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Paprika is a ground spice made from dried red fruits of the larger and sweeter varieties of the plant Capsicum annuum, called bell pepper or sweet pepper. The most common variety used for making paprika is tomato pepper, sometimes with the addition of more pungent varieties, called chili peppers, cayenne pepper. In many languages, but not English, the word paprika refers to the plant and the fruit from which the spice is made; the peppers used in making paprika originate from North America, in particular Central Mexico, where they have been cultivated for centuries. The peppers were subsequently introduced to the Old World, when peppers brought to Spain and Portugal in the 16th century; the seasoning is used to add color to many types of dishes in diverse cuisines. The trade in paprika expanded from the Iberian Peninsula to Africa and Asia, reached Central Europe through the Balkans under Ottoman rule, which explains the Hungarian origin of the English term. In Spanish, paprika has been known as pimentón since the 16th century, when it became a typical ingredient in the cuisine of western Extremadura.

Despite its presence in Central Europe since the beginning of Ottoman conquests, it did not become popular in Hungary until the late 19th century. Paprika can range from mild to hot – the flavor varies from country to country – but all plants grown produce the sweet variety. Sweet paprika is composed of the pericarp, with more than half of the seeds removed, whereas hot paprika contains some seeds, stalks and calyces; the red, orange or yellow color of paprika is due to its content of carotenoids. Peppers, the raw material in paprika production, originated from North America, where they grow in the wild in Central Mexico and have for centuries been cultivated by the peoples of Mexico; the peppers were introduced to the Old World, to Spain in the 16th century. The plant used to make the Hungarian version of the spice was grown in 1569 by the Turks at Buda. Central European paprika was hot until the 1920s, when a Szeged breeder found a plant that produced sweet fruit, which he grafted onto other plants.

The first recorded use of the word paprika in English is from 1896, although an earlier reference to Turkish paprika was published in 1831. The word derives from the Hungarian word paprika, a diminutive of the Serbo-Croatian word papar meaning "pepper", which in turn came from the Latin piper or modern Greek piperi from Sanskrit pippalī. Paprika and similar words, peperke and paparka, are used in various Slavic languages for bell peppers. Paprika is produced in various places including Argentina, Hungary, Spain, the Netherlands and some regions of the United States. Hungary is a major source of used paprika, it is available in different grades: Noble sweet – pungent Special quality – the mildest Delicate – a mild paprika with a rich flavor Exquisite delicate – similar to delicate, but more pungent Pungent exquisite delicate – an more pungent version of delicate Rose – with a strong aroma and mild pungency Semi-sweet – a blend of mild and pungent paprikas. The most common Spanish paprika, Pimentón de la Vera, has a distinct smoky flavor and aroma, as it is dried by smoking using oak wood.

Pimentón de Murcia is not smoked, traditionally being dried in kilns. Paprika is used as an ingredient in numerous dishes throughout the world, it is principally used to season and color rices and soups, such as goulash, in the preparation of sausages, mixed with meats and other spices. In the United States, paprika is sprinkled raw on foods as a garnish, but the flavor is more brought out by heating it in oil. Hungarian national dishes incorporating paprika include gulyas, a meat stew, paprikash. In Moroccan cuisine, paprika is augmented by the addition of a small amount of olive oil blended into it. Many dishes call for a generous amount of paprika in Portuguese cuisine for color; the red, orange or yellow color of paprika powder derives from its mix of carotenoids. Yellow-orange paprika colors derive from α-carotene and β-carotene, lutein and β-cryptoxanthin, whereas red colors derive from capsanthin and capsorubin. One study found; the same study found that lutein is much higher in orange paprika, compared to yellow.

