Fernando Belaúnde Terry
Fernando Belaúnde Terry was a Peruvian politician who served as the 57th and 60th President of Peru. Deposed by a military coup in 1968, he was re-elected in 1980 after twelve years of military rule, he was recognized for his commitment to the democratic process. The second of four children, Belaúnde was born in Lima into an aristocratic family of Spanish forebears: his father, Rafael Belaúnde Diez Canseco, a professor, served as Prime Minister under José Bustamante y Rivero, he attended the Deutsche Schule Alexander von Humboldt Lima in Lima. During the dictatorship of Augusto B. Leguía, the persecution for the political activities of his father Rafael and his uncle Víctor Andrés Belaúnde prompted the family to move to France in 1924, where Fernando attended high school and received his initial University education in engineering. From 1930 to 1935, Belaúnde studied architecture in the United States, where he first attended the University of Miami, in 1935 transferred to the University of Texas at Austin, where he obtained his degree as an architect.
He moved to Mexico and worked as an architect for a brief time, but returned to Peru in 1936 and started his professional career as an architect designing private homes. In 1937, he started a magazine called El Arquitecto Peruano, which dealt with interior design, general urbanism and housing problems the country was facing; this gave way to the Architects Association of Peru and the Urbanism Institute of Peru. As a result, Belaúnde became a government public-housing consultant throughout the country and abroad. In 1943, Belaúnde began teaching architecture and urban planning at Escuela Nacional de Ingenieros of Lima and became the dean of the Civil Engineering and Architecture department. Belaúnde directed the construction, along with other professors and students, of the faculty of architecture of the National University of Engineering in 1955. Belaúnde's political career began in 1944 as cofounder of the National Democratic Front party which elected José Bustamante as President in 1945. Belaúnde would return to the political arena in 1956, when the outgoing Odría dictatorship called for elections and he led the slate submitted by the "National Front of Democratic Youth", an organization formed by reform-minded university students, some of which had studied under him.
He gained notoriety on June 1 of the same year when, after the national election board refused to accept his candidacy filing, he led a massive protest that became known as the "manguerazo" or "hosedown" from the powerful water cannons used by the police to repress the demonstrators. When the confrontation looked to turn violent, Belaúnde showed the gift for symbolism that would serve him well throughout his political life; the government capitulated, the striking image of Belaúnde walking by himself with the flag was featured by the news magazine Caretas the following day, in an article entitled "Así Nacen Los Lideres". Belaúnde's 1956 candidacy was unsuccessful, as the dictatorship-favored right-wing candidacy of Manuel Prado took first place. Claiming irregularities, he prepared to lead the opposition, in July 1956 in Chincheros, founded the Acción Popular party, claiming the mantle of recapturing indigenous Inca traditions of community and cooperation in a modern social democratic context, placing itself squarely between the pro-oligarchy right-wing and the radicalism of the left-wing APRA and communist parties.
He would go on to travel extensively throughout the country, fleshing out the ideological principles of Acción Popular, while leading the opposition. During this period Belaúnde's traditionalism would manifest itself in dramatic flourishes, most notoriously when he challenged to a duel a Pradista congressman who refused to retract insulting statements in an open letter. In 1959, the Prado government's refusal to authorize the permits for Accion Popular annual convention led to another confrontation: Belaúnde led the opening of the convention in defiance of the prohibition, the Prado government arrested and jailed him in the Alcatraz-like island prison of El Frontón off the Lima coast; the imprisonment lasted 12 days, during which Belaúnde engaged in a failed attempt to escape by swimming to freedom. Belaúnde ran for president once again in the general elections of 1962, this time with his own party, Acción Popular; the results were tight. Since none of the candidates managed to get the Constitutionally-established minimum of one third of the vote required to win outright, selection of the President would fall to Congress.
