The Pacific Community is an international development organisation owned and governed by its 26 country and territory members. The organisation's headquarters are in Nouméa, New Caledonia, it has regional offices in Suva and Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, as well as a country office in Honiara, Solomon Islands, field staff in other Pacific locations, its working languages are French. SPC is focused on development issues within the context of the region, including climate change, disaster risk management, food security, gender equality, human rights, non-communicable diseases and youth employment; the organization facilitates the sharing of technical experience and knowledge, helps to implement specific development projects and activities in support of its members. The Pacific Community was founded in 1947 as the South Pacific Commission by six developed countries with strategic interests and territorires in the region: Australia, Netherlands, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, the United States.
SPC's founding charter is the Canberra Agreement. In the aftermath of World War II, the six colonial powers which created the SPC arguably intended it to secure Western political and military interests in the postwar Pacific. Two founding members, the Netherlands and Great Britain have since withdrawn from SPC as the Pacific territories they controlled either gained independence or the right to represent themselves in the organization. From the start, SPC's role was constrained; the invitation from Australia and New Zealand to the US, France and the UK to participate in a South Seas Commission Conference in 1947 included the statement that "the Commission to be set up should not be empowered to deal in any way with political matters or questions of defense or security". This constraint on discussion led to the creation of the South Pacific Forum, which not only excluded the more distant "metropolitan" powers of France, UK and USA, but their Pacific Island territories. In 1949 the Pacific Community established its permanent headquarters in Nouméa, New Caledonia, at the former American military base known as the Pentagon.
In 1995 a new headquarters was constructed close to the same location and the military base was demolished. A monument and plaque commemorating SPC's original headquarter location can be found on site of the Le Promenade complex at Anse Vata. Governance of the organization reflected the changing political environment. At inception, each member had a single vote; when Western Samoa joined as newly independent state in 1965 the rules were changed to ensure that the Western foundation nations would maintain firm control over the organization. Australia was given five votes, Britain, New Zealand, the United States four and Western Samoa just one. Dutch New Guinea represented in the SPC by the Netherlands, was transferred to the United Nations in 1962 and to Indonesia in 1969. Without any territory remaining in the region, the Netherlands withdrew from SPC in 1962. In 1972 the first South Pacific Arts Festival was convened by SPC in Fiji; the event drew more than 1000 participants from 14 countries.
In 1975 SPC created a Council of Pacific Arts, permanently making culture issues a part of the SPC mandate and establishing the Festival of Pacific Arts as a regular event. With decolonization efforts expanding, newly independent states and nonindependent territories were allowed to apply for membership. "As its membership grew, the character and scope of the SPC evolved to incorporate the indigenous peoples of the Pacific."In 1983 at the Saipan Conference, unequal voting was abandoned, once again establishing a'one member one vote' principle for SPC. However, this decision did not come without criticism as some pointed out that the combination of allowing membership to non-independent territories and establishing a one-vote per member principle provided additional votes to France and the United States who continued to maintain control over Pacific territories, it was during the Saipan Conference that the Committee of Representatives of Governments and Administrations was established, creating the only Pacific regional organization, both representative of the Pacific, governed by its membership.
In 1988, SPC become a founding member of Council of Regional Organisations of the Pacific or CROP "to improve cooperation and collaboration among the various intergovernmental regional organisations to work toward achieving the common goal of sustainable development in the Pacific region". The United Kingdom withdrew from the organisation in 1996 and rejoined in 1998; the UK withdrew a second time in 2004, has not been a member of SPC since that time. It's interests in the Pacific Community are managed through the European Union, although it is a direct donor to the organization. In 1996 the Pacific Heads of Agriculture and Livestock Programmes asked "to put in place, both in their countries and through regional cooperation, policies to conserve and best utilize their plant genetic resources" As these resources were considered a shared regional responsibility, it made sense for a regional organization to respond to this need. SPC established the Regional Germplasm Centre in 1998; the facility grew and in 2007 was renamed Centre for Pacific Crops and Trees.
It holds more than 2000 varieties of genetic material on Pacific strains of taro, banana and others, has been instrumental in helping to rebuild island agriculture after disa
Biodiversity refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth. Biodiversity is a measure of variation at the genetic and ecosystem level. Terrestrial biodiversity is greater near the equator, the result of the warm climate and high primary productivity. Biodiversity is not distributed evenly on Earth, is richest in the tropics; these tropical forest ecosystems cover less than 10 percent of earth's surface, contain about 90 percent of the world's species. Marine biodiversity is highest along coasts in the Western Pacific, where sea surface temperature is highest, in the mid-latitudinal band in all oceans. There are latitudinal gradients in species diversity. Biodiversity tends to cluster in hotspots, has been increasing through time, but will be to slow in the future. Rapid environmental changes cause mass extinctions. More than 99.9 percent of all species that lived on Earth, amounting to over five billion species, are estimated to be extinct. Estimates on the number of Earth's current species range from 10 million to 14 million, of which about 1.2 million have been documented and over 86 percent have not yet been described.
