A parachute is a device used to slow the motion of an object through an atmosphere by creating drag. Parachutes are made out of light, strong fabric silk, now most nylon, they are dome-shaped, but vary, with rectangles, inverted domes, others found. A variety of loads are attached to parachutes, including people, equipment, space capsules, bombs. A drogue chute is used to aid horizontal deceleration of a vehicle including fixed-wing aircraft and drag racers, provide stability, as to assist certain types of light aircraft in distress, tandem free-fall; the earliest evidence for the parachute dates back to the Renaissance period. The oldest parachute design appears in an anonymous manuscript from 1470s Renaissance Italy, showing a free-hanging man clutching a crossbar frame attached to a conical canopy; as a safety measure, four straps ran from the ends of the rods to a waist belt. The design is a marked improvement over another folio, which depicts a man trying to break the force of his fall by the means of two long cloth streamers fastened to two bars which he grips with his hands.
Although the surface area of the parachute design appears to be too small to offer effective air resistance and the wooden base-frame is superfluous and harmful, the basic concept of a working parachute is apparent. Shortly after, a more sophisticated parachute was sketched by the polymath Leonardo da Vinci in his Codex Atlanticus dated to ca. 1485. Here, the scale of the parachute is in a more favorable proportion to the weight of the jumper. Leonardo's canopy was held open by a square wooden frame, which alters the shape of the parachute from conical to pyramidal, it is not known whether the Italian inventor was influenced by the earlier design, but he may have learned about the idea through the intensive oral communication among artist-engineers of the time. The feasibility of Leonardo's pyramidal design was tested in 2000 by Briton Adrian Nicholas and again in 2008 by the Swiss skydiver Olivier Vietti-Teppa. According to the historian of technology Lynn White, these conical and pyramidal designs, much more elaborate than early artistic jumps with rigid parasols in Asia, mark the origin of "the parachute as we know it."
The Venetian polymath and inventor Fausto Veranzio examined da Vinci's parachute sketch and kept the square frame but replaced the canopy with a bulging sail-like piece of cloth that he came to realize decelerates a fall more effectively. A now-famous depiction of a parachute that he dubbed Homo Volans, showing a man parachuting from a tower St Mark's Campanile in Venice, appeared in his book on mechanics, Machinae Novae, alongside a number of other devices and technical concepts, it was once believed that in 1617, Veranzio aged 65 and ill, implemented his design and tested the parachute by jumping from St Mark's Campanile, from a bridge nearby, or from St Martin's Cathedral in Bratislava. In various publications it was incorrectly claimed the event was documented some thirty years by John Wilkins and secretary of the Royal Society in London, in his book Mathematical Magick or, the Wonders that may be Performed by Mechanical Geometry, published in London in 1648. However, Wilkins wrote about flying, not parachutes, does not mention Veranzio, a parachute jump, or any event in 1617.
Doubts about this test, which include a lack of written evidence, suggest it never occurred, was instead a misreading of historical notes. The modern parachute was invented in the late 18th century by Louis-Sébastien Lenormand in France, who made the first recorded public jump in 1783. Lenormand sketched his device beforehand. Two years in 1785, Lenormand coined the word "parachute" by hybridizing an Italian prefix para, an imperative form of parare = to avert, resist, shield or shroud, from paro = to parry, chute, the French word for fall, to describe the aeronautical device's real function. In 1785, Jean-Pierre Blanchard demonstrated it as a means of safely disembarking from a hot-air balloon. While Blanchard's first parachute demonstrations were conducted with a dog as the passenger, he claimed to have had the opportunity to try it himself in 1793 when his hot air balloon ruptured and he used a parachute to descend.. Subsequent development of the parachute focused on it becoming more compact.
While the early parachutes were made of linen stretched over a wooden frame, in the late 1790s, Blanchard began making parachutes from folded silk, taking advantage of silk's strength and light weight. In 1797, André Garnerin made the first descent of a "frameless" parachute covered in silk. In 1804 Jérôme Lalande introduced a vent in the canopy to eliminate violent oscillations. In 1907 Charles Broadwick demonstrated two key advances in the parachute he used to jump from hot air balloons at fairs: he folded his parachute into a pack he wore on his back and the parachute was pulled from the pack by a static line attached to the balloon; when Broadwick jumped from the balloon, the static line became taut, pulled the parachute from the pack, snapped. In 1911 a successful test took place with a dummy at the Eiffel tower in Paris; the puppet's weight was 75 kg. The cables between puppet and the parachute were 9 m long. On February 4, 1912, Franz Reichelt jumped to his death from the tower during initial testing of his wearable parachute.