Cordillera del Cóndor
The Cordillera del Cóndor is a mountain range in the eastern Andes, shared by and part of the international border between Ecuador and Peru. The range extends 150 km north to south and its maximum elevation reaches 2,900m; the Río Santiago and Cenepa River flow along its eastern slopes on the Peruvian side. For over 160 years, the area of the border was in dispute, sparked armed conflicts between the two countries in 1941, 1981 and 1995. After the border conflict of 1995, the two countries began diplomatic negotiations, resulting in the 1998 peace treaty that established the exact location of the international border; the Cordillera del Condor is an area of great interest to biology having the richest flora in any area of the same size on the South American continent, is considered by Conservation International to be one of the most important biodiversity areas on the planet. The cordillera has one of the highest concentrations of vascular plant species yet unknown to science; the area is part of the ecoregion of the Eastern Cordillera Real montane forests.
In 1993, Alwyn Howard Gentry and his colleagues, in a trip organized by Conservation International and helicopter support provided by the Ecuadorian Army, were able to collect bromeliads from the prairies for the first time. Robin Foster and Hamilton Beltrán conducted botanical inventories in 1995 on the Peruvian side of the border, on a second trip sponsored by Conservation International. Numerous collections of orchids from the region were made by Carlyle Luer. Following the armed conflict in January 1995, exploration of the biological region became impossible. José Eduardo Manzanares and Cave were the first botanists to visit the area after the signing the Peace Treaty of 1998, with a short visit in May 1998 to collect Bromeliaceae. With the support of the National Geographic Society, the Missouri Botanical Garden and the National Herbarium of Ecuador, in December 2000 a series of expeditions were launched to make inventories of the flora in the Ecuadorian slopes of the cordillera, visiting places that no biologist had set foot in before, such as the Ijiach Naint hill in the Coangos River Basin.
These recent field trips, carried out with the collaboration of the Shuar Federation, yielded a number of plants new to science, not seen in previous trips to other locations in the Cordillera del Condor
Cessna T-37 Tweet
The Cessna T-37 Tweet is a small, economical twin-engined jet trainer type which flew for decades as a primary trainer for the United States Air Force and in the air forces of several other nations. The T-37C was additionally capable of some light attack duties; the A-37 Dragonfly variant served in the light attack role during the Vietnam War and continues to serve in the air forces of several South American nations. The T-37 served as the U. S. Air Force's primary pilot training vehicle for over 52 years after its first flight. After completing Primary in the Tweet, students moved on to other advanced Air Force, Marine Corps or Allied trainers. With a total of 1,269 Cessna T-37s built, the USAF retired its last T-37 in 2009; the Cessna Aircraft Company of Wichita, provided the United States Army during World War II and the Korean War with utility, light transport, observation aircraft the "O-1 Bird Dog" series. In the spring of 1952, the USAF issued a request for proposals for a "Trainer Experimental" program, specifying a lightweight, two-seat basic trainer for introducing USAF cadets to jet aircraft.
Cessna responded to the TX request with a twin-jet design with side-by-side seating. The USAF liked the Cessna design, given the company designation "Model 318", the side-by-side seating since it let the student and instructor interact more than with tandem seating. In the spring of 1954, the USAF awarded Cessna a contract for three prototypes of the Model 318, a contract for a single static test aircraft; the Air Force designated the type as XT-37. The XT-37 had a low, straight wing, with the engines buried in the wing roots, a clamshell-type canopy hinged to open vertically to the rear, a control layout similar to that of contemporary operational USAF aircraft, ejection seats, tricycle landing gear with a wide track of 14 ft, it first flew on 12 October 1954. The wide track and a steerable nosewheel made the aircraft easy to handle on the ground, the short landing gear avoided the need for access ladders and service stands; the aircraft was designed to be simple to maintain, with more than 100 access doors.