More in May 2016, scientists reported that 1 trillion species are estimated to be on Earth with only one-thousandth of one percent described. The total amount of related DNA base pairs on Earth is estimated at 5.0 x 1037 and weighs 50 billion tonnes. In comparison, the total mass of the biosphere has been estimated to be as much as 4 TtC. In July 2016, scientists reported identifying a set of 355 genes from the Last Universal Common Ancestor of all organisms living on Earth; the age of the Earth is about 4.54 billion years. The earliest undisputed evidence of life on Earth dates at least from 3.5 billion years ago, during the Eoarchean Era after a geological crust started to solidify following the earlier molten Hadean Eon. There are microbial mat fossils found in 3.48 billion-year-old sandstone discovered in Western Australia. Other early physical evidence of a biogenic substance is graphite in 3.7 billion-year-old meta-sedimentary rocks discovered in Western Greenland. More in 2015, "remains of biotic life" were found in 4.1 billion-year-old rocks in Western Australia.
According to one of the researchers, "If life arose quickly on Earth.. it could be common in the universe."Since life began on Earth, five major mass extinctions and several minor events have led to large and sudden drops in biodiversity. The Phanerozoic eon marked a rapid growth in biodiversity via the Cambrian explosion—a period during which the majority of multicellular phyla first appeared; the next 400 million years included repeated, massive biodiversity losses classified as mass extinction events. In the Carboniferous, rainforest collapse led to a great loss of animal life; the Permian–Triassic extinction event, 251 million years ago, was the worst. The most recent, the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, occurred 65 million years ago and has attracted more attention than others because it resulted in the extinction of the dinosaurs; the period since the emergence of humans has displayed an ongoing biodiversity reduction and an accompanying loss of genetic diversity. Named the Holocene extinction, the reduction is caused by human impacts habitat destruction.
Conversely, biodiversity positively impacts human health in a number of ways, although a few negative effects are studied. The United Nations designated 2011–2020 as the United Nations Decade on Biodiversity. 1916 - The term biological diversity was used first by J. Arthur Harris in "The Variable Desert," Scientific American, JSTOR 6182: "The bare statement that the region contains a flora rich in genera and species and of diverse geographic origin or affinity is inadequate as a description of its real biological diversity." 1975 - The term natural diversity was introduced 1980 - Thomas Lovejoy introduced the term biological diversity to the scientific community in a book.. It became used. 1985 -The contracted form biodiversity was coined by W. G. Rosen 1985 - The term "biodiversity" appears in the article, "A New Plan to Conserve the Earth's Biota" by Laura Tangley. 1988 - The term biodiversity first appeared in a publication. The present - the term has achieved widespread use. "Biodiversity" is most used to replace the more defined and long established terms, species diversity and species richness.
Biologists most define biodiversity as the "totality of genes and ecosystems of a region". An advantage of this definition is that it seems to describe most circumstances and presents a unified view of the traditional types of biological variety identified: taxonomic diversity ecological diversity morphological diversity functional diversity This multilevel construct is consistent with Datman and Lovejoy. An explicit definition consistent with this interpretation was first given in a paper by Bruce A. Wilcox commissioned by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources for the 1982 World National Parks Conference. Wilcox's definition was "Biological diversity is the variety of life forms...at all levels of biologi
Cameroon–United States relations
Cameroon–United States relations are international relations between Cameroon and the United States. The relations are close, although they have sometimes been affected by concerns over human rights abuses and the pace of political and economic liberalization; the bilateral United States Agency for International Development program in Cameroon closed for budgetary reasons in 1994. However 140 Peace Corps volunteers continue to work in agroforestry, community development and health; the Public Affairs section of the U. S. Embassy in Yaoundé organizes and funds diverse cultural and information exchanges, it maintains a library and helps foster the development of Cameroon's independent press by providing information in a number of areas, including U. S. human rights and democratization policies. The Embassy's Self-help and Democracy and Human Rights Funds are some of the largest in Africa. Through several State Department and USAID regional funds, the Embassy provides funds for refugees, HIV/AIDS, democratization and girl's scholarships.
The United States Department of Agriculture provided a commodity grant valued at $6 million in 2003 to fund agricultural development projects in the North and Far North provinces. A similar program for $4 million was approved in 2004; the program will fund an agricultural development and nutrition enhancement project in the East and Adamawa provinces. The United States and Cameroon work together in the United Nations and other multilateral organizations. While in the United Nations Security Council in 2002, Cameroon worked with the United States on initiatives; the U. S. Government continues to provide substantial funding for international financial institutions, such as the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, African Development Bank, that provide financial and other assistance to Cameroon; the U. S. Embassy in Cameroon is in Yaoundé. In October 2015 the US began committing troops to the American military intervention in Cameroon. Foreign relations of Cameroon Foreign relations of the United States This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website https://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/index.htm.