In a typical serving size of one teaspoon, paprika supplies 6 calories and is rich in vitamin A, moderate in vitamin B6 and vitamin E, provides no other nutrients in significant content. The dictionary definition of paprika at Wiktionary

Transfer hydrogenation

Transfer hydrogenation is the addition of hydrogen to a molecule from a source other than gaseous H2. It is applied in industry and in organic synthesis, in part because of the inconvenience and expense of using gaseous H2. One large scale application of transfer hydrogenation is coal liquefaction using "donor solvents" such as tetralin. In the area of organic synthesis, a useful family of hydrogen-transfer catalysts have been developed based on ruthenium and rhodium complexes with diamine and phosphine ligands. A representative catalyst precursor is derived from ruthenium dichloride dimer and the tosylated diphenylethylenediamine; these catalysts are employed for the reduction of ketones and imines to alcohols and amines, respectively. The hydrogen-donor is isopropanol, which converts to acetone upon donation of hydrogen. Transfer hydrogenations can proceed with high enantioselectivities when the starting material is prochiral: RR'C=O + Me2CHOH → RR'C*H-OH + Me2C=Owhere RR'C*H-OH is a chiral product.

A typical catalyst is R,R-HNCHPhCHPhNTs, where Ts = SO2C6H4Me and R,R refers to the absolute configuration of the two chiral carbon centers. This work was recognized with the 2001 Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Ryōji Noyori. Another family of hydrogen-transfer agents are those based on aluminium alkoxides, such as aluminium isopropoxide in the MPV reduction. Prior to the development of catalytic hydrogenation, many methods were developed for the hydrogenation of unsaturated substrates. Many of these methods are only of pedagogical interest. One prominent transfer hydrogenation agent is diimide or 2 called diazene; this becomes oxidized to the stable N2: The diimide is generated from hydrazine. Two hydrocarbons that can serve as hydrogen donors are cyclohexadiene. In this case, an alkane is formed, along with a benzene; the gain of aromatic stabilization energy when the benzene is formed is the driving force of the reaction. Pd can be used as a catalyst and a temperature of 100 °C is employed. More exotic transfer hydrogenations have been reported, including this intramolecular one: Many reactions exist with alcohol or amines as the proton donors, alkali metals as electron donors.

Of continuing value is the sodium metal-mediated Birch reduction of arenes. Less important presently is the Bouveault–Blanc reduction of esters; the combination of magnesium and methanol is used in alkene reductions, e.g. the synthesis of asenapine: Organocatalytic transfer hydrogenation has been described by the group of List in 2004 in a system with a Hantzsch ester as hydride donor and an amine catalyst: In this particular reaction the substrate is an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound. The proton donor is oxidized to the pyridine form and resembles the biochemically relevant coenzyme NADH. In the catalytic cycle for this reaction the amine and the aldehyde first form an iminium ion proton transfer is followed by hydrolysis of the iminium bond regenerating the catalyst. By adopting a chiral imidazolidinone MacMillan organocatalyst an enantioselectivity of 81% ee was obtained: The group of MacMillan independently published a similar asymmetric reaction in 2005: In an interesting case of stereoconvergence, both the E-isomer and the Z-isomer in this reaction yield the -enantiomer.

Extending the scope of this reaction towards ketones or rather enones requires fine tuning of the catalyst and of the Hantzsch ester: With a different organocatalyst altogether, hydrogenation can be accomplished for imines. In one particular reaction the catalysts is a BINOL based phosphoric acid, the substrate a quinoline and the product a chiral tetradehydroquinoline in a 1,4-addition, isomerization and 1,2-addition cascade reaction: The first step in this reaction is protonation of the quinoline nitrogen atom by the phosphoric acid forming a transient chiral iminium ion, it is noted that with most traditional metal based catalysts, hydrogenation of aromatic or heteroaromatic substrates tend to fail. Meerwein–Ponndorf–Verley reduction Oppenauer oxidation Dehydrogenation Hydrogenation Hydrogenolysis Borrowing hydrogen

Steven C. Krane

Steven C. Krane was an American lawyer who was, at age 44, the youngest president of the New York State Bar Association, died at the age of 53, he was known as "an expert in legal ethics" and professionalism. His most recent job was general counsel at Proskauer Rose. Krane grew up in Far Rockaway and graduated from SUNY Stony Brook in 1978, New York University School of Law in 1981, he was elected to Phi Beta Kappa at SUNY Stony Brook. He worked most of his legal career at Proskauer Rose, starting as an associate in 1981 and becoming a partner in 1989, he was an expert not only in sports law as well. He clerked for New York Court of Appeals Judge Judith Kaye from 1984 to 1985. In 2007, he was nominated for a seat on New York's highest court, but then-governor Eliot Spitzer did not appoint him, instead re-appointing Judge Carmen Beauchamp Ciparick to her position. After serving on both the NYSBA and the American Bar Association houses of delegates, chair of their ethics committees, Krane was elected the youngest state bar president in 2001.