An experienced ground crew could change an engine in about half an hour. The XT-37 was aerodynamically clean, so much so that a speedbrake was fitted behind the nosewheel doors to help increase drag for landing and for use in other phases of flight. Since the short landing gear placed the engine air intakes close to the ground, screens pivoted over the intakes from underneath when the landing gear was extended, to prevent foreign object damage; the XT-37 was fitted with two Continental-Teledyne J69-T-9 turbojet engines, French Turbomeca Marboré engines built under license, with 920 lbf thrust each. The engines had thrust attenuators to allow them to remain spooled-up during landing approach, permitting shorter landings while still allowing the aircraft to make another go-around in case something went wrong. Empty weight of the XT-37 was 5,000 lb. Tests showed; the aircraft had a service ceiling of 35,000 feet but was unpressurized so was limited to an operational ceiling of 25,000 feet by USAF regulations.
The initial prototype crashed during spin tests. Prototypes had new features to improve handling, including long strakes along the nose, an extensively redesigned and enlarged tail. After these modifications, the USAF found the aircraft acceptable to their needs, ordered it into production as the T-37A. Production aircraft remained tricky in recovering from a spin; the production T-37A was similar to the XT-37 prototypes, except for minor changes to fix problems revealed by the flight-test program. The first T-37A was completed in September 1955 and flew that year; the T-37A was noisy by the standards of jet aircraft. The intake of air into its small turbojets emitted a high-pitched shriek that led some to describe the trainer as a "Screaming Mimi", it was referred to as the "6,000 pound dog whistle" or "Converter"; the piercing whistle gave the T-37 its name: "Tweety Bird", or just "Tweet". The Air Force spent a lot of time and money soundproofing buildings at bases where the T-37 was stationed, ear protection remains mandatory for all personnel when near an operating aircraft.
The Air Force ordered 444 T-37As, with the last produced in 1959. In 1957, the US Army evaluated three T-37As for battlefield observation and other combat support roles, but procured the Grumman OV-1 Mohawk, instead; the Air Force considered it to be underpowered. The new engines were more reliable. Improved avionics were specified for the new variant. A total of 552 newly built T-37Bs was constructed through 1973. All surviving T-37As were upgraded to the T-37B standard, as well. Due to a series of accidents caused by bird strikes between 1965 and 1970, all T-37s were retrofitted with a new windshield made of Lexan polycarbonate plastic 0.5 in thick, which could tolerate the impact of a 4 lb bird at a relative speed of 288 mph. In 1962, Cessna suggested the T-37B as a replacement for the North American F-100 Super Sabre as the primary aircraft for the USAF aerobatic demonstration team, the Thunderbirds, but the USAF was satisfied with the F-100; the T-37A and T-37B had no built-in armament and no stores pylons for external armam
The Sukhoi Su-17 is a Soviet variable-sweep wing fighter-bomber developed from the Sukhoi Su-7. It enjoyed a long career in Soviet Russian and was exported to Eastern Bloc, Arab air forces and Peru as the Su-20 and Su-22, it is the first variable-sweep wing of Russian/Soviet origin. Seeking to improve low-speed and take-off/landing performance of the Su-7B fighter-bomber, in 1963 the Sukhoi OKB with input from TsAGI created a variable-sweep wing technology demonstrator; the Su-7IG, converted from a production Su-7BM, had fixed inner portions of the wing with movable outer segments which could be swept to 28°, 45°, or 62°. A fixed inner wing simplified construction, allowing the manufacturer to retain the Su-7 landing gear and avoiding the need for complex pivoting underwing hardpoints, it minimized the shift in the center of pressure relative to the center of mass with change in wing sweep; the new wing had extensive leading-edge slats and trailing-edge flaps. Su-7IG first flew on 2 August 1966 with V. S. Ilyushin at the controls, becoming the first Soviet variable geometry aircraft.