History of Cameroon - U. S. relations Media related to Relations of Cameroon and the United States at Wikimedia Commons
Foreign relations of Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea's foreign policy reflects close ties with Australia and other traditional allies and cooperative relations with neighboring countries. Its views on international political and economic issues are moderate. Papua New Guinea has diplomatic relations with 56 countries. Papua New Guinea belongs to a variety of regional organizations, including the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. Papua New Guinea has been a member state of the Commonwealth of Nations since 1975, when it gained independence from Australia. List of diplomatic missions in Papua New Guinea List of diplomatic missions of Papua New Guinea Category: Treaties of Papua New Guinea
Uganda–United States relations
Uganda – United States relations are bilateral relations between Uganda and the United States. According to the 2012 U. S. Global Leadership Report, 79% of Ugandans approve of U. S. leadership, with 11% disapproving and 10% uncertain. Although U. S.–Ugandan relations were strained during the rule of Idi Amin in the 1970s, relations improved after Amin's fall. In mid-1979, the United States reopened its embassy in Kampala. Relations with successor governments were cordial, although Milton Obote and his administration rejected strong U. S. criticism of Uganda's human rights situation. Bilateral relations between the United States and Uganda have been good since Museveni assumed power, the United States has welcomed his efforts to end human rights abuses and to pursue economic reform. Uganda is a strong supporter of the Global War on Terror; the United States is helping Uganda achieve export-led economic growth through the African Growth and Opportunity Act and provides a significant amount of development assistance.
At the same time, the United States is concerned about continuing human rights problems and the pace of progress toward the establishment of genuine political pluralism. U. S. development assistance in Uganda has the overall goal of reducing mass poverty. Most U. S. program assistance is focused in the areas of health and agriculture. Both the U. S. Agency for International Development and the Centers for Disease Control have major programs to fight the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Other programs promote trade and investment, curb environmental degradation, encourage the peaceful resolution of local and international conflicts, promote honest and open government; the United States provides large amounts of humanitarian assistance to populations without access to adequate food supplies because of conflict and other factors. U. S. Peace Corps Volunteers are active in primary teacher training and HIV/AIDS programs; the Department of State carries out cultural exchange programs, brings Fulbright lecturers and researchers to Uganda, sponsors U.
S. study and tour programs for a wide variety of officials from government, non-governmental organizations and the private sector. Through Ambassador's Self-Help Fund, local groups in poor areas receive assistance for small projects with a high level of community involvement. U. S.-Ugandan relations benefit from significant contributions to health care, nutrition and park systems from U. S. missionaries, non-governmental organizations, private universities, HIV/AIDS researchers, wildlife organizations. Expatriate Ugandans living in the U. S. promote stronger links between the two countries. Relations have since improved under the Donald Trump administration. Principal U. S. Officials include Ambassador Scott H. DeLisi, Deputy Chief of Mission Patricia Mahoney, Public Affairs Officer Daniel Travis, USAID Director Leslie Reed; the U. S. maintains an embassy in Uganda. Relations between the two countries have been shaken when, on June 19, 2014, the Obama administration cut funding to Uganda in addition to canceling a planned military exercise with their armed forces in response to Uganda's outlawing of homosexuality that February, met with worldwide condemnation from the Western world.
On June 20, the Ugandan government accused the U. S. of "blackmail". Ugandan Americans Foreign relations of Uganda Foreign relations of the United States This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website https://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/index.htm. History of Uganda - U. S. relations Media related to Relations of Uganda and the United States at Wikimedia Commons
Central African Republic–United States relations
Central African Republic–United States relations are the international relations between Central African Republic and the United States of America. The relations have been positive, although concerns over the pace of political and economic liberalization and human rights have affected the degree of support provided by the United States to the Central African Republic; the United States and the Central African Republic established diplomatic relations on August 13th, 1960. The U. S. Embassy in Bangui was closed as a result of the 1996-97 mutinies, it reopened in 1998 with limited staff, but U. S. Agency for International Development and Peace Corps missions operating in Bangui did not return; the American Embassy in Bangui again temporarily suspended operations on November 2, 2002 in response to security concerns raised by the October 2002 launch of François Bozizé's 2003 military coup. The Embassy reopened in January 2005. S. diplomatic/consular representation in the C. A. R; as a result, the ability of the Embassy to provide services to American citizens remains limited.
The Department of State approved. S. assistance to the Central African Republic had been prohibited except in the areas of humanitarian aid and support for democratization. On December 27, 2012 the US closed its embassy in the Central African Republic and removed its diplomats due to rising violence from the rebellion in the country. Ambassador, U. S. Embassy Bangui Ambassador, Central African Republic Embassy Washington, D. C.--Emmanuel Touaboy The U. S. Embassy is located in Bangui; this article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website https://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/index.htm. History of Central African Republic - U. S. relations