facilities, such as a museum of modern art. To date, the government of Lebanon has not taken any initiative to rehabilitate the river, the creative ideas proposed by numerous Lebanese environmentalists and architects remain on paper.

There are six bridges that cross the river, connecting Beirut with its suburbs. Starting f