Testing revealed that take-off and landing speeds had decreased by 50–60 km/h compared to the conventional Su-7. The production aircraft was unofficially dubbed Strizh in service. Aside from the new wing, it differed from its predecessor Su-7 in having a new canopy and a dorsal fuselage spine for additional fuel and avionics; the Su-17 first flew on 1 July 1969 with E. K. Kukushev at the controls. A total of 2,867 Su-17 and its variants were built; the Su-17 entered service with the Soviet Air Force in 1970. The aircraft was used by both the Soviets and the Afghanistan government forces during the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. High-altitude airfields and hot dusty climate created special operational challenges. In the summer, the takeoff roll of the Su-17 increased 1.5-fold and landings ended with burst tires and brake fires. Avionics failures were common due to sand contamination. However, the AL-21F engine proved tolerant of routine ingestion of sand and sand-contaminated fuel and by 1985 the combat readiness of the Su-17 fleet exceeded that of the Sukhoi Su-25 and the helicopters.
The first-series Su-17s were replaced with more capable Su-17M3 and Su-17M4. Despite its durability and payload, the aircraft proved ill-adapted for combat in the mountainous terrain due to high attack speeds, low maneuverability, the need to stay out of range of anti-aircraft artillery due to lack of significant armor protection. Although external armor was added around the engine and fuel systems based on damage analysis, this was still insufficient compared to dedicated close air support Su-25s; the appearance of MANPADS such as the Soviet-made Strela 2, the American FIM-43 Redeye and FIM-92 Stinger, presented a new threat and forced Su-17s to higher operational altitudes. Revised tactics and retrofit of up to 12 flare dispensers which fired automatically during the attack run proved effective, in 1985 only one Soviet Su-17 was lost to ground fire. Forced to operate 3,500–4,000 m above ground, Su-17s shifted from using unguided rockets to bombs, including thermobaric weapons, while Su-25s were tasked with precision strikes.
Toward the end of the war, the Su-17 force was replaced by the Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-27s in order to perform operational testing of the new fighter-bomber. The Su-17M3/4 were used during the First Chechen War alongside Sukhoi Su-24s and Sukhoi Su-25s in ground attack and reconnaissance missions. In a move to eliminate single-engine strike aircraft from its inventory, the Russian Air Force retired its last Su-17M4 along with its fleet of MiG-23/27s in 1998; the Soviets supplied the communist government of Angola with 12 Su-20Ms in 1982 or 1983, which formed the basis of the 15th FS. The squadron suffered a swift loss of at least six aircraft – most in mishaps – by 1985, three more by 1988, had only two aircraft left when it was reinforced with another Soviet batch of 14 Su-22M-4Ks and two Su-22UM-3Ks in 1989–90. A second shipment from Belarus in 1999 consisted of two Su-22UBs and four Su-22Ms, a third one from Slovakia in 1999–2001 consisted of 10 Su-22M-4s and one Su-22UM-3K; these aircraft saw heavy use in the war against UNITA.
From the aforementioned losses, which can not be classified as mishaps or combat attrition, only an Su-20M, serialled C510 was downed in 1987 and a better-documented case occurred on 6 November 1994 when an Su-22 based at Catumbela was shot down by a SAM fired by UNITA during a raid against Huambo. The pilot managed to flee naked after stripping off his flight suit. From 22 September 1980 to 20 August 1988, during the Iran–Iraq War, Iraq used Su-17 export versions alongside older Su-7s, they were used in ground-attack and in close air support role. Iranian F-14s shot down 21 Su-20/-22s, that have been confirmed by western sources. 18 Su-20/-22s were shot down by Iranian McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom IIs. and three by Iranian Northrop F-5s. Official Iraqi accounts show no loss of Su-20 aircraft throughout the war against the Kurds and Iran. 20 Su-22M2, two Su-22M3 and seven Su-22M4 were lost during the war with Iran, the majority to anti-aircraft fire sustained during low level bombing raids against the Iranian front lines.