In 1911, Grant Morton made the first parachute jump from
The Garden is a 2008 American documentary film directed by Scott Hamilton Kennedy. It tells the story of the now demolished South Central Farm; the Garden details the plight of the South Central Farmers, a Latinx community of farmers who organized and worked on the farm. After a suspected back room deal, the land upon which the farm operated was sold from the city back to the original owner, Richard Horowitz, he decided he did not want to allow the farmers to use it anymore. Despite efforts to keep their farm, the South Central Farmers were evicted and their garden was bulldozed; the film was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature on 22 January 2009. The Garden includes appearances by Danny Glover, Daryl Hannah, Antonio Villaraigosa; the Garden was nominated for Best Documentary Feature in the 81st Academy Awards. The International Documentary Association nominated it for the Pare Lorentz Award, it won the Grand Jury Award from the 2008 Silverdocs Documentary Festival. South Central Farm Official site The Garden on IMDb The Garden at AllMovie The Garden at Box Office Mojo
Lunna House is a 17th-century laird's house on Lunna Ness in the Shetland Islands. Lunna House is noted for having "the best historic designed landscape in Shetland". In the 20th century it was used as a base of the wartime Shetland Bus operation; the house is protected as a category B listed building, the grounds are included in the Inventory of Gardens and Designed Landscapes in Scotland, the national listing of significant gardens. Lunna House dates from before 1663 and was built on the site of a medieval haa, which itself was built on the site of a viking longhouse; the east side of the house was built in the 1660s for Robert Hunter. Robert was Chamberlain of the Lordship of Zetland, a Commissioner of Supply; the house was extended in 1710, 1750, 1810, 1850 and between 1897 and 1910, when the south and west-sections of this cross-shaped house were built. The house is constructed from stone and lime mortar, except for the newest section, made out of early cast concrete; the house was "harled" around 1910 to hide the join between the concrete and thick stone sections of the house.
The stones for the original construction of the house are believed to have come from the ruins of an iron age broch. An armorial panel on the house commemorates the 1707 marriage of his son Thomas Hunter and Grisella Bruce, around which time this part of the house was added. In 1753, nearby Lunna Kirk was built by 3rd laird. Lunna Kirk is the oldest working Kirk in Shetland; the formal landscape around the house was laid out during the 18th century, augmented in the 19th century with Gothic ornaments, such as the beach cobble finials of the gates to the south-west of the house. On the hilltop beyond the gates is a small folly, known as Hunter's Monument, which terminates the axis, was used as a lookout by the lairds; the harbour was constructed in the 19th century, along with a walled garden and a lime kiln. In 1845 Robina Hunter inherited the property; the following year she married Robert Bell, Sheriff at Lerwick, a son of the surgeon Joseph Bell. Their son Robert Bell Hunter, 8th Laird of Lunna, sold the property in 1893 to John Bruce of Sumburgh.
Bruce had the house extended in the 20th century. During the Second World War, Lunna House was requisitioned by the UK War Office and became one of the bases of the Special Operations Executive. Following the invasion of Norway in May 1940, the house became the original base for the Shetland Bus, a clandestine operation to transfer men and materials between Shetland and Nazi-occupied Norway; the sheltered harbour at Lunna, away from populated areas, was considered ideal. Lieutenant David Howarth set up the SOE base at Lunna House, which accommodated the Shetland Bus boat crews; the Shetland Bus operation moved to Scalloway in 1942, but the SOE base remained until the end of the war. The beaches below the house were used for testing one-man submarines and other equipment, as part of the SOE activities. By the end of the war, the house was in a poor condition, it was bought in the 1960s by the Lindsay family. Mains electricity reached the house in 1975; the Lindsays ran Lunna House as a B&B from the mid 1960s until 1997, when Mrs Ruby Lindsay retired, aged 89.
The house was listed in 1971, in 1998 the Folly, West Gates, Gothick Cottage, Walled Garden were listed at category B, as integral parts of the designed landscape, with a group value of category A. Since 2001, the property has been owned by a family with wartime links to the SOE, it has undergone further extensive renovations. "Inside story: Lunna House". The Telegraph. 13 January 2001. Media related to Lunna House at Wikimedia Commons Lunna House website Lunna House, shetlopedia.com