His major accomplishments while bar president were the legal response to the September 11 attacks, setting up a program for student loan forgiveness for legal aid and other public service lawyers, bringing the Model Rules of legal ethics to New York. Krane served on two statewide commissions: the New York State Commission on Public Integrity, co-chair of the New York Judicial Institute on Professionalism in the Law, he taught at the Columbia Law School as an adjunct professor, from 1989 to 1992. Krane died of a heart attack, at the age of 53, on June 22, 2010; the New York State Bar Association renamed its fund for young lawyers in public service in honor of Krane. List of State University of New York at Stony Brook people New York Times obituary Martindale Hubbell listing guestbook

Watjulum frog

The Wotjulum frog is a species of frog in the family Pelodryadidae. Its habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forests, subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, subtropical or tropical swamps, intermittent rivers, freshwater lakes, freshwater marshes, intermittent freshwater marshes, rocky areas. L. watjulumensis was named for Watjulum Mission in the north of Western Australia, a sometimes spelled'wotjulum'. This has led to variants in the common names and the specific epithet, repeating the spelling of Tyler's publication as Hyla wotjulumensis; the common names include Watjulum or Wotjulum frog, Watjulum Mission tree frog, giant or large rocket frog. The publication of the species was based on a type collection by Copland; the collection, 29 specimens at the Western Australian Museum, was reassigned as three syntypes. The type for Litoria watjulumensis was collected near Watjulum mission "close to Yampi Sound, north of King Sound"

1980 Dunedin mayoral election

The 1980 Dunedin mayoral election was part of the New Zealand local elections held that same year. In 1980, elections were held for the Mayor of Dunedin plus other local government positions including twelve city councillors; the polling was conducted using the standard first-past-the-post electoral method. Cliff Skeggs was re-elected Mayor of Dunedin with a record majority; the Labour party did not contest the mayoralty for the first time since 1935. As such the contest was marked by low turnout. Skeggs sole opponent was local historian Peter Entwisle who stood only as part of a campaign against the building of an aluminium smelter at Aramoana; the election saw longtime Labour Party councillor Ethel McMillan defeated in a shock result. The following table shows the results for the election

John W. Sutherland

John William Sutherland is professor and Fehsenfeld Family Head of Environmental and Ecological Engineering at Purdue University who specialises in the application of sustainability principles to design and other industrial issues. John W. Sutherland was born in Oklahoma, USA to Bill and Polly Sutherland, he has sister. His early years were spent in Arvada, Colorado – the family moved to the Chicago area in 1967, he is a graduate of Hinsdale Central High School. He attended the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, received his B. S. and M. S. degrees in industrial engineering, his Ph. D. degree in mechanical engineering in 1980, 1982, 1987, respectively. As a graduate student, his advisor was Richard E. DeVor, he married his wife in 1981, they have two daughters. Following the completion of his doctoral degree, Sutherland became Vice President of Process Design and Control, Inc. Champaign, IL. PDC developed and sold software for Statistical Process Control and Statistical Design of Experiments, delivered short courses to industry on statistical methods for quality and improvement, provided solutions to manufacturing challenges.

While at PDC Sutherland served as an adjunct faculty member at UIUC delivering courses on SPC and DOE. Prior to assuming his position at Purdue University in 2009, he held the Henes Chair Professorship of Mechanical Engineering and served as the Director of the Sustainable Futures Institute at Michigan Technological University. Dr. Sutherland is a Fellow of the Society of Manufacturing Engineers, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, The International Academy for Production Engineering CIRP.. Dr. Sutherland's horners include SME Outstanding Young Manufacturing Engineer Award, the Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers, SME Education Award, SAE International John Connor Environmental Award William T. Ennor Manufacturing Technology Award, SME Gold Medal