In 1991, during the Gulf War, Iraqi Su-22's saw limited active service because the Iraqi regime distrusted the Air Force. On 7 February 1991, two Su-20/22 and o
Javier Arias Stella
Javier Arias Stella is a Peruvian pathologist who discovered the eponymous "Arias-Stella reaction". Arias Stella's undergraduate studies were done first at the San Marcos National University's School of Science in Peru from 1942 to 1944 and at the Faculty of Medicine from 1945 to 1951, from which he earned his bachelor's in 1951, his doctorate was earned from that faculty in 1959. Arias-Stella found that a reaction thought of as a cancer in the endometrium was rather a normal reactions of hormones from placental tissue, it can refer to changes occurring in the cervix. In his life, he became involved in researching how altitude changes in the Andes affected anatomy and histology in human beings, men specifically, it had long been thought that the multiple cases of pulmonary hypertension in Andes men came from the altitude they lived in. Arias Stella's research showed that "hypoxia-induced thickening of the pulmonary arteriolar walls" was the main cause for the hypertension. Considering that the natives had no access to vasodilators, their cases of hypertension were found to be different from known cases of acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.
Arias Stella began teaching as an instructor in pathology by 1949 in the same university and faculty that he was attending. Over time he became a senior lecturer in clinical pathology. In 1961, he founded the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, where he began as an associate professor of pathology. By 1969, he was the principal professor and head of the pathology department by 1975, he became the consulting professor for the National University of Caracas in 1974 and the same for the Central University of Venezuela in 1975. He continued to have various professional standings in many hospitals in both South America and the United States, he traveled as a visiting professor to many universities in the United States. He was asked to join multiple medical societies, including the American Association of Pathologists and the International Academy of Pathologists went on to found the International Society of Gynecological Pathology, the Latin American Society of Pathology, the Peruvian Society of Pathology.
He was public health minister in 1963–65 and 1966–68 and became the foreign minister of Peru from 1980 to 1983 because of his involvement in the Belaunde regime. Javier was the foreign minister during the Paquisha War in 1981 with Ecuador. During the early skirmishes over an outpost in Paquisha, Javier was quoted in newspapers as stating that Peru would proceed to recapture the rest of the territory that Ecuadorian forces were encroaching on. In 1984 and 1985, he served as the President of the United Nations Security Council, he had four children. Ministry of Foreign Relations Stamp of Arias-Stella "Prologue" - Instituto de Patologia y Biologia Molecular "Success Story: SecondSlide Streamlines the Consultation Process, Improves Turnaround Time" - Google Docs "Javier Arias Stella, world-renowned researcher" - El Comercio Agreement for the recovery and return of stolen archaeological and cultural properties. Signed at Lima on 15 September 1981 "Worldwide Report: Law of the Sea" Page 13 - Google Docs
Gran Colombia is the name historians use to refer to the state that encompassed much of northern South America and part of southern Central America from 1819 to 1831. The state included the territories of present-day Colombia, Panama and parts of northern Peru, western Guyana and northwestern Brazil; the term Gran Colombia is used historiographically to distinguish it from the current Republic of Colombia, the official name of the former state. At the time of its creation, Gran Colombia was the most prestigious country in Spanish America. John Quincy Adams Secretary of State and future president of the United States, claimed it to be one of the most powerful nations on the planet; this prestige, added to the figure of Bolívar, attracted to the nation unionist ideas of independence movements in Cuba, the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, which sought to form an associated state with the republic. But international recognition of the legitimacy of the Gran Colombian state ran afoul of European opposition to the independence of states in the Americas.
Austria and Russia only recognized independence in the Americas if the new states accepted monarchs from European dynasties. In addition and the international powers disagreed over the extension of the Colombian territory and its boundaries. Gran Colombia was proclaimed through the Fundamental Law of the Republic of Colombia, issued during the Congress of Angostura, but did not come into being until the Congress of Cúcuta drafted the Constitución constitucional. Gran Colombia was constituted as a unitary centralist state, its existence was marked by a struggle between those who supported a centralized government with a strong presidency and those who supported a decentralized, federal form of government. At the same time, another political division emerged between those who supported the Constitution of Cúcuta and two groups who sought to do away with the Constitution, either in favor of breaking up the country into smaller republics or maintaining the union but creating an stronger presidency.
The faction that favored constitutional rule coalesced around Vice-President Francisco de Paula Santander, while those who supported the creation of a stronger presidency were led by President Simón Bolívar. The two of them had been allies in the war against Spanish rule, but by 1825, their differences had become public and were an important part of the political instability from that year onward. Gran Colombia was dissolved in 1831 due to the political differences that existed between supporters of federalism and centralism, as well as regional tensions among the peoples that made up the republic, it broke into the successor states of Colombia and Venezuela. Since Gran Colombia's territory corresponded more or less to the original jurisdiction of the former Viceroyalty of New Granada, it claimed the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua, the Mosquito Coast; the official name of the country at the time was the Republic of Colombia. Historians have adopted the term "Gran Colombia" to distinguish this republic from the present-day Republic of Colombia, which began using the name in 1863, although many use Colombia where confusion would not arise.
The name "Colombia" comes from the Spanish version of the eighteenth-century New Latin word "Columbia", itself based on the name of Christopher Columbus. It was the term preferred by the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a reference to the New World to all American territories and colonies under Spanish rule, he used an improvised, quasi-Greek adjectival version of the name, "Colombeia", to mean papers and things "relating to Colombia", as the title of his archive of his revolutionary activities. Simon Bolívar and other Spanish American revolutionaries used the word "Colombia" in the continental sense; the establishment in 1819 of a country with the name "Colombia" by the Congress of Angostura gave the term a specific geographic and political reference. The Republic of Colombia comprised more or less the former territories of the Viceroyalty of New Granada, which it claimed under the legal principle of uti possidetis, it united the territories of the former Third Republic of Venezuela, the United Provinces of New Granada, the former Royal Audiencia of Panama and the Presidency of Quito.
Before a new constitution could be written by the Congress of Cúcuta, the Congress of Angostura appointed Bolívar and Santander president and vice president, respectively. Under the Constitution of Cúcuta, the country was divided into twelve departments each governed by an intendant. Departments were further divided into thirty-six provinces, each headed by a governor, who had overlapping powers with the intendant. Military affairs at the department level were overseen by a commandant general, who could be the intendant. All three offices were appointed by the central government; the central government, which temporarily was to reside in Bogotá, consisted of a presidency, a bicameral congress and a high court. The president was the head of the executive branch of both the local governments; the president could be granted extraordinary powers in military fronts, such as the area that became Ecuador. The vice-president assumed the presidency in case of the absence, demotion, or illness of the president.
Since President Bolívar was absent from Gran Colombia for the early years of its existence, executive power was wielded by the vice president, Santander. The vote was given to persons who owned 100 pesos in landed property or had an equivalent income from a profession. Elections were indirect. Since the new country was qu
Cessna A-37 Dragonfly
The Cessna A-37 Dragonfly, or Super Tweet, is an American light attack aircraft developed from the T-37 Tweet basic trainer in the 1960s and 1970s by Cessna of Wichita, Kansas. The A-37 remained in peacetime service afterward; the growing American military involvement in Vietnam in the early 1960s led to strong interest in counter-insurgency aircraft. In late 1962, the U. S. Air Force's Special Air Warfare Center at Eglin Air Force Base's Hurlburt Field in Florida evaluated two T-37Cs for the role; the Air Force found the T-37 promising, but wanted an improved version of the aircraft that could carry a much larger payload, had much greater endurance and better short-field performance. This meant a heavier aircraft with more powerful engines. In 1963, the Air Force awarded a contract to Cessna for two prototype YAT-37D aircraft: T-37s with modifications that included: Stronger wings. Three stores pylons on each wing. Larger wingtip fuel tanks of 360 litre capacity. A General Electric GAU-2B/A 7.62 mm "Minigun" Gatling-style machine gun, with a rate of fire of 3,000 rounds/minute and 1,500 rounds of ammunition.
The weapon was fitted in the right side of the aircraft's nose behind a large, convenient access panel. A gunsight and gun camera were fitted. Better avionics for battlefield communications and targeting. Tougher landing gear for rough-field operation; these changes meant a drastic increase in aircraft weight and the aircraft now had to carry a significant payload as well. Cessna, doubled the engine power by replacing the two Continental J-69 engines with General Electric J85-J2/5 turbojet engines with 2,400 lbf thrust each; the first YAT-37D flew in October 1964, followed a year by the second prototype. The second prototype had four stores pylons under each wing, rather than three, the first prototype was upgraded to this configuration as well. Test results were good; the program went into limbo for a time, with the second prototype "put out to pasture" at the National Museum of the United States Air Force at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Ohio. The war in Southeast Asia, continued to escalate.
Losses of Douglas A-1 Skyraider close-support aircraft in USAF, United States Navy, Republic of Vietnam Air Force service proved greater than anticipated and USAF interest in COIN aircraft was revived. The YAT-37D seemed like a promising candidate for the job, but the Air Force felt that the only way to be sure was to evaluate the aircraft in combat; as a result, the USAF issued a contract to Cessna for a pre-production batch of 39 YAT-37Ds, with a few minor changes relative to the prototypes, to be rebuilt from existing T-37Bs. These aircraft were designated AT-37D, but the designation was changed to A-37A; the second prototype YAT-37D was pulled out of the Air Force Museum and upgraded to A-37A standards as part of the test program. The A-37A had a gross takeoff weight of 12,000 lb; the A-37A retained the dual controls of its T-37B ancestor, allowing it to be used as an operational trainer. In combat "forward air control" operations, the second seat was occupied by an observer. Only one crewman flew in the aircraft for close support missions, permitting a slight increase in ordnance.
In August 1967, 25 A-37As were sent to Vietnam under the "Combat Dragon" evaluation program, flew from Bien Hoa Air Base on USAF "air commando" missions, including close air support, helicopter escort, FAC, night interdiction. Combat loads included high-explosive bombs, cluster munition dispensers, unguided rocket packs, napalm tanks, the SUU-11/A Minigun pod. For most missions, the aircraft carried two additional external fuel tanks on the inner stores pylons. During this period, the A-37As flew thousands of sorties. None were lost to enemy fire; the A-37A was formally named the "Dragonfly", but most pilots called it the "Super Tweet". The Combat Dragon program was successful, but unsurprisingly the combat evaluation revealed some of the deficiencies of the A-37A; the most noticeable problem was that the aircraft lacked endurance. Other concerns were heavy control response during attack runs and the vulnerability of the aircraft's non-redundant flight control system; the USAF signed a contract with Cessna in early 1967 for an improved Super Tweet, designated the "A-37B".
The initial order was for 57 aircraft, but this was increased to 127. The A-37Bs were intended to be supplied to the Republic of Vietnam Air Force as replacements for their Skyraiders; the A-37B prototype was rolled out in September 1967, with deliveries to the South Vietnamese beginning in 1968. The A-37Bs were all newly built airframes; these were stronger than those of the A-37A, capable of pulling 6 g instead of 5, were built to have a longer fatigue life of 4,000 hours. Field experience would demonstrate; the A-37B weighed twice as much as the T-37C. A remarkable fraction of the loaded weight, 5,800 lb, could be external stores. In practice, the A-37B operated with at least two and sometimes four underwing fuel tanks to improve combat endurance. To get this increased weight off the ground, the A-37B was fitted with General Electric J85-GE-17A engines, providing 2,850 lbf thrust each; these engines were canted outward and downward to improve single-engine handling. Air commando pilots in Vietnam operating the A-37A had found single-engine cruise an effective means of improving their flight